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JOURNAL 



OF THE 



Academy of Natural Sciences 



OF 



?HILAI>EUniIJL 




VOL 



PHILADELPHIA: 
PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY, 

BY J. HARDING. 

1821. 



CONTENTS 

OF 

VOLUME II. PARTI. 



Officers of the Academy of Natural Sciences, for the 

year 1821. . . . Page 1 

Description of a new Genus; and several new species of 

fresh water Fish, indigenous to the United States. 

By C. A. Le Sueur. . ... 2 

Descriptions of two new species of Exocetus. By C. 

A- Le Sueur. 8 

Descriptions of the Thysanourae of the United States. 

By Thomas Say. ... . . 11 

Observations on the Geological Structure of the Valley of 

the Mississippi. By Thomas Nuttall. . 14 

Notice concerning a new species of American Spider, 

whose web is used in medicine. By N. M.. Hentz. *G& 
Descriptions of some new Crystalline forms of Phosphate 

of Lime and Zircon. By Dr. G. Troost. . 55 

Descriptions of the Arachnides of the United States. By 

Thomas Say. . . , . 59 

Analysis of the Blue Iron Earth of New Jersey. By 

Lardner Vanuxem. . . 82 

Descriptions of several new species of Cuttle-fish. By C. 

A. Le Sueur. .... 86 

Descriptions of the Myriapodse of the United States. 

By Thomas Say. . . .102 

Descriptions of some new species of Plants recently intro- 



iy CONTENTS. 

duced into the gardens of Philadelphia from the Ar- 
kansa Territory. By Thomas Nuttall. . 114 

Observations on several Genera and species of Fish be- 
longing to the Natural Family of the Esoces. By 
C. A- Le Sueur. . . . .124 

Analysis of some American Minerals. By Henry Sey- 

bert. . . . . .139 

On two veins of Pyroxene or Augite in Granite. By 

Lardner Vanuxem. . . . 146 

Descriptions of Univalve Shells of the United States. By 

Thomas Say. . . . .149 

Descriptions of Rare Plants recently introduced into the 

gardens of Philadelphia. By Thomas Nuttall. 179 

Description and Analysis of the Table Spar, from the vi- 
cinity of Willsborougb, Lake Champlain. By Lard- 
ner Vanuxem. . . . .182 

Geological and Mineralogical notice of a portion of the 
North-Eastern part of the State of New York. By 
Augustus E. Jessup. . . . 185 

Note by Publishing Committee. . . 192 



CONTENTS 



VOLUME II, PART II. 

Officers of the Academy of Natural Sciences for the year 

18:2, page 193 

Description and Analysis of the Jeffersonite, a new mi- 
neral, by W. H. Keating, 194 
On the Gales experienced in the Atlantic States of North 

America, by Robert Hare, M. D. 204 

Description of a New Crystalline form of Quartz, by 

G. Troost, M. D. 212 

J Description of five new species of genus Cichla, by C. 

A. Lesueur, 214 

Account of some of the Marine Shells of the United ffl* 

States, by Thomas Say, 221 ^ ^^ <\UP 

On a New Locality of the Automalite, by Lardner Van- 

uxem, 249 

Description of three new species of the Genus Sciaena, 

by C. A. Lesueur, 251 

Account of some of the Marine Shells of the United 

States, by Thomas Say, (continued.) 257 

On the Geology and Mineralogy of Franklin, in Sussex 

county, New Jersey, by Lardner Vanuxem and 

W.H.Keating, 277 

Observations upon the Cadmia found at the Ancram Iron 

YV urks, Columbia county, New York, by W. H. 

Keating, 289 

On the Onykia Angulata, byC. A. Lesueur, 296 

51 



llf 



CONTENTS. 

Description of some Crystals of Sulphate of Strontian, 

from Lake Erie, by G. Troost, M. D. 300 

Account of some of the Marine Shells of the United 

States, by Thomas Say, (concluded) 202 

Geological Sketches of the Mississippi Valley, by Ed- 
win James, M. D. 326 

Description of a Quadruped belonging to the order 

Rodentia, by Thomas Say. 330 

P Description of a Squalus of very large size, which was 
taken on the coast of New Jersey, by C. A. Le- 
sueur. 342 

On a South American species of CEstrus which inhabits 

the human body, by Thomas Say, 353 

On two remarkable Hepatic Mosses found in North 

Carolina, by L. D. Schweinitz, 368 

Description of Univalve Terrestrial and Flu viatile Shells 

of the United States, by Thomas Say, "73 

Note, 382 

Catalogue of the Library, (continued) 383 

List of Donors to the Library, 392 

List of Donations to the Museum with the Donor's names, 394 

t, Alphabetical Index to Volume II. 404 

, List of Plates, 411 

Errata, 413 



HWEREKCfc 



PLATES OF VOLUME II. 

Molinesia Latipinna to face page - 3 

Paecilia Multilineata, 4 

Lebias Elipsoides, ------ 6 

Exocetus, Nuttallii and Fasciatus, - - - - 10 

Spider and Crystals, &c. PI. V. - 58 

Lollgo Cyclura, 90 

Bartramii, 91 

Pealeii, - 22 

Barthngii, 95 

Illecebrosa, - ---- --96 

Pavo, 97 

OnykiaCaribaeaand Angulata, 98 

Belona Argalus, - - - - - - - 125 

Truncata, - - - 126 

Cichla Aenea, 214 

Oscula, 252 

Section of Rocks at Franklin, New Jersey, - - 286 

Onykia Angulata, - - - - - - 298 

Section of Rocks from the Alleghany to the Rocky 

Mountains, 328 

Isodon Pilorides, 343 

Squalus Elephas, 350 

Sphaerocarpus terrestris and Carpobolus orbicularis, 370 



ERRATA. 



Page 2 line 5 from the top, for and Say, read Say and T. Peale. 
5 8 for Opeculum, read Operculum. 
7 7 for and Say, read Say and Peale. 
53 1 for Webb, read Web. 
3 do. do. 

130 8 after the word observed add a colon. 

12 after the word species insert a comma instead of a period. 
170 5 for seven- twentieths read seven-tenths. 

7 for -whirls read whorls. 
175 3 foi labrum read labium. 
184 4 after ammonia insert a comma. 

11 for the first 100 read 150. 
243 11 for w/»Wread -whorl. 

11 for s/»/ne read s/rcre. 

257 4 before pasilla insert NaUca. 

18 for N. read T. 
262 18 for hirudo read hirundo. 
267 19 for striahdus read striatulus. 
272 15 before elevata insert V. 
360 23 after egg add ". 

24 dele ". 

21 dele ". 

372 8 from the bottom for Harrigate read Harrowgate. 

373 3 dele *. 

12 fox Harrigate read Harrowgate. 

375 11 do. do. 

376 12 do. do. 



JOURNAL 

OF THE 

ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES 

OF 

PHILADELPHIA. 
JANUARY, 1821. 

List of Officers for t\\fc \eai! 1841. 

President. 

William Maclure. 

Vice Presidents. 

Zacclieus Collins, George Ord. 

Corresponding Secretary. 

Reuben Haines. 

Recording Secretary. 

Franklin Bache, M. D. 

Curators. 

Thomas Say, C. A. Le Sueur, J. P. Wetherill ? 

Thomas M'Euen. 

Treasurer. 
Jacob Gilliams. 

Librarian. 
Jacob Peirce. 
Committee of Publication. 
Thomas Say, Thomas Nattall, Joseph Dulles, 
Isaac Hays, M. D. Isaac Lea. 



«5 FRESH WATER FTSH 

Description of a new Genus, and of several new spe- 
cies of fresh water fish, indigenous to tJie United 
States. By C. A. Le Sueur. — Read, December 
i9th, 1S20. 

Messrs. Maclure, Ord, and Say, from tlieir voyage 
to Florid"a, and Mr. Nuttall, in his last journey up 
the river Arkansa, brought back with them se- 
veral species of fish, which it is my desire to commu- 
nicate to this society. Several of them are unde- 
scribed, and one of them appears to constitute a new 
genus, allied to Cyprinodon ; if we may admit for 
distinctive character the form of the body, that of the 
fins, their position, and particularly that of the anal 
one placed exactly between the ventral fins ; the last 
of which characters appears to me of peculiar im- 
portance ; it has likewise four or five branchial rays, 
and the remarkable teeth of Cyprinodon, whether or 
not they exist in the pharynx, as in that genus, I 
have not been able to ascertain. 

The other species of fish which form the subject 
of this memoir appertain to the genus Poecilia, of 
Schneider, and Lebia of Cuvier. 

I would here observe generally, that all these spe- 
cies possess a form of body sufficiently similiar among 
themselves; that tliey are all of saiall magnitude, with 
the body and neck compressed and elevated anteri- 
orly; the tail compressed, and wide in proportion, but 
narrower than the anterior part of the body taken be- 
tween the back and the ventral fin ; the hea i is flat- 
tened and terminated by a cuneate snout, cleft cross- 
ways by the mouth, of which the jaws are protractile. 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 3 

Genus.— *MOLLINESIA.f 

Essential Character. 

Head flat ; operculum large ; branchial rays, or 
gills, four or five. Jaws flattened ; mouth horizontal, 
very small, furnished with small and slender teeth, 
anteriorly hooked, and with minute posterior ones 
resembling velvet. Body short, thick, and compress- 
ed. Anal between the ventral tins. 

Fish of small size indigenous to North America 
and inhabiting fresh water. 

M. *latipinna. PI. 3, fig. 1. 

Description. — Dorsal fin very large, longer than 
broad, prolonged behind, caudal fin arounded ; 
blackish spots upon the scales ; anal fin situated ex- 
actly between the ventral, and originating immediate- 
ly under the dorsal. 

Body compressed, short, thick, and most elevated 
anteriorly. Head flat, horizontal ; snout short, cunei- 
form, openiug of the mouth transverse ; jaws protrac- 
tile, furnished with small teeth, anteriorly hooked, 
posterior ones minute and resembling velvet. Four 
or five branchial rays. Scales upon the operculum ; 
the head, aud the upper part of the body, large. Eyes 
situated near the summit of the head, distant, the 
color of a terra sienna yellow, with golden reflections. 

t In honor of Monsieur Mollien, French Minister of Fi- m 
nance, a man of science, and one of the patrons of the cele- 
brated Peron. 



4 FRESIl WATER FISH 

Srales posteriorly spotted with black, forming inter- 
rupted lines. Dorsal fin ornamented witb blac 
between the divisions of the rays, and with several 
longitudinal bands towards their base. 

The individual being in spirit of wine, I have not 
been able to judge of the natural color, but Mr. Not- 
tall, who saw and collected it living, says, that 
exhibits a brilliant reddish golden tint. 

B. 4 or 5.— P. 16.— D. 14.— V. 16.— A. 6. 

Entire length two inches and half. Height taken 
from the base of the dorsal fin eight lines. Height of 
the tail five lines. Hab. In the fresh- water ponds in 
the vicinity of New- O deans. Very common. 

Genus.— PCECILIA. Schneider. 

Jaws flattened horizontally, slightly cleft, furnish- 
ed with a range of small and very slender teeth. The 
upper part of the head fiat: operculum large, rays 3. 
The body somewhat elongated. Ventral fins a little 
distant, the dorsal under the anal. 

Small fi*h inhabiting the fresh waters of America. 

P. *MULTILINEATA. PI. 1. fio\ 1. 

Dorsal fin small, longer than high, under the anal ; 
lines and black spots forming as many small bands 
and passing through the limits of each row of scales ; 
caudal fin straight. 

Description.— Total length about four times that 
of the head ; the depth about one head. Body com- 
pressed, wider towards the operculum, and much 



OF THE UNITED STATES. & 

compressed towards the tail, which is high, with a 
short and truncated fin. Dorsal fin about twice its 
height in length. Pectoral middle sized, placed 
about mid-way between the eye and the abdomen. 
Eyes large, placed near the summit of the head, and 
approaching the point of the snout, which is cunei- 
form sei'n in profile, fiat, and wide seen from above. 
Opercnlm large, and open in all its length as far as 
immediately under the eye. The opening of the 
mouth very small. The teeth of the jaws small, 
curved, and closed, moveable, and forming a single 
range in each jaw ; the upper jaw as in the Lebias, 
appearing to be formed by the intermaxillary bone. 
Inferior maxillary bones projecting forward, and dis- 
posed in an horizontal line. Head flat, and as well 
as the gill-covers, the snout, and the sides of the 
body, covered with large scales. The scales them- 
selves are middle sized, rounded, and concentrically 
lined. 

Color a deep brown- red. 

B. 4 to 5.— A. 16.— D. 14.—V. 6.— A. 9.—C. 26. 
This small species, of which the individual above 
described, measured one and a half inches, was 
brought in the collections of Messrs. Maclure, Ord, 
and Say, from East Florida, and is indigenous to the 
rivers of that country. 

Genus. — LEBIA. Cuvier. 

Character similar to Poecilia, with the exception 
of branchia of 5 rays, and denticulated teeth. 



6 FRESH WATER PI8H 

L. *ELLIPSOIDEA. . PI. 2, fig. 1 3. 

Body compressed and deep ; dorsal fin higher than 
long, rounded above the ventral : a large scapular 
scale. 

Total length of the body three and a half times 
that of the head, by one and a half in depth. Snout 
short, jaws very protractile and narrow, armed wi h 
compressed and curved teeth, each terminated by 
three or four points. Head flattened above, between 
the eyes ; the greatest thickness of the body is be- 
tween the opercula, very compressed towards the 
tail. The opercula are large and strong, and with- 
out denticulation. Eyes large, approaching the end 
of the snout, and placed at the summit of the head. 
Anterior lamina of the operculum, scaly, poste- 
rior lamina even, perhaps deciduous The scales 
which cover the body are large, and more truncated 
than arounded, marked with concentric lines. A 
large scale upon the head between the eyes, sur- 
rounded with lesser ones near to the point of the 
snout. Dorsal fin high, arounded, placed above the 
ventral, abdominal fius very small, their extremity 
touching the anal ; the anal fin small and round ; 
pectoral middle-sized, the extremity prolonged to 
half the length of the veutral ; caudal mostly unequal, 
enlarged and elongated posteriorly, and obliquely 
truncated. 

Color a very deep brown. 

Observations — There is a membrane attached 
to the base of the scapular scale, and to the opercu- 



©F THE UNITED STATES. 7 

lum, closing the opening of the bronchia to prevent 
their too widely separating. 

This small species appertains to the genus Lebia 
of Cuvier by its denticulated teeth, and by its pos- 
sessing four or five branchial rays. It was collected 
in East Florida, and brought by the party of Messrs. 
Maclure, Ord and Say. The figure represents the 
natural size. 

B. 4 to 5.— P.— D. 11.— V. 6.— A. 10.— C. 20. 

The small fish to which I now call your attention, 
apparently occupies a place between the Genus 
Saurus and Scopeles of Cuvier. The individual 
here described, is from thirteen to fourteen lines in 
length, with the body compressed as in the herrings, 
and having in common with them, the argentine color 
of the abdomen, with the back of a deep blue. The 
snout, or terminating portion of the head, is very 
short, and truncated; the opening of the mouth 
oblique, the cleft not passing beyond the parallel of 
the eye ; the maxillary bones long, and narrow, the 
inter- maxillary very small, set with minute teeth, the 
former, and the wings of the palate are equally fur- 
nished with them, as well as the rays which form the 
opening of the gorge; these rays are prolonged be- 
fore, in such a manner, that the lower ones appear to 
form the termination of the tongue ; the opening of 
the gills are large, and continued almost to the in- 
sertion of the lower maxillary bones. 

According to the above character, this small fish 
ought apparently to be placed between the two genera 



8 NEW SPECIES OF EXOCETUS. 

already mentioned. By the vomer furnished witk 
small teeth it cannot appertain to Saurus nor to Sco- 
pcles, in which the palate and tongue are smooth. 
The scales are large, particularly on the sides, 
and to the lateral line they are higher. Pectoral fin 
rather large, continued parallel to the half of the dor- 
sal ; ventral small, situated between the abdominal 
and the pectoral ; the dorsal fin placed between the 
pectoral and the anal ; the anal between the two dor- 
sal, of which the second is very small and adipose. 
The tail long and slender, terminated by a slightly 
forked fin. Eyes rather large, silvery and gilded, 
situated contiguous to the maxillary bones and the 
snout. 

B. 4.— P. 15.— V. 6.— First D. 10.— Second D. 
adipose.— A. 20.— C. 20. 

Observations. — I have thought proper to offer 
some observations upon this small fish, as presenting 
traits of difference from the genus Saurus and Sco- 
peles ; but I am inclined to think, that it may occur 
of a greater magnitude. The specimen was commu- 
nicated to me by Mr. T. Nuttall, the botanist, who 
obtained it in tlie river Arkansa. 

Description of two new species of Exocetus By C. A. 
Le Sueur.— Read, December 19th, 1820. 

EXOCETUS. Lin. turner. 

The Flying-fish are distinguished among the ab- 
dominals by the uncommon magnitude of their pec- 



NEW SPECIES OF EXOCETUS. 9 

toral fins, sufficient when extended to support the 
body for some seconds in the air. For the rest, the 
head and body is scaly, they have likewise a carina- 
ted longitudinal range of scales as in the Belonse and 
Hemiramphi, &c. The head is flattened above and at 
the sides ; the eyes are large, the maxillaries without 
pedicles and forming alone the border of the upper 
jaw; both jaws are furnished with small pointed 
teeth, and the os pharynx with teeth in pairs. 
They have ten rays in the gills ; the natatory 
bladder is very large, and the intestines straight and 
without ccecum ; the upper lobe of the caudal fin is 
the shortest. Their flight is never very long, and 
they elevate themselves in order to escape the pur- 
suit of voracious fish ; they immediately fall, because 
their wings merely serve the purpose of parachutes ; 
the birds also pursue them in the air, as the fish do in 
the water. They are found in all the temperate seas. 

Exocetus *fasciatus. 

Abdominal fins long and broad, somewhat trun- 
cated, scarcely attaining to the caudal ; anal and 
dorsal, straight, low, and almost equal ; pectoral fins 
not touching the anal ; brown bands on the pectoral 
and ventral fins ; the two first rays of the pectoral 
fins shorter ; head destitute of beard. 

Description. — The total length of this small spe- 
cies was three inches. The body is elongated and en- 

B 



10 NEW SPECIES OF EXOCETUS. 

larked towards the head. The back a little flattened. 
Scales rather large, covering the whole body. The 
lateral line passes along the sides of the abdomen 
and touches the abdominal fins. Head flattened 
above, and slightly carinated to the throat. Eyes 
distant, at the summit of the head, large and silvery, 
placed obliquely. Anterior rays of the pectoral fins 
unequal, the three first simple, and shorter than the 
fourth and fifth, which are divided like the following. 
Abdominal fins large, placed nearer to the tail than 
the head, their extremities rounded, with the first 
rays simple, and the others divided. The snout a 
little extended ; the opening of the mouth much in- 
clined. 

The two individuals which I have seen, the one 
dried, and the other in alcohol, had lost their color, 
which was then brownish. It is probable that they 
are of the same color as the Exocetus volitans, and 
the individuals which I have met with in the Gulf 
Stream, and in our traverse from the isle of St. Croix 
to the United States. I saw several of the length of 
three or four inches, leaping before our vessel, the 
color of the body of which was a deep blue, with 
blackish spots on the fins, which appeared very 
transparent ; but I was not sufficiently fortunate to 
procure any of them. 

P. 18.— V. 16— D. 12.— A. 10.— C. 20 rays. 

Exocetus *Nuttallii 
Two large, thick, fleshy, and trilobate d appen- 



THYSAN0UR2E OF THE UNITED STATES. 11 

dages pendant from the extremity of the. lower jaw; 
pectoral fins broad and long, exceeding a little the 
base of the dorsal ; ventral fins very long, originating 
near the middle of the body ; dorsal and anal fins 
large and truncated ; the pectoral and ventral mark- 
ed with brown bands. 

Observations. — This species, as well as E. fas- 
ciatus, presents brown bands upon the pectoral and 
ventral fins ; the head is also equally flattened above, 
and carinated under the gorge. The under side of 
the body is, however, shorter, less elongated, with 
the third ray of the ventral fin longer : the anal fin 
smaller than the dorsal. The caudal fin lunulated, 
with the lower lobe longer. Scales over all the 
body, along the lateral line, and on each side of the 
abdomen. Eyes large, situated at the summit of the 
head, and near the extremity of the mouth. Mouth 
transverse, and rather large. 

Color, blue upon the back, argentine and blueish 
along the sides. 

Hab. In the Gulf of Mexico. Communicated to 
me by Mr. Nuttall. 

P.— V. 10.— D. 15. simple.— A. 8.— -C. 17. 



Descriptions of the Tliysanource of the United States* 
By Thomas SAY.—ReadJYov. 2lst, 1820. 
Genus Machilis, Latr. 
Eyes compound, occupying almost all the head j 



12 THYSANOURJE OF THE UNITED STATES. 

abdomen beneath with an appendage for leaping ; 
tail with three styles of which one is above the others. 

Species. — M. ^variabilis. Superior caudal pro- 
cess more than double the length of the others ; false 
feet bisetous at tip ; colour cinereous or iridescent 
varied with black. 

Inhabits North America. 

Cabinet of the Academy. 

Body above cinereous, somewhat iridescent, varied 
with black; gibbous portion of the body not differently 
coloured; a more or less regular whitish vitta ; Jalse 
feet white, hirsute, setaceous at tip; superior caudal 
process more than double the length of the inferior 
ones. 

Far. a. Body above unicolor, destitute of the 
white dorsal vitta. 

Var. b. Body ferruginous, with dusky lateral 
spots. 

Var. c. Body with several snowy spots each side. 

A common insect in many humid places, probably 
in almost every temperate part of North America. 
We observed it as far south as East Florida. It is 
subject to a great many variations. 

Genus — Podura. 

Antennae four jointed, filiform, terminal joint en- 
tire ; body cylindrical ; trunk distinct. 

Species. — l.P. *fasciata. Body yellowish- white 
with four distant black bands ; tail black ; bands 



THYSANOURiE OF THE UNITED STATES. 13 

paler beneath; spinng white; antennce blackish: 
eyes black. 

Length one-twentieth of an inch. 

Cabinet of the Academy. 

In considerable numbers under the bark of decay- 
ing Live Oak, &c. in Georgia and East Florida. 

2. P. *bicolor. Body plumbeous ; feet with a few 
hairs, rather paler at base ; nails small, acute; spring 
large, white ; eyes deep black. 

Length from one-tenth to three-twentieths of an 
inch. 

Cabinet of the Academy. 

Our most common species, under stones, &c. 

3. P. ^tricolor. Body blackish, iridescent ; thorax 
with long hairs before ; abdomen hairy at tip ; feet 
hairy, whitish ; head beneath and antennce hairy. 

Length nearly one-fifth of an inch. 
Cabinet of the Academy. 
Inhabits Pennsylvania, common. 

Genus — Smynthurus. Latr. 

Antennae attenuated towards the tip, four jointed, 
ultimate joint composed of many smaller ones ; trunk 
and abdomen united into a rounded mass. 

Species. — S. *guttatus. Body yellowish- white, 
with numerous reddish-brown, irregular spots, dis- 
posed in bands ; numerous, sparse, white hairs, and 
two tubercles each side of the middle, which are 
truncated at tip ; beneath white ; antennce reddish- 
brown, hairy ; face maculated, a line of irregular 



14 GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF THE 

spots behind the eyes ; eyes black ; spring flesh- 
coloured. 

Length rather more than one- twentieth of an inch. 

Cabinet of the Academy. 

Found under the bark of the long leaved Pine, 
(P. palustris) in Georgia. 



Observations on the Geological Structure of the Val- 
ley of the Mississippi. By Thomas Nuttall. 
Read, December 1820. 

§ I. the probable limits and character of the 

SECONDARY FORMATION. 

The near approach which the calcareous and other 
strata west of the Alleghany mountains make to the 
horizontal line, considering their inherent character, 
ha* been a matter of surprise to those who are any 
way familiar with the geology of Europe. A number 
of hand specimens, which some years ago I compa- 
red with what is called the compact mountain lime- 
stone of Derbyshire, in England, presented not a 
single dissimilar feature, either in regard to compo- 
sition or organic reliquiae ; and I am fully satisfied, 
that almost every fossil and shell figured and descri- 
bed in the " Petrificata Derbiensia" of jVJartyn are 
to be met with throughout the great calcareous plat- 
form of the Mississippi valley. We everywhere, 
perceive the same host of Terebratulites, Alcyo- 
oites, and Encrinal vertebrae ; the same zoophi- 



VALLEY OF TfTE MISSISSIPPI. 15 

tic casts, and vegetable impressions, likewise attend 
the coal formations, and it is only the difference of 
their elevation above the horizon which in any man- 
ner distinguishes the same strata in one country from 
those of the other. Here, however, the difference is 
sufficiently obvious. In Derbyshire, and in every 
other part of England of which I possess any know- 
ledge, the beds of coal are never come at by any 
thing like an horizontal drift ; indeed, the dip of 
such strata is often but little inferior to that of the 
primitive rocks, and expensive machinery is always 
necessary, both to raise the coal and drain the mine. 
In the western states of America, on the contrary, 
the coal is obtained by an almost horizontal drift, 
and draining becomes unnecessary. If we are 
then to search for any transatlantic region simi- 
lar in its materials and in their horizontal stratifica- 
tion with the extensive plains of Ohio, of Michi- 
gan, Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky, West Tennessee, 
and a part of the territory of Missouri, it is to be 
found in those extensive plains or steppes of the 
Tartarian desert traversed by the Kuban, which 
have been described by Professor Pallas and 
Daniel Clarke. Here, 1 think, we find strata of the 
same materials, at least, as it regards calcareous rock, 
abounding with fossil reliquiae, and also as nearly ap- 
proaching the horizontal level. As we pursue, 
however, our enquiry concerning the western and 
northern limits of this great calcareous platform, 
through Canada, and the territories of Missouri and 



16 GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF THE 

Arkansa, we shall perceive that the same materials 
are also elevated into ranges of hills, dipping from 
the horizontal level, though still at a far inferior an- 
gle to that which prevails in those transatlantic 
countries ahove noticed. 

In the summer of 1809, my attachment to the study 
of Botany, induced me to make a pedestrian tour 
round the greatest part of the southern shore of Lake 
Erie, to Detroit, from whence I proceeded in a canoe 
along the same coast of the Huron lake to the 
island of Michilimakinak, situated near its com- 
mencement. I then took a southwest direction along 
the coast of Michigan, to Green Bay ; thence to the 
banks of the Mississippi, by ascending Fox River, 
near to its source, and embarking on the Ouisconsin, 
which disembogues itself two miles below the vil- 
lage called Prairie du Chien. I then descended to 
the town of St. Louis. This route, and the subse- 
quent voyages which I made up the Missouri and 
Arkansa, afforded me an ample opportunity of in- 
struction, as to the extent and character of this vast 
platform of secondary formation. 

The coast of Lake Superior I was then prevented 
from examining, by the sinister regulations of the 
company of the north-western fur-traders. Some re- 
markable facts, however, concerning this lake, and 
the minerals of its southern coast, are detailed by the 
adventurous Captain Carver, and afterwards corro- 
borated by the relation of M'Kenzie. Such are the 
accounts of the masses of native copper scattered 
alonu; the shores of the bay, called Fond du Lac. 



VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 17 

The existence of this fact did not fail to excite the 
avidity of adventurers, who were, however, disap* 
pointed in the pretended quantity and locality of this 
native metal. But although there is every reason to 
consider the masses of this metal, as Avell as others 
which were shown to me during this route by a chief 
of the Monomonies, collected near the outlet of the 
river St. Croix of the Mississippi, as entirely adven- 
titious in their relation to the surrounding strata, still 
even these insulated facts justify us in supposing 
them as strongly indicative of the approaching termi- 
nation of the secondary formation in this direction. 
We cannot yet indulge our inquiries to any advan- 
tage any further to the northward, as none of the 
other travellers in this quarter have favoured us with 
the smallest ray of geological information. Still we 
are led to suppose that the Falls of St. Anthony,* 
no less than the numerous portages and rapids 
of the Utowa river are occasioned by some con- 
siderable deviation in the strata from that almost 
horizontal position which they otherwise present. 
This opinion, however, as it regards the Mississippi, 
amounts to nothing more than conjecture, for, as in 
the beds of many other rivers, there is no possibility 
of deriving any information regarding the nature of 
its sources from the debris or gravel deposited along 
its banks, knowing, as we do, the wide extent of 

* According to the observations communicated to me by 
Major Long, testaceous lime-stone exists both above and below 
these falls. 

c 



j8 GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF THE 

"adventitious granitic gravel and holders throughout 
the western states and territories. It is true, that 
mound the Prairie du Chien, and many other places 
along the hanks of the Mississippi, as well as those 
of the Missouri* and even to the borders of the Ar- 
kansa and Red Rivers, rounded debris occasionally 
appear, sufficiently distinct from any thing which we 
have met with either in the beds of the St. Lawrence 
and its lakes, or along the Ohio and its tributary 
streams ; such are the different varieties of fine cal- 
cedony, far more resembling those of India than of 
Europe, and which we term carnelian* sard, &c. as 
they vary in color and texture, being either red, hya- 
line and white, or different shades of yellow ; all 
these varieties, and possessing every requisite beauty 
for the lapidary, are to be met with in considerable 
abundance along the Missouri, less plentifully on the 
gravel bars of the Mississippi, while little more than 
their existence is ascertainable, along the banks of 
Red River and the Arkansa. To what class of 
rocks or strata these were to be attributed, as they 
appear on the Mississippi and the Missouri, I never 
was able to ascertain ; nor am I still much better in- 
formed on the subject, although I have had an oppor- 
tunity of observing a singular granulated rock, in 
which they are occasionally imbedded, bassetting out 
from under the more recent testaceous lime-stone of 
Red river, about one thousand miles above its entrance 
into the Mississippi. My uncertainty as to the true lo 
< alky of these rounded chalcedonic debris, arises from 



VALLEY OP THE MISSISSIPPI. 19 

the ambiguity inherent in all conglomerates, which 
merely mark the transition of one formation into that 
of another, and are thus almost intermediate betwixt 
every species of transition whether general or partial. 
There is, I think, reason to believe, that most of the 
finer chalcedonic geodes, which appear in the form 
of pebbles of various sizes, originate almost uniformly 
in those transition rocks which we term amigdaloids 
and conglomerates, and though porphyries, as ap- 
proaching more nearly to the class of rocks called 
primitive, are artificially distinguished from them, 
there exists, in fact, no such natural precision of 
limit.* At all events, the presence of these chal- 
cedonic debris, if not more remotely adventitious, 
would appear to point out in this quarter, the termi- 
nation of the calcareous platform, somewhere below 
the sources of the Mississippi as well as those of the 
Missouri. 

Descending the St. Lawrence, or rather its chain 
of lakes, we perceive even along the southern coast 
of the Huron, very intelligible indications of the ap- 
proaching termination of this secondary formation, 
in the vast beds, as I may call them, of adventitious 
granitic rocks, which for more than one hundred 
miles in succession, continue to line its shores. 
Many of these blocks, which are in places collected 
and extended into the lake for ten or twelve miles 
together, are of a magnitude so enormous, as to have 

* One or two specimens of hyaline calcedony, I once found 
on the gravel bars of the Missouri, imbedded in a white Jasncv 



20 GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OP 'HIE 

long acquired the veneration of the Indians, and are 
justly considered as their perpetual land-marks. We 
cannot reasonably suppose that this enormous col- 
lection of adventitious rocks can have been very far 
conveyed from their original situation ; still from the 
existence of facts, it does not appear that the Huron 
lake constitutes a boundary betwixt these formations. 
If I mistake not, both Kalm and Carver inform us 
of the existence of fibrous gypsum or alabaster on the 
banks of the Utawas ; a river, which by the aid of 
inconsiderable portages, affords a navigable commu- 
nication from Montreal to French river of lake Huron. 
In connection with this formation is found the softish 
brown-red argillaceous stone, so much esteemed and 
employed by. the Indians in the manufacture of their 
pipes. By Carver, and others, it is improperly 
termed a serpentine, but appears to be merely a clay- 
stone, of which I then obtained a specimen from the 
river in question. There is also equal reason to cre- 
dit the existence of fibrous gypsum in that country, 
of which 1 received specimens during my stay at 
the island of Michilimakinak. Hence it would ap- 
pear, that we are to search for the termination of the 
stratum we are tracing beyond the northern shores of 
the Huron, and that it in all probability ceases where 
the fibrous gypsum and red clay- stone commence. 

This calcareous platform is not even disturbed by 
a single elevated hill along the whole southern bor- 
der of lake Erie. The ridge, however, traversed by 
the cataract of Niagara, and the falls, of Gennessee, 



VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 21 

generally marks the termination of this stratum 
throughout its course, which terminates westwardly 
near to the proper commencement of lake Ontario. 
Jn several parts of this ridge and its vicinity gypsum 
lias hcen found, as at the falls of the Gcunessee, at 
the outlet of Owasco lake, and also contiguous to the 
falls of Niagara. The Table- Rock, from whence visi- 
tors commonly view the stupendous cataract, is in great 
part a mass of gypsum ; which, continually moisten- 
ed by the falling spray and the neighbouring springs, 
carries down a portion of the dissolved mass, which 
is afterwards deposited in rounded nodules in the 
cavities below. In these rocks we also discover small 
nodules of galena and the blende ore of zinc, which 
is more or less prevalent throughout this ridge as far 
as Grand River in Upper Canada. In the dark grey 
gypsum of Gennessee, employed in agriculture, there 
exists a considerable admixture of carbonate of lime. 
About fifteen or twenty miles west from Queenstown 
this ridge presents considerable beds of calcareous 
breccia, or dislocated angular fragments, again col- 
lected and cemented in a base of the same material. 
Mr. Maclure traced this calcareous stratum, with its 
concomitant accompaniment of shells and hornstone 
nodules, as far as the borders of Lake Champlain, 
where it terminates in the immediate vicinity of the 
primitive on the west, and an elongated point of the 
transition on the east. 

The very imperfect knowledge which we yet pos- 
sess of the western regions of the Mississippi, pre- 



22 GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF THE 

vent us in a great measure from arriving at any very 
satisfactory results, while pursuing our enquiries in 
this direction. Before entering upon this part of the 
subject, it is necessary to make some remarks upon 
the anomalies which present themselves towards the 
western and north-western confines of the calcareous 
platform. Thus, on arriving at the banks of the 
Ousiconsin, instead of an almost imperceptible cur- 
rent, as that of Fox river and its lakes, we are car- 
ried along at the rate of three or four miles per hour, 
and have almost uninterrupted hills on either bank 
of the river ; still there is no very considerable dip, 
but sufficient to bring into view a considerably lower 
portion of the stratum, in which veins of galena or 
lead-ore begins to make their appearance. Captain 
Carver, and afterwards Mr. Dicksou, received from 
the Indians a grant of these lead-mines, which Mr. 
Dickson informed me, promised to be no less pro- 
ductive than those they gave to Monsieur Dubuque, 
situated on the western side of the Mississippi, and 
about 40 miles below the entrance of the Ouis- 
consin. The same calcareous lead-hills are met 
with dividing the branches of the Meremek, about 
thirty miles below St. Louis, and continue in a south- 
west direction to the sources of the river St. Francis. 
They are again met with on the banks of White 
River, and galena has also been found near the 
banks of Grand river of the Arkansa. The first oc- 
currence of secondary calcareous rock on the banks 
of the Arkansa, is towards the base of the areuelitk 



VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 23 

hills of Lee's-creek (called Papillon, in Pike's map) 
and about eight miles below the garrison of the Pot- 
toe. Lime-stone is found along the banks of the 
Salais-eau, a few miles above the former, but we no 
where meet with any considerable quantity of calca- 
reous rock, in that part of the Arkansa territory 
which came under my notice, excepting on the banks 
of Grand river, whence the garrison was supplied 
with lime for building. As indications of coal, how- 
ever, appear in this quarter, on both sides of the river, 
and even near the garrison, along the banks of the 
Pottoe, accompanied by the usual fossil reliquiae, 
we are not to suppose that the secondary calcareous 
stratum is so limited in its existence in this direction, 
but merely covered by the sand-stone with which the 
occurrence of coal is concomitant This circumstance, 
again, almost independent of any collateral observa- 
tion, points out the extraordinary approach of these 
strata towards the horizontal level ; for, from Lee's 
creek to the northern branches of the Canadian, and 
from thence to the great Saline river of the Paunees, 
a distance, over land, of near 300 miles, on the 
southern side of the Arkansa, we were never able to 
discover a solitary specimen of calcareous rock, be- 
ing every where covered by the sand-stone, and in 
no place presenting a derangement or dip sufficient 
to be exposed from beneath. It is almost unneces- 
sary to add, that a country like this, presents little 
else than one uniform plain, in general destitute of 
arborescent vegetation, and that it is also very defi 



S4 GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF THE 

cient in springs of water. While on the contrary, 
the calcareous country of the Salaiseau, of Grand- 
river, of the Illinois, of Arkansa, and also the undu- 
lated arenelitic lands towards the borders of the great 
Saline river, abound in springs, that continue to flow 
throughout the hottest months of the summer, and 
produce around them morasses, which from their de- 
ceiving depth, are dangerous to the appioach of the 
larger quadrupeds. 

While ascending the Missouri in the summer of 
1810, I could not ascertain the existence of the com- 
pact calcareous rock, containing organic reliquiae, 
beyond the confluence of the river Platte ; yet the 
sand-stone hills, and woodless plains, in the rear of 
the Maha village, were precisely such as we met with 
along the northern borders of the Arkansa, within 
the limits of Pottoe, and the Saline rivers. In the ter- 
ritory of Arkansa we could no where distinctly ascer- 
tain the existence of those more ancient and deep beds 
of uniform argillaceous matter which so often along the 
banks of the Missouri, bury out of sight the inferior 
rocky stratum, in such a manner, as at length entirely 
to conceal its character. This clay formation, en- 
tirely unconnected with that of the Mississippi, and 
the lower part of the Arkansa, is of a blueish-grey, 
abounding in pyrites and xylanthrax, and is the 
active seat of those pseudo- volcanoes and their re- 
mains existing in the upper part of the Missouri ter- 
ritory. Excepting wood, even whole trunks of trees, 
in every state of siliceous penetration and petrifac- 
tion, a fossil Ostrea or my a, and what my friend Mr. 



VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. &fi 

Thomas Say considered as an unknown spacies of 
baculite,* no other organic remains were noticed by 
us in this vast deposition of argillaceous matter, which 
often appeared near the bank of the river in black- 
ened sterile hills and cliffs of from two to three hun- 
dred feet elevation. It is highly probable that the 
fossil crocodile skeleton, or proteasauriis, mention- 
ed by Lewis and Clarke, was deposited in this argil- 
laceous bed, although I once found, on the loftiest 
summits of the gravel hills of White River of the 
Missouri, several fragments of large fossil bones, 
apparently vertebra, accompanied by some eburneous 
process partly transformed into silex. 

The calcareous cliffs which border the Missouri, 
not far from the creek of the Maha village, more 
closely resembled chalk than any thing of the kind 
which I have heretofore seen or heard of in North 
America, but cannot by any means be identified with 
the same formation in the south of England and in 
France. We could not discover in it any organic 
reliquiae, nor any vestiges of flint. It is, neverthe- 
less, sufficiently white, meagre, and absorbent, when 
moistened, and marks with facility. Connected ap- 
parently with this anomalous formation of chalk, we 
observed considerable beds of what appeared to be 
stalactitial gypsum, but whether a more general de^ 



* Published in Silliman's Journal, vol. II. p. 41, under tfcfe 
name of baculites compressa. 

D 



26 GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OK THE 

position, or a mere adventitious production formed 
by the partial agency of the decomposed pyrites so 
prevalent in the argillaceous bed above noticed, I 
am not prepared to ascertain. It occurred in seams, 
though divided into small and rounded masses, per- 
fectly white, but so devoid of the fibrous structure as 
to be readily confounded with the chalk. The si- 
milarity of this secondary calcareous formation on 
its opposite confines in East Tennessee, as it appears 
immediately after crossing the Cumberland gap is 
deserving of attention; here again the calcareous 
rock puts on the appearance of chalk, and even con- 
tains nodules of flint, but bordering too much on chal- 
cedony to afford the character requisite for economi- 
cal purposes. 

Before taking leave of this part of our subject, and 
indeed not unconnected with it, is the anomalous de- 
position of salt, and the production of nitre. We all 
know that the impure nitre of the western states, of 
which the greatest abundance has been found in the 
neighbourhood of the Cumberland ridge of mountains 
on the confines of East Tennessee, is always connect- 
ed with the caverns of calcareous and arenilitic rock, 
and that it is not an accidental production, arising from 
the decomposition of animal and vegetable matter, is 
indeed proved by its gradual renewal in those caverns 
which have been exhausted. As 1 have been inform- 
ed, it exists in the calcareous and sandstone rocks 
which arc consequently attacked by the humidity of 
the air, and so falls into earthy fragments, which are 



VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 27 

collected for lixiviation, and that the solid stone it- 
self is also occasionally broken and submitted to the 
same process. I am not acquainted with the existence 
of many localities of nitre on the west side of the 
Mississippi, though it has been obtained in considera- 
ble quantity along the banks of the Meremek, and 
some of the streams emptying into the lower part of 
the Missouri. The Hirundel rocks on the banks of the 
Arkansa possess the only appearance of affording 
nitre which I have seen in that territory. 

I have termed the production of salt in this forma- 
tion as anomalous v regarding any connection which it 
bears with the ordinary gypseous or red-clay forma- 
tion of the European geologists. No doubt numerous 
pern arks have been made upon this subject, which I 
now merely examine as a matter of fact. Every one 
knows the abundance of salt springs which exist in 
the valley of the Ohio and its tributary branches. 
The most productive among them are the springs of 
the Kenhaway and the Big Bone Lick. Those of 
Onondago Lake, in the western part of the state of 
New- York, are no less important. In my enquiries 
and personal examinations, I must confess myself 
to be generally at a loss to ascertain the proper ori- 
gin of these springs. In no instance is this salt met 
with in a solid form, nor in distinct connection with 
gypsum, or with red coloured clays. The argilla- 
ceous soils, indeed, which do occur, are dark gray 
or grayish blue. At the Big Bone or Mammoth 
Lick on the Ohio, and in many other places, where. 



3fJ GEOLOGICAL STRUCTUBB Of THE 

fossil bones have been found in their immedin 
neighbourhood, we should have been led to suppo 
these springs to be in connection with ancient alluvial 
deposits; while on the other hand, where the boring 
and obtaining of salt water has been continued 
through beds of coal and of limestone for some hun- 
dreds of feet, every idea of alluvial origin must va- 
nish, and we are led to consider the existence of 
these saline springs as coeval with the strata in 
which they originate, in common with the nitre, the 
petroleum, and the coal. The occurrence of those 
remains of extinct quadrupeds which are found in 
their vicinity, may be considered as accidental, or 
merely connected with their relish for salt.* 

The extent of these salt springs is nearly as wide 
as that of the secondary rocks which they accompa- 
ny ; thus they are found in several places along the 
banks of the Mississippi, from the Prairie du Chien 
to the confluence of the Ohio, wherever the intersec- 
tion of streams have afforded them an outlet. They 
occur along the banks of the Meremek near to St. 
Louis, and along the Missouri to the Osage river ; 
they are met with on the banks of this river almost 
to its sources ; they reappear along the borders of 

* These relics are the bones of the common mammoth or 
mastodon of the Ohio, the Siberian elephant, or true mam- 
moth, teeth of the rhinoceros, and in the caves have been found 
the bones of the megatherium, a very fine collection of which 
we,re in the cabinet of the late Mr. Clifford of Lexington. 



VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. &9 

Grand River of the Arkansa, fifty miles up which 
river, one of the principal springs is now worked. 
This place I have caiefully examined. Here the 
springs, which are uncommonly clear, strong, and 
copious, distinctly and immediately issue through a 
bed of calcareous rock, and are accompanied by a 
stream of sulphuretted hydrogen gas, but occasion- 
ing only a minute deposition of sulphur. Other 
springs, equally productive, likewise occur in the 
distance of twenty-five miles further up this stream 
The Cherokees have discovered springs of salt wa- 
ter on the banks of the Illinois of Arkansa, but in 
this quarter as well as on the banks of Grand River, 
they do not happen to be accompanied by any re- 
mains of quadrupeds. 

Unconnected with this soil and strata, though 
scarcely with our subject, is the gypseous Red Clay 
formation, and the salt which it affords. Of the ex- 
istence of this salt formation towards the sources of 
Red River, there is the most unequivocal evidence ; 
it is the abundance of this mineral, independent of 
that of the calcareous stratum, which so frequently 
communicates, particularly in the inundation of the 
Red water, a sensible brackishness to the whole 
stream of the Arkansa, and occasions its water to be 
preferred by all the wild and domestic animals. In- 
deed, in dry seasons, like that of the last autumn, 
(1819) a saline efflorescence was sufficiently visible 
over all its argillaceous deposits. The locality of 
this red clay so^l is sufficiently attested by a slight 



$0 GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF THE 

attention to the color of the streams which empty into 
the Arkansa ; thus, all the rivers which enter from 
the north or north-west, bring down either water 
which is clear, or rendered turbid with grey colored 
earths and clays, while on the opposite side come in a 
number of streams which are charged with turbid 
water, always of a reddish brown color. Such are 
the Canadian, and the three Saline rivers, whose 
waters, except that of the former, are at all times im- 
potably saline. Still further traciug the locality of 
this production, we find that the red water of the Ca- 
nadian is the produce of its main southern branches, 
which all the hunters and traders assert to derive 
their sources with the head waters of Red river, and 
the Spaniards inform us, as a well known matter of 
fact, that Red river originates in the mountains of 
Santa Fe, of Rio del Norte. The northern branch of 
the Canadian is said to proceed almost parallel with 
the Arkansa, and possesses clear water in common 
with its tributary the lesser North river, which 
sources in the immediate vicinity of the Arkansa, and 
makes a very near approach to the great Saline river 
of the Paunees, already mentioned. It is in the im- 
mediate neighbourhood of the second river of Saline 
water, that Dr. Sibley was conducted by the Osages 
to what are commonly called the salt plains, where 
this mineral appears in place, and lies scattered over 
the surface of the ground. These beds of salt and 
clay very improperly and vaguely laid down in the 
maps as so many lakes of salt water, are nothing 



VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI, 31 

more than the neighbouring beds of red clay, which 
occasionally inundated, and cashed- by the winter 
rains, afterwards deposit a copious efflorescence of 
ilie dissolved mineral. 

From three experienced hunters who had spent a 
great part of their lives in tiiis country, and pene- 
trated to the western mountains, I received accounts 
of the prevalence of a mineral towards the sources of 
Red river, which, on producing specimens, turned 
out to be fibrous gypsum, similar to that of the 
Utawah river, in Upper Canada ; it was said to be 
very abundant and continuous in its appearance. My 
guide, Mr. Lee, first observed it on the banks of what 
the French call the False Washita, one of the prin- 
cipal northern branches of lied river. A river of 
saline water too brackish to drink, as I was informed, 
enters the river Platte from the south, about thirty 
miles above its confluence with the Missouri. The 
Sioux river entering the Missouri from the north, 
according to the report of the interpreter (Borion) 
who accompanied us in our voyage up the Missouri, 
in IS 10, informed us, that this river sources with the 
St. Peters, and after remaining navigable for upwards 
of two hundred miles, is then obstructed by a cataract, 
and that below the falls a creek enters from the 
eastward, after passing the cliffs of the red clay-stone 
employed by the Indians in the fabrication of their 
pipes. 

From what we can glean concerning this principal 
formation of salt and gypsum, it would appear to be 
situated in the vicinity of the primitive mountains, 



32 GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF THE 

and at all events marks the termination of the se- 
condary soil. 

The fluate of lime, so abundant and beautiful in 
the secondary calcareous rock of Derbyshire, in 
England, is not altogether wanting in the valley of 
the Mississippi. In 1810, Mr. J. Bradbury favoured 
me with very fine specimens of white, blue, and am- 
ber colored fluor, from a lead mine, at the Rock 
and Cave, in the vicinity of the Ohio. Another lo- 
cality of this mineral was pointed out to me, also in 
1818, as existing near Centreville, in the county of 
Logan, in Kentucky. In the same locality with 
that described by Mr. Bradbury, Mr. Jessup found 
it in abundance on the surface for a space of thirty 
miles, accompanied by a vein of galena. In its 
vicinity, Mr. J. also met with nodules of argillaceous 
iron ore, containing blende. But fluor has never 
yet been found on the banks of Missouri, as assert- 
ed by Mr. Claiborne. 

The floetz trap formation, or that variety of it. 
termed in Derbyshire, toad stone, and which there 
so signally detanges the strata and metalliferous de- 
posits, in no form makes its appearance throughout 
this secondary platform, the only anomalous bed in 
any manner analogous to this, is the greenish, and 
apparently ferruginous arenilitic rock, with a sparry 
calcareous cement, and bordering on graawacke, 
which appears beneath the newer floetz lime- stone of 
Red River. 



tftAy* l>>^' 



\ ALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 33 

Having thus taken a cursory, but imperfect view 
•f the great tabular formation of secondary calca- 
reous rock, which gives place to the immense plains 
and lakes of the western states and territories, we 
shall next proceed to offer a few remarks upon the 
ancient maritime alluvium, and a flcetz formation 
apparently connected with it, which continues from 
Rhode Island to the coast of the Gulf of Mexico, 
principally with a view to ascertain its south-west- 
ern limits, and to observe the influence which it has 
bad in producing the present character of that part 
of the Mississippi valley. The accurate and com- 
prehensive view of this formation, as well as of all 
the others composing the North American continent, 
by our absent president,* the result of observa- 
tions continued for many years in succession, leaves 
us little more to do than corroborate his assertions by 
additional details, and an extension of its limits into 
the remoter territories of the Union. 

§ II, LIMITS AND CHARACTER OF THE ANCIENT 
MARITIME ALLUVIUM. 

The extent of the primeval ocean, and the vast 
agency which it has exercised over our globe, to ren- 
der it habitable, and thus to complete the plan of 
creation, is evinced by a vast proportion of its sur- 
face wherever our observations are directed. That 



* William Maclure, Esq 
A 



I A 



34 CKOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF THE 

immense portion of the valley of the Mississippi, 
over which we have in the preceding section rapidly 

glanced, without entering into details, exhibits 
throughout all its extent unequivocal marks of a 
pelagian origin, its rocks are filled with marine pro- 
ductions, with bivalve shells, with Alcyonites, En- 
crinites, Madrepores, Millepores, Tubiporites, Flus- 
tras, Trilobites, some species of Ammonites, Zoo- 
phytes, &c. &c. of which by far the greater part are 
now extinct, having disappeared with the ocean that 
gave them birth ; indeed, several of their genera no 
longer possess any existing type. The antiquity of 
this order of things, apparently anterior to the crea- 
tion of any other organized beings, is beyond our 
comprehension ; what occasioned the reflux and sub- 
sidence of these mighty waters, and the consequent 
elevation of the land, is a subject equally involved 
in mystery. It is sufficient for us to mark the 
different epochs of this reflux, so as to connect 
our remarks, and render them intelligible to those 
who wish to follow, us in the course of observa 
tion. 

The pelagian calcareous rock which occupied 
our attention in the preceding section, and which 
may correctly be termed a compact limestoue, pre- 
sents to ouv view scarcely any of those shells and 
marine productions still existing in the present ocean. 
They are almost without exception bivalves, among 
which the 'erebratulites continually predominate. 
Coal, petroleum, fluor spar, blende galena, argilla- 



VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 35 

ctous iron ore, salt springs, aud nitre, with several 
other materials of minor importance are almost con- 
comitant with this formation, and tend to character- 
ize and distinguish it when it assumes an almost ho- 
rizontal stratification. It is greatly to the advantage 
of the miner and the mineralogist, as well as to seve- 
ral branches of public economy, that such geo- 
logical distinctions could be drawn betwixt the dif- 
ferent strata and formations of minerals, as might al- 
ways prevent the waste of money and labour. Yet, 
after all, it is to be regretted, that the ambiguity of 
certain strata is sometimes so great, as to admit of 
considerable argument in ascertaining their differ- 
ence ; such, in a great measure, is the character of 
the second calcareous formation which now claims 
our attention. 

In its geographical limits, it occupies a position 
universally to the east of the primitive and transition 
formations. Its existence, as far as I know, has not 
been ascertained to the north of the bay of Chesa- 
peake; it here makes its appearance in the vicinity 
of Annapolis, and presents several features common 
to the transmontane stratum. It appears, however, 
to be destitute of the concomitant minerals, except- 
ing, indeed, it were possible to conceive it in con- 
nexion with the coal basins of Richmond, which I 
have found on examination to be actually underlaid 
with a calcareous rock of a peculiar appearance. 
Mr. Heath's coal-mines, and, in fact, nearly all of 
them, except those which were in a state of combus- 



3fi GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF THL 

tion, are overlaid by a massive micaceous cODglomfr" 

rate, or grit rock, containing crystals of felspar like 
porphyry, in which, besides gigantic ctdmarii,* oc- 
cur veins of the argentine calcareous spar of Kir- 
wan, similar to that of Cornwall, resembling silvery 
talc or steatite, in which are occasionally imbedded 
minute chrystals of blue and white fluor like those, 
equally rare, in the gneiss of the Schuylkill, together 
with common calcareous spar and chrystals of sul- 
phate of lime. In the bituminous slate clay, which, 
as usual, accompanies this coal, besides impressions 
of ferns, and the supposed Equiseta, there are vesti- 
ges of some enormous flaccid leaved gramineous 
plant, leaves of one of the Scitaminese similar to 
those of ginger, and fine casts of a. palm, resembling 
the pennate fronds of some species of Zamia, or 
Cycas. The apparent remains of fish, which alse 
occur together in such uncommon abundance, are ex- 
tremely ambiguous, inasmuch as the supposed fins 
alone, are found. The coal in this formation, instead 
of that even continuity so obvious in that of the west- 
ern states, presents very limited beds, which, as they 
recede or occupy the centre of the basin, vary from 
6 or 8, to that of 40 feet in thickness ! The coal 
itself, highly bituminous and brittle, contains abun- 
dance of pyrites. What relation the breccias and 

* An assumed generic name for an assemblage of extinct 
Zoophytes? (one species of which, is the Phijtolithus striatic^!- 
»iis, of Martyn's Petrificata Derbiensia) 



VALLKV Ol THE MISSISSIPPI, 

conglomerates of this vicinity have with the testa 
ceous lime .-stone, I cannot pretend to say ; they do 
not indeed contain impressions of shells, though 
fragments of lignite, and silici^ed wood have been, 
found imbedded in the siliceous conglomerate. On 
the high road to Richmond, in the exposed declivity 
of the barren pine-hills, a few miles from the coal- 
mines, I found fragments of transformed wood, pe- 
net-rated with quartz of an opaque white color, des- 
titute of the resinous fracture, and easily crumbling 
into an almost impalpable sand. These fragments, 
however, occurring in beds of disintegrated, and 
amorphous chrystalline quartz, in which also appears 
the oldest conglomerate* of cloudy and pale blue 
quartz, are more probably referable to the an* 
cient beds of the transition. Of the small impor- 
tance, however^ which ought to be attached to the 
relative antiquity of transition rocks, and particu 
larly to those which are so evidently mechanical in 
their structure as the conglomerates and sand-stones, 
we have an almost unexpected example, in the re* 
cent discovery of bones imbedded in the old red 
sand-stone of New-Haven, 35 feet below the surface 5 
a circumstance, in itself, sufficiently curious, without 
introducing the improbable conjecture of the remains 
being human. 



* As it regards the strata of the United States, and always 
occurring from the state of New York to Georgia, imbedded 
in the mica-slate- 



38 GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE 01 THE 

Although, there can remain but little doubt of the 
continuity of the fioetz lime-stone we are endeavour- 
Ing to trace towards the south, still, in consequence 
of the more recent alluvial deposits, it is not again 
discernable until we arrive in North Carolina. Here, 
Mr. Macluue remarks, that it runs »• parallel to, and 
within the distance of from 20 to 30 miles of the 
edge of the primitive, through South Carolina, Geor- 
gia, and part of the Mississippi territory." That it 
continues also eastwardly to the borders of the ocean, 
I have reason to believe, from discovering it in the 
immediate vicinity of Wilmington, North Carolina, 
where it appears from beneath the alluvial sand-hills 
of the town. There, though less compact than the 
older secondary formation, it alike contains terebra- 
tulits, flustras, niillepores, caryophylites, gorgonias, 
as well as more recent shells, such as cardiums, pec- 
tinites and ostreas, not very dissimilar to the exist- 
ing species of the coast. In IS 16, while proceeding 
through North and South Carolina, to the city of 
Charleston, I remarked the first appearance of this 
toetz lime- stone in the immediate neighbourhood of 
Stateshurgh, in South Carolina, near the commence- 
ment of the hills of Santee. Here we observe a fine- 
grained slaty and ferruginous sand-stone, containing 
scales of mica, and rounded nodules of argiUaceous 
iron-ore, basseting out from beneath a conglomerate 
made up of sea-shells and quartzose pebbles, cemented 
together with calcareous as well as siliceous matter, 
the latter of which often appearing in the form 



VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 39 

of hotFyoidal agate. These marigenous beds are 
nearly horizontal, though here elevated into hills, 
and appear, as far as I could previously observe from 
analogy, to be underlaid by a formation of trap and 
argillite. From hence, to the little town of Man- 
chester, there intervenes a succession of coarse- 
grained and ferruginous sand-stone hills, washed 
into deep gullies, presenting a prevalence of red and 
very sandy clay, indicative of the decomposed trap. 
Eighty miles from Charleston, along what is called 
the river-road, on the high and sandy banks of the 
stream produced by the Drowning Spring, I noticed 
scattered masses of a stone, consisting in great 
part of flinty confluent silex, bordering on chalcedony, 
including seams of broken shells, as well as others 
which were imbedded and retained their calcareous 
substance. Some of them were spiral univalves, 
others cardiums, and pectinites resembling those of 
the present sea-coast. In some places this stone ap- 
pears to pass into a granulated ' quartz, resembling 
sand-stone, but of a very fine and drusy grain. 
This bed appeared to be about twelve inches in thick- 
ness, and sensibly compressed ; beneath, it passes 
into a sand-stone, which is again underlaid by a 
thick bed of light grey schistose and indurated mar- 
lite, containing also rounded nodules of the same 
substance. The Utaw spring is one of those large 
bodies of clear water which issue at once in consi- 
siderable streams from the bosom of this stratum. 
This formation is considerably allied to the siliceous 



40 GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF THE 

lime-stone of the environs of Paris, and mill-stone* 
have been made of it, but are found to be softer than 
those of France, In its seams have also been dis- 
covered depositions of hyalite, or the concretionary 
hyaline quartz of Hauy, 

At Nelson's Ferry, on the south side of the San- 
tee, J again observed an horizontal ledge of the floetz 
lime-stone, of a whitish color, and fragile consistence, 
containing amidst innumerable masses of small shells, 
those of some Ostrea, not very dissimilar to existing 
species, but of a remarkable thickness, and occasion- 
ally impressed with the forms of other shells. The 
copious and clear springs of this formation continue 
to within ten miles of the city of Charleston, where, 
with its overlay of ferruginous sand-stone, it forms 
the foundation of all the other alluvial deposits. 
Amorphous carbonaceous remains, connected pro- 
bably with lignite, sparingly appear in this soft 
sand-stone a few miles from Charleston, In a for- 
mer route, from Savannah and Augusta, in Georgia, 
I repeatedly met with this calcareous bed, in which 
even occurs the trilobites paradoxus, and the ovate 
encrinal fossil, figured by Parkinson and described 
by Mr. Say in Silliman's Journal, under the 
name of Pentremiie, hitherto found only in North 
America, and in connection probably with this for- 
mation,* In some parts of South Carolina, this 
calcareous- rock appears of a friable texture, and 

* This curious fossil occurs also, abundantly in the licie- 
Houe of Huntsville, in the Mississippi territory. 



VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. ii 

passing into marl, or containing so much argillaceous 
earth as to burn into a very indifferent lime. Its 
existence has been traced into part of the Missis- 
sippi territory,* and again found along the coast of 
Cape Florida, and the gulf of Mexico, by Mr. Ma- 
clure. Along the banks of the Mississippi, and 
towards the base of the hills of Fort Adams, it again 
presents its usual characteristics, being of a whitish 
color, of a soft and friable consistence, like calcareous 
tufa, and also in connection with an undurated marl. 
Ascending this river, without discovering its exist- 
ence decisively in the alluvial hills of Natchez, we, 
however, perceive its arenilitic overlay in the basis of 
the cliffs known by the name of the Grand and Petit 
Gulf, where the obstruction of this stratum suddenly 
checks the meanders of the river, and produces two 
very powerful and dangerous eddies. The last ap- 
pearance of this stratum on the banks of the Missis- 
sippi, as indicated by sand-stone, is in the bases of 
what are called the Walnut- hills, but its concomitant 
marigenous alluvium can be distinctly traced to the 
ferruginous cliffs, called the Paint-hills, or Mine au 
Fer, about 15 miles below the confluence of the Ohio; 
indeed Henderson, or the Red Banks, and the town 
■ — — ■*— '■ " — ^ " ' 

* Marine shells, as Ostreas, &c. have been found at the 
M Chickasaw Old Town," 300 miles north-east of Natchez, 
as well as at the United States agency amongst the Choctaws, 
120 miles north north-east of the same place, according to 
Mr. JE. Cornelius, in Silliman's Journal. 



$2 GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF THE 

of Owensvillc, commonly called the Yellow banks, 
the latter about 120 miles below Louisville on the 
Ohio, still present traces of this extensive deposition, 
though unaccompanied by the sand- stone and calca- 
reous rock. On the west side of the Mississippi we 
also discover the same marine alluvial formation in 
the elevated banks of the Arkansa, on which the 
town of Arkansas is situated, and which terminates 
the great prairie, dividing the waters of this and 
the White rivers. Still more lofty, and better cha- 
racterized, are also the friable cliffs, called the Pine- 
bluffs, commencing about 120 miles higher up this ri- 
ver. Proceeding from hence in a southern direction, 
we again meet with this alluvium on the banks of the 
Washita, which gives rise to the Bovey-coal or lig- 
nite mentioned in the voyage of Dr. Hunter and Mr. 
Dunbar. In the calcareous platform of Red River, 
which we found to constitute the basis of its plains, 
both above and below the Confluence of theKiamesha, 
we discover a great extention of this formation to the 
west, and in some degree parallel with the indention 
of the Mexican Gulf. This limestone presents all 
the usual characters of friability, whiteness, argilla- 
ceous admixture, and more recent shells such as 
cardinms, pectinites and ostreas, as well as gry- 
phites, terebratulites, and alcyonites. In a few 
places along the immediate banks of Red River, it is 
partially overlaid by hillocks of a conglomerate 
abounding in horn-stone and other siliceous pebbles, 
cemented principally by ferruginous matter. A more 



VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 4?3 

Remarkable aggregation, appears, by a dip, to basset 
out from beneath this calcareous platform, on the 
northern banks of the river, near the entrance of the 
Kiamesha. From its massive appearance, and ob- 
scure greenish-grey color, it strongly resembled a 
trap, or grauwacke; it proved, however to be a calca-t 
reous sand -stone, with a crystaline cement) and like 
the grauwacke, as well as sand, occasionally includes 
adventitious pebbles, and angular debris, among 
which we observed the existence of chalcedony. 

How far this calcareous formation extends into the 
neighbouring province of Texas, and under what cir- 
cumstances, I have not been able to ascertain ; but I 
may further add, concerning its north-western limits, 
that it appears to be essentially separated from the 
older secondary calcareous formation, by the interpo- 
sition of a transition range of mountains, stretching 
towards the south-west, which separate the tributary 
streams of the Arkansa from those which flow into 
Red River ; and that from hence to the gulf of Mex- 
ico in a south-east direction, traversing the plains of 
Opelousas and Attakapa and the maritime part of 
the province of Texas, no other chain of mountains 
are known to exist. It is not necessary for us to trace 
the maritime alluviumof the Atlantic states so well de- 
fined in the essay of Mr. Maclure, and we shall now 
merely add some remarks on its character as it ap- 
pears in the valley of the Mississippi. Along the 
immediate banks of this river, it is no where inter- 
sected on its western border ; all the cliffs of reenter- 



41 (JEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF THE 

ing high-land are confined to its eastern bank. The 
first of these, below the mouth of the Ohio, is the 
Mine au Fer or Iron-banks; and after a descent of 
several hundred miles, we again perceive an occur- 
rence of the same bank of friable materials in the four 
successive bluffs or cliffs of the Chicasaws. As this 
alluvium is here best developed, we shall attempt to 
describe its appearance. These cliffs are. elevated 
about 2 or 300 feet above the lower level of the 
river, and are a portion of the continuous high-lands 
which constitute the principal part of the territory. 
They are connected with the uplands of the Walnut- 
hills, of Natchez, Fort Adams, Grand and Petit 
Gulf, Ellis's and Thomson's cliffs, and finally ter- 
minate a few miles below Baton-rouge. The surface 
often presents a ferruginous clay or gravel ; and from 
the deep and friable nature of the materials, it is sub- 
ject iu the vicinity of streams to be washed into deep 
and wide ravines. The soil is but moderately fertile, 
and requires the aid of manures. The Chicasaw 
Bluffs, which from top to bottom, as well as at Nat- 
chez, present nothing but friable beds immediately 
below the surface, consist of sandy and ferruginous 
clays, lower down often purer and whiter ; then suc- 
ceeds, with an almost unexpected uniformity, a band 
of bright pink-colored clay, which we also recognize 
at the. Mine au Fer, as well as in the Pine-bluffs, 
about 180 miles up the Arkansa. This clay is suc- 
ceeded by another bed nearly similar to the first; a 
carbonaceous appearance then succeeds, and com- 



V ALLEY 01< THE MISSISSIPPI. 45 

monly a thin bed of lignite ; dark, greyish clays still 
follow, containing pyrites, and argillaceous iron ore, 
often lying at the base of the cliffs in corroded, flat- 
tcned, and rounded masses; and at the very lowest 
level of the river, in low water, a second and much 
thicker bed of lignite succeeds, exhibiting every gra- 
dation from the state of wood, and also containing, 
amidst more friable materials, indurated sand-stone 
nodules, resembling those of argillaceous iron-ore, 
containing impressions of the leaves of existing oaks* 
as well as those of plants resembling species of Equi- 

selwn. 

We have to ascend the Arkansa 60 miles from its 

outlet, through the recent alluvium, before we arrive 
at the commencement of the primitive soil. All the 
inferior space intervening betwixt the Mississippi, 
and White River, is so subject to inundation as to be 
rendered totally uninhabitable. How far the sup- 
posed ancient marine deposit extends into the Great 
Prairie, which is about 90 miles in length, I have not 
been able satisfactorily to ascertain, though from the 
extent of adventitious gravel over the neighbouring 
uplands, and the reappearance of its bed in the Pine- 
bluffs, ISO miles above Arkansas, we have no reason 
to suppose its termination short of the whole extent of 
the prairie. Amongst the least equivocal marks of ma- 
rine origin visible in this deposition, is the discovery 



# Such as those of Quercus phellos the Willow Oak and Q* 
rubra or Q. coccinea the Red Oak. 



46 GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF THE 

of shells, which accidentally came to my notice a few 
miles below the Pine-Muffs, picked up by the chil- 
dren of some of the French hunters resident in this 
country, and consisting of a species of ostrea, like 
that of the Santee, penetrated by seams of calcareous 
crystals, exhibiting marks of a former attachment to 
a softish ferruginous sand-stone, and containing frag- 
ments of lignite. On the same sand-bar was also 
found a small conch-shell,* which did not appear to 
have been imbedded. 

This massive deposit, in all probability, makes an 
appearance at Alexandria on Red River, to which 
place the recent alluvium also extends ; aud the fer- 
ruginous conglomerate resembling that of New Jer- 
sey we have found to continue more than 1000 miles 
up this river. From a consideration of these circum- 
stances, and the direction of the t transition chain of 
mountains, which traverse this territory nearly from 
north-east to south-west, we are led to suppose the ex- 
istence of the more recent calcareous platform nearly 
to the sources of Red River, where it is probably suc- 
ceeded by the gypseous red clay and salt formation. 

The extraordinary breadth of that part of the al- 
luvial valley of the Mississippi, subject to inundation, 
from the mouth of the Ohio to the ocean, said to be 
of the extent of from 30 to 40 miles, is easily account- 
ed for, in the friable nature, and the magnitude of the 
marigenous deposit through which it flows. Its bed 

* Strombus pugilis. 



\ ALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 47 

appears continually to have encroached towards the. 
east; and indeed all the larger rivers, except the 
Ohio, come in from the west, and possess currents 
considerably more rapid than that of the Ohio.* 

From a point, a few miles below Baton-rouge, 
where the primitive soil terminates, we are to trace 
the commencement of the proper delta, or modern al- 
luvial formation of the Mississippi. From hence the 
river presents no more sinuous meanders; but, with- 
out any additional breadth, proceeds towards the 
ocean in fiexuous lines or stretches, disembogues 
much of its waters by receding channels or bayous, 
and presents along its banks; which are of an uni- 
form and depressed elevation, a conformity of surface- 
incompatible with the caprice of any formation of in- 
dependent origin. For several hundreds of miles in 
succession, to the city of New Orleans, no settlements 
are practicable beyond the border of the river; the 
agricultural plots, all defended in front from inunda- 
tion, by a levee or continued line of embankment, are 
constantly averaged at a depth of 45 arpens or acres, 
beyond which universally commences an undrainable 
swamp. The fertility of these lands is no where ex- 
ceeded, and without any kind of tillage, promise a 
perpetual harvest, and never-failing source of wealth 
to the planter. 



* According to the observations of Major Long, the descent 
of the Ohio is 8 inches per mile, that of the Mississippi 12. 
that of the Missouri and Arkansa 16, and of the river Platte. 
18 inches. 



48 GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF THE 

We shall now conclude this essay by a few re- 
marks on the transition chain of mountains which 
traverse the Arkansa territory. 

§ III. OBSERVATIONS ON THE TRANSITION MOUN- 
TAINS of arkansa: 
The first appearance of this formation, as well as 
the first rock which attracts our attention in ascend- 
ing the Arkansa, commences about 200 miles above 
the village or post of Arkansas. From the unusual 
appearance, and inconsiderable comparative eleva- 
tion which the hills here present, the place has re- 
ceived the name of the Little Rock. The strata 
which are schistose and destitute of organic reliquiae, 
dip at an angle of more than 45° to the north-east, and 
consist of dark-grey, or greenish-grey, argillaceous 
sand- stone, of a fine grain, and intermingled with 
mica: it appears to be a grauwacke slate, bordering on 
argillite, and is traversed by massive veins of quartz 
containing crystals. It is here alternated with a soft 
and pale coloured slate clay, which decomposes into 
something resembling pipe- clay, and which the inha- 
tants have employed for white- washing the interior 
of their cabins. As we proceeded westward, those 
hills at length assumed the elevation of mountains, 
being schistose towards the base, and arenilitic at 
the summit. The sand-stone of a coarse grain, light- 
ish grey color, and lesser dip, is likewise destitute 
of organic remains. At Piatt's settlement, we came 
in full view of a conic topped mountain, rising not 
less than one thousand feet above the neighbouring 



VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 49 

plain. At first view it appeared to be insulated, but 
was actually connected with an adjoining ridge of 
inferior elevation. This mountain, resembling a py- 
ramid, is known to the French and American resi- 
dents and hunters, by the name of the Mammelle. It 
was distinctly visible from the hills of the Dardenai, 
a distance of more than 60 miles over laud. From 
the same point of view, we could enumerate three 
principal ranges of mountains tending towards the 
south-west* 

In several places the schistose strata are almost 
vertically elevated, so as to present along the margin 
of the river, a smooth and even wall, occasionally pe- 
uetrated with zig-zag seams of quartz. At the Ca- 
dron, three hundred miles from Arkansas, the slate 
exposes to view impressions of something related to 
the ramified Alcyonites, but flexuous and spirally 
grooved, also concave articulations of a species of Or- 



* The mountain, apparently laid down in Pike's map as 
visible at the distance of three days- journey, is situated about 
ten miles south of the Illinois bayou, and is a long ridged emi- 
nence, known to the French by the name of the Magazin 
mountain, connected with a chain which proceeds to the 
sources of the Pottoe, the Petit John, Le Fevre's fork, and the 
Kiamesha of Red river; from hence, without ever touching 
Red river, the mountains proceed towards the sources of L'eau 
Bleu, and the Faux Washita, continuing in a direction towards 
the head springs of Red river, where they probably coalesce 
with the primitive range. 

G 



00 GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF THE 

thoceraiite;* the same schist, at the Galley rock 
commencement of the Cherokee settlement,) also 
discloses organic reliquise of the same class, f hut do 
bivalve shells. A beautiful hone-slate appears to 
alternate with the other schistose formations, in the 
vicinity of the hot springs, of the Washita, and is 
noticed in the journal of Hunter and Dunbar. Its 
pure whiteness, when recent, is a character quite pe- 
culiar; still, by its slaty texture, and inferior hard- 
ness, besides the abscence of organic reliquiae, it can 
by no means be confounded with hornstone, which, 
in many respects, it resembles.^ From the neigh- 

* This shell appears to belong to the genus Raphanister 
of Monlfort's Conchyliologie Systematique, vol. I see p. 338, 
hut very distinct from the species there figured. 

t One of them with a moniliform flexuous appearance and 
of the length of six or eight inches, bears some resemblance 
to the IchthyosarcoUte of Desmarest, figured in the Journal de 
Physique for July, 1817, in plate II. figure 9 and 10. 

| To avoid ambiguity and confusion, it seems to me ne- 
cessary to designate the " hone-stone" of the Washita by a 
particular name, as nothing similar to it. appears hitherto de- 
scribed. I shall therefore, in reference to its prevailing color, 
give it the trivial name of GALACTfTE. 

This siliceous mineral, which in many respects resembles 
Hornstone or Chert, is distinguished by its remarkably even, 
slaty cleavage both in the large masses and minute fragments; 
its cross fracture is largely conchoidal, and destitute of lustre: 
fragments, about a line in thickness, are strongly translucent. 
Its hardness is such, when pure, as readily to give fire with 



VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 01 

bouring mountains of the hot springs, which originate 
in t':is formation, I have seen specimens of magnetic 
iron-ore, like that of the Hudson and New Jersey. 
On the road to the springs, also, I have obtained spe- 
cimens of a dark grey amphibolic rock, strongly 
magnetic when heated, of a very close grain, 

steel. Its color, very similar to that of Cacholong or porce- 
lain, is milk-white, acquiring a faint ferruginous tinge by ex- 
posure to the weather, it then more readily cleaves, and becomes 
somewhat absorbent. Its specific gravity is 2,60. Before the 
blow-pipe it is perfectly infusible, and unlike chalcedony and 
flint still retains its translucence. With potash it dissolves 
into a white enamel, but does not form glass. Analyzed in 
the manner described by Klaproth, which it is not here neces- 
sary to repeat, it afforded in the hundred parts, si lex 86, 
alumine 1,50, lime 2, oxid of iron 5, and volatile matter with 
a trace of carbonic acid 4. 

Geological situation and locality.} It is found in the transi- 
tion mountains of the Washita, a few miles from the hot- 
springs, and in the Mazern mountains, at the sources of the 
Kiamesha of Red river, forming schistose beds, which alternate 
with slate-clay and grauwacke-slate. Passing apparently 
into a translucent hornstone, still retaining the slaty cleavage, 
and often breaking into rhombic fragments, similar to felspar. 
This mineral is the " hone-stone," spoken of by Hunter and 
Dunbar, but sufficiently distinct from Novaculite, although 
when weathered or deteriorated by foreign admixture, it be« 
comes in some degree, suitable for that purpose. Its cleavage 
appears to be produced by the iron, which it essentially contains, 
and its milky color is probably derived from the carbonate of 
lime. 



52 HENTZ OX A NEW SPECIES 

and containing imbedded prismatic chrystals of 
brown mica. Slate of various kinds, occasionally 
alternating with a peculiar novaculite bordering on 
hornstone, and dipping at an angle of not less than 
45 constitutes the principal part of this formation, 
and. is overtopped as in the Alleghanys, by elevated 
ridges of sand -stone.* 



* In this chain of mountains, which continues north-easf- 
ward towards the sources of the St. Francis, two miles north 
of the village of St". Michael, at the lead-mine of La Motte, 
Mr. Schoolcraft observed, what he calls a vein of granitic rock, 
of a red color, and containing very little, mica, he asserts it to 
be four or five miles wide, and traced its continuance for 
twenty or thirty miles; as he adds, at the same time, that it is 
used for mill-stones, I can scarcely doubt for a moment, its 
identity with the transition conglomerate which Mr. Bradbury 
and myself examined, in 1810, employed for the same purpose, 
a few miles from St. Louis. What the green-stone porphyry 
may really be, I cannot pretend to say, though it may very pos- 
sibly exist in that quarter. Mr. Bradbury visited the spot and 
obtained specimens of the micaceous iron-ore, which is said to 
form a mountain mass near to Bellevue (Washington county.) 
These united facts, tend to prove the continuation of the tran- 
sition chain of mountains beyond the valley of the Mississippi, 
but they ought not to be confounded with the chrvstalline gra- 
nitic formation of the sea-coast and the northern Andes. 



OF AMERICAN SPIDER. 53 

Jl Notice concerning the Spider, whose iccbb is used 
in medicine. Bij N. M. Hentz. 

It lias been found lately, that the vvebb of a species 
of spider, common in the cellars of this country, pos- 
sesses very narcotic powers, and it has been admi- 
nistered apparently with success in some cases of 
fevers. 

Having for seme time past, studied with care, the 
genus Aranea of Linueus, 1 have been induced to 
write a description of this species; I therefore made a 
drawing taken from a large female, which accompa- 
nies the present notice. 

The genus Aranea of the first writers on Entomo- 
logy being composed of a very great number of spe- 
cies, it has been found necessary to divide it into smal- 
ler sections, or families. Crmelins' edition of Linneus 
contains ninety eight species; Walckenaer enumerates 
nearly three hundred, and the number may be carried 
to a thousand. If the colour of the abdomen were 
the only character to find the species among several 
hundreds, it would be a very difficult task to assign 
with certainty a name to each separately, without 
any other description. Messrs. Latreille and Walck- 
enaer have rendered the history of this genus quite 
easy to study : they have left little undone in regard 
to the species known to them. It is to be regretted 
that Mr. Walckf naer's Tableau des Araneides is not 
a more common work. 

I shall therefore give the generic characters of 



54 HENTZ ON A NEW SPECIES 

this spider, as if the work was unknown to the natu- 
ralists in this country. 

It belongs to the genus Teger.eriaof Walckenaer, 
ant! to that of spiders, properly so called, of Latreille. 
Its characters are : eight eyes, forming two parallel 
lines, the upper being curved and longer. Lip wider 
in the middle, cut straight at its extremity. Max- 
illae inserted upright, not bent on the lip. Corselet 
nearly as large as the abdomen. The first pair of 
legs the longest, the fourth next, then the second, 
and the third the shortest. Manners, spiders form- 
ing an horizontal web, with a cylindrical tube, in 
the form of a funnel. 

This is sufficient to characterise the genus, contain- 
ing the different species of spiders, which inhabit 
cellars and dark places. The species that makes 
its web in the fields, on bushes, does not belong 
to the same genus ; it has been properly sepa- 
rated from it by Walckenaer. The last pair of legs is 
the longest in this, and the eyes differ essentially in 
their situation. There is another species, Aery com- 
mon in Carolina, which, however, 1 have not yet ob- 
served here, making a web nearly similar to this, 
hut very different in all its generic characters ; it 
ought not to, be taken for the other : I intend pub- 
lishing a description of the genus Aranea, in which 
this will form a separate section. Hut the charac- 
ters which 1 have given are sufficient to ascertain 
whether a spider belongs to the genus Tegeneria, so 
that with some attention, no mistake will occur. 



OF AMERICAN SPIDER. 55 

The species which I am treating; of, is of ar black 
colour, inclining to blue; the abdomen is marked 
with about ten livid pale spots, and a line towards its 
anterior extremity : 1 have seen specimens where the 
legs \\ ere marked with black spots. I think it ne- 
cessary to remark here, that spiders of the same spe- 
cies living in dark, places, vary greatly in their co- 
lours, according to the manner in which the light 
strikes upon them. The great point in this case I 
think, is to ascertain the genus, for it appears that the 
web of all species belonging to it, has the same 
virtues, and this is distinct from the Aranea Domes- 
tica, whose web has been used in Europe : we see 
an illustration of this in the genus meloe, where every 
species possess more or less the blistering power. 

The present American spider, I think, has not 
been as yet described : for the present I shall call it 
Tegeneria Medicinalis. — PI. V. fig. 1. 

a — organs of manducation. 

b — position of the eyes. 

Description of some new crystalline forms of tlie 
minerals of the United States. By Dr. G . Troost. 
—Read March 6, 1821. 

As yet but little attention has been paid to the 
crystalline forms of the minerals of this country, 
many of which have no analogies with those described 
by European crystallographers. Among this num- 
ber may be mentioned a variety of phosphate of lime, 
with the description of which, I have now the honor 
to present the Academy, and hope to continue the 



56 ON SOME NEW POBMS 

research by the examination of some others in my 
possession. 
1. Phosphate of Lime (unitctire.) Plate V. Fig. 3. 
The representative signs of these crystals with the 
indications of the principle angles, are, 

MBP 
MafP 

Inclination of M upon P 90° 
M upon M 120° 
a? upon P 140 47' 
x upon M 129 i3' 

The faces x being formed by the decrement of a 
single range of molecules, I have termed it Phosphate 
of lime (imiiaire) according to the nomenclature of 
Mr. Hauy. 

2. Phosphate of Ltme (unitave compressed.) 

The crystals are sometimes so much llattened or 
compressed, as to put on the appearance of an eight 
sided table with bevelled ed^es. In this case the two 
opposite faces of the prism M offer square surfaces 
at the same time that the faces P P, and four of the 
faces of the hexaedral prism are linear. 

Besides these two varieties there occurs in the same 
matrix, crystals of the primitive form, varying from 
one tenth of an inch to au inch ; as well as in rouuded 
pieces. Indeed nearly all the crystals present some 
of their edges rounded, and particularly the margins 
of the summits, so that they often have the appearance 
of hexaedral prisms terminated by rounded summits. 



CRYSTALS OF ZIRCON. 57 

The phosphate of lime is slowly soluble in nitric 
acid ; and occasions no phosphorescence when its 
powder is thrown on burning coals. 

It is found at St. Anthony's nose, near New York, 
in magnetic pyrites of a grey, sometimes bronze yel- 
low color. This ore is partly in a state of decompo- 
sition, having then the appearance of the brown 
oxide of iron, the crystals which occur in this part 
of the gangue have their edges generally blunted, 
which is not the case with those found in the un- 
altered pyrites; this would induce the belief that 
these crystals have been partly dissolved by the sul- 
phuric acid formed by the decomposition of the py- 
rites. The crystals found in that part have always 
a ferruginous color, while those in the undecomposed 
part of the ore, are of a blackish green color. This 
mineral, besides phosphate of lime, contains lamel- 
lar hornblende of a dark green, when in the unde- 
composed ore, and of a ferruginous color in the de- 
composed parts. 

ZIRCON. 

Some well determined crystals of zircon occur on 
the York road, near Philadelphia, exhibiting modi- 
fications of the present known forms, which I shall 
endeavour to describe. 

Zircon, (primitive form J Plate V. fig. 4. 

D1E12E2P 

Zircon pyramidal 1 

I s x P fig. 5. 



d8 ON SOME NEW FORMS, &C. 

The inclination of the different faces are 
I upon s 135° 
x e 142° 55' 

x P 150° 5' 

This variety which is one-fourth of an inch in 
length, is in the possession of Mr. John P. Wetherill, 
who found it in the place above-mentioned. The 
prism is composed of eight hexagonal faces termi- 
nated by pyramids of eight faces, the summits being 
replaced by four rhomboidal ones corresponding 
with the faces of the primitive octahedron. 

D ihE* 2 E*P 

Zircon fhisunitakej 1 

I u s x P pi. V. fig 6. 

The inclination of these faces are 
I upon u 159° 17' 
u P152° 8' 

x 1 142° 55' 

x P 150° 5' 

I s 135° 

This variety was found by Mr. Benjamin Say. 
The' faces u are sometimes so much extended as to 
make the faces of the pyramid almost entirely dis- 
appear. 

The gangue, in which these crystals are found, is 
a granite composed of partly decomposed feldspar, 
sometimes of a greenish color, and quartz, contain- 
ing besides the zircon particles of magnetic iron ore. 



59 

An account of the Arachnides of the United States. 
By Thomas Say. 
The following descriptions of the Arachnides of 
this country, which respire by means of trachea in 
the manner of insects, may be regarded as the con- 
tinuation of a series of essays, of which the " account 
of the Crustacea/' &c. is the first, on the vast orders 
of articulated animals ivith articulated feet, (Annu- 
losa of.Cuvier) natives of this country. As the na- 
ture of the journal precludes the introduction of old 
matter or known facts, I shall confine myself in its 
pages, to the description of such of these animals 
only, as appear to be unknown to naturalists, or to 
the elucidation of such, as from their obscurity, are 
not understood. 

subclass I CEPHALOSTOMATA. 

order 1st, PODGSOMATA. 

genus *ANAPHIA.f 

PI. 5. fig. 7.— a Trophi. 

Artificial Character. — Mandibles longer than the 
rostrum, first joint longer than the second; palpi 
none ; nails single. 

Natural Character. — Body very slender, com- 
posed of four segments bearing feet, and a small sub*- 
oval caudal process ; head prominent, not percep- 
tibly contracted behind, and consisting of a prolonga- 
tion of the anterior segment of the body ; eyes four, 

t From «, without, and «<p», tactus the touch. 



60 ARACHNIDES OF THE 

inserted on a common tubercle, upon the top of the 
head ; mandibles robust, didactyle, inserted at the 
extremity of the head, porected, parallel, two-jointed, 
longer than the rostrum, first joint elongated attain- 
ing the tip of th J rostrum ; hand abruptly inflected 
upon the tip of the rostrum ; rostrum porected, cylin- 
drical, truncated at tip, shorter than the body, and 
inserted beneath the first segment : palpi none ; feet 
eight, filiform elongated, slender; coxte three jointed, 
the middle one longest ; thighs one-jointed ; tibial 
two-jointed; tarsi two-jointed, the first very short: 
nails single, arcuated, capable of being inflected. 

Species. — A. ^pallida. Body whitish ; ocular tu- 
bercle acute at tip ; eyes sanguineous ; hands suboval, 
slightly hairy, not dilated, inflected vertically, and 
with the fingers, hardly more than two thirds the 
length of the preceding joint ; forgers arcuated, 
crosssing each other near the tip ; a small, rather 
acute tubercle at the base of the anterior feet (proba- 
bly the rudiment of the egg-bearing organ ;) coxot 
second joint clavate ; tibial first joint rather shorter 
than v tbe second. 

Length of the body 1-4 of an inch. 
x Span of the feet 1 1-2 inch. 

Inhabits the coast of South Carolina. 

Cabinet of the Academy. 

Of this new genus I found two specimens in the 
bay of Charleston, S. C. upon the branches of the 
Gorgonia virgulata, and as they have not the egg- 
bearing organs, I suppose them to be males. This 



UNITED STATES. 6i 

animal resembles Phoxichilus in being destitute of 
palpi, but (lifters from it in having didactyle mandi- 
bles and simple nails. In the form of the mandibles 
it resembles Nymphon and Ammothoea but the want 
of palpi distinguishes it from those genera, its pro- 
per situation is probably next to the genus Phoxichi- 
lus. It, unquestionably, is generically the same with 
Phalanghim aculeatum of Montague, (Trans. Lin. 
Soc. vol. 9, tab. 5,) which Dr. Leach, in the article 
Cmstaceology of Brewster's Encyclopaedia, refers to 
the genus Nymphon, but which, as far as I can dis- 
cover, he has omitted in his subsequent works. It 
will of course be a second species of this new genus. 

order II. POLYMEROSOMATA. 

family 3. SCORPIONIDE.E. 

Genus BUTHUS. Leach. Scorpio, Latr. 

Palpi brachiform, didactyle ; eyes eight ; abdomen 
terminated by a caudal process of six articulations, of 
which the terminal one is armed with a venomous 
aculeus. 

Species. — B. *vittatus. Fuscous, with three ful- 
vous vitta ; sides black. 

Inhabits Georgia and Florida. 

Cabinet of the Academy. 

Body above granulated, granules irregular, distant, 
three fulvous equal vitta, and an elevated, interrupted 
vertebral line ; sides black, rugose, beneath white ; 
thorax reddish brown, more scabrous before and be- 



33 ARACHXIDES OF THE 

hind, hardly marked by the vitta, subemarginate 
before) and. divided by a longitudinal impressed line, 
region of the dorsal eyes blackish ; palpi longer than 
the body, with granulated lines, carpus with three 
or four of the granules more conspicuous : hand sub- 
ovate, greatest diameter about equal to that of the 
preceding joint ; finders filiform, incurved, longer 
than the hand, reddish brown, furnished with nu- 
merous minute teeth ; feet paler than the palpi, mi- 
nutely granulated above and beneath ; caudal pro- 
cess colour of the palpi, longer than the body, with 
granulated costa, those of the penullimate segment 
not more conspicuous ; terminal segment subovate, 
slightly mucronate beneath the aculeus, the costal 
granulie minute. 

Length from tip of the palpi to tip of the caudal 
process, 1 inch and^-10ths. 

I found numerous specimens of this species on the 
sea inlands of Georgia and in East Florida, hyber- 
nating beneath the bark of trees. 

The wound inflicted by the puncture of their acu- 
leus, causes much pain and intumescence, but is rea- 
dily cured by the topical application of the volatile 
alkali. 

The species to which vittatus is allied, are the 
punctatus of Degeer and Jfanericanus of Linne. but 
according to Latrielle (v. Sonninis' Buffon) these 
are both spotted with brown, the caudal process of 
punctatus being of the length of the body and that 
of Jlmericanus three times the length of the body. 



UNITED STATES. 63 

It is, however, very possible that our species may 
be a variety of punctatus. 

Genus CHELIFER. Geoff, Leach. 

Palpi hrachiform, didactyle ; thorax with the first 
segment dtvided by a transverse indented line; eyes 
two ; mandibles short. 

Species. — 1. C. *mwricatus. Third joint of the 
palpi nearly three times as long as the second, linear, 
gradually a little attenuated to the base ; thorax mu- 
ricated. 

Inhabits North America. 

Cabinet of the Academy. 

Body ovate, narrowed before, rounded behind ; 
thorax black brown opake, gradually narrowed from 
the base to the tip of the mandibles, armed with nu- 
merous short, robust spines ; feet rufo- testaceous ; 
palpi rufous, basal joints subglobular, gibbous be- 
hind, third joint cylindrical, nearly three times 
longer than the second, armed with short rigid hairs, 
and gradually attenuated to the base, fourth joint 
shorter but somewhat larger than the preceding one, 
and gradually much attenuated to its base ; hand 
black-brown, above oblong- suboyate, laterally linear, 
fingers as long as he hand, paler, incurved and fur- 
nished with a few elongated, flexible hairs ; abdo- 
men above black brown, and with the feet furnished 
with minute, spinelike hairs, segments margined with 
obsolete pale testaceous. 

Length rather more than l-10th of an inch. 



64 ARACHNIDES OF THE 

Common in decaying wood, under bark, in houses, 
under stones, &c. 1 found a variety on the river 
St. John, in East Florida, of which the anterior por- 
tion of the abdomen and posterior part of the thorax 
is rufous. This species considerably resembles C. 
Hermanni of Leach, (Zool. Misc. vol. 3, p. 490 

2. C. *oblongus. Second joint of the anterior feet 
liardly twice as long as the first, rather larger to- 
wards the base ; thorax polished. 

Inhabits North A,merica. 

Cabinet of the Academy. 

Body oblong, sublinear; thorax reddish brown, 
polished, testaceous at base, rather abruptly attenua- 
ted from the middle to the tip, and with abbreviated 
Sexible Lairs, instead of spinules ; feet pale, testa- 
ceous ; palpi reddish- brown, with dilated, short 
joints, and furnished with numerous flexible hairs, 
second and third joints subequal, the latter rather 
shorter and' dilated in the middle; hands ovate, 
almost truncated at base ; fingers shorter than the 
hand* and with a few longer hairs ; abdomen above 
brownish, slightly hairy, polished, margins of the 
incisures testaceous. Smaller than the last. 

Occupies the same situations as the preceding. It 
bears considerable resemblance, in the form of the 
palpi, to the C. Geoffroyi of Leach, (Zool. Misc. p. 
00.) This species, as well as the preceding, are 
readily distinguishable from the Phalangium aca- 
roides of Linne, by the mutic antepenultimate seg- 
ment of the palpi. 



, }>\>uiL 1/VLI 



UNITED STATES. 65 

order 3. DLOMEROSOMATA. 
family 2. PHALANGIDE^E. 

genus PHALANGIUM. 

Body rounded ; feet elongated ; tarsi with nume- 
rous joints; mandibles salient much shorter than 
the body: eyes two, supported on a common tubercle. 

Species. 1 P. *vittatum. Whitish, with a dor- 
sal fuscous vitta ; terminal joint of the palpi not pec- 
tinated with spines. 

Inhabits the Southern States. 

Cabinet of the Academy. 

Body whitish, truncated and fuscous behind, a 
dorsal fuscous vitta from the clypeus to the cloaca 
and lateral fuscous line, above with dense, obtuse 
granules, beneath with distant ones ; three pro- 
foundly impressed lines before the middle, of which 
the anterior one is semicircular including the ocular 
tubercle, the intermediate one transverse, and the 
posterior one recurved ; ocular tubercle prominent, 
slightly contracted at base, crowned with from four 
to six more conspicuous, acute spines ; clypeus not 
elevated, concave beneath the obtuse tip ; feet, se- 
cond pair about fifteen times as long as the body ; 
tarsi capillary, articulations not contracted . 

Length, female nearly one-fifth of an inch. Male 
much smaller. 

The armature of the ocular tubercle is obsolete in 
the male, and in this sex there are generally two 

9 



i 



J 






* > 



66 ARACHXIDES OF THE 

whitish lines, drawn from the base of the ocular 
tuhercle to the tip of the clypeus, which are also 
sometimes visible in the female. 

I have not found these in coitu, but have consi- 
dered them of the same species, from their being as- 
sociated and sornewljat similar in form and markings. 

2. P. *dorsatum. Whitish, with a dorsal fuscous 
vitta, joints of the palpi armed with a series of spines. 

Inhabits the United States. 

Cabinet of the Academy. 

Body rounded behind, whitish, a dorsal fuscous 
vitta continued from the clypeus to the cloaca, and 
obsoletely punctured with whitish, a few submargi- 
nal, obsolete, irregular lines or spots; granules dense, 
obtuse, not prominent ; ocular peduncle prominent, 
contracted at base, slightly muricated before, obso- 
letely granulated ; clypeus not elevated ; palpi rather 
long, robust ; second, third, and fourth joints pecti- 
nated on the exterior edge with acute, distant spines ; 
fifth joint more densely pectinated on the iuner edge ; 
feet armed with minute distant spines ; coxce black- 
ish ; pectus with distant very distinct, obtuse gra- 
nules ; radical supports of the feet with a moniliform 
line each side in the incisures ; venter nearly gla- 
brous, granules indistinct; tergwn.not deflected. 
Length of the female one-fifth of an inch. 
Very similar in colour to the preceding, but suf- 
ficiently distinct by the spinulose palpi, kc. 

3. P, ^nigrum. Body ovate, blackish: clypeus 



UNITED STATES. 67 

prominent ; radical joint of the three anterior pairs 
of feet armed with a spine ; pectus and base of the 
feet white. 

Inhabits the Southern States. 

Cabinet of the Academy. 

Body ovate, a little dilated each side behind the 
posterior feet, blackish, with a few obsolete paler 
spots, above and beneath) above granulated, granules 
spherical, irregularly placed in somewhat reticulated 
lines ; ocidw tubercle destitute of spines, with obtuse 
granules ; clypeus prominent, somewhat elevated ; 
feet short, fuscous, whitish at base ; second pair 
hardly four times as long as the body, and, with the 
first pair, armed with a prominent, cylindric, obtuse 
spine behind the basal joint ; third pair with a similar 
spine before ; pectus whitish ; venter blackish. 

Length, female nearly one-fifth of an inch. 

A very distinct species, and not uncommon in the 
Carolina's and Georgia. 

4. P. *grandis. Body oval, covered with short 
spines ; ocular tubercle spinous ; feet rather short. 

Inhabits the Southern States. 

Cabinet of the Academy. 

Body oblong-oval, scabrous, with approximated, 
robust, short, acute, spinules ; rufo-ferugineous, two 
impressed transverse lines before the middle ; ocular 
tvibercle prominent, slightly contracted at base, 
crowned with numerous, robust, acute spinules ; cly- 
peus hardly elevated ; feet rather short ; pectus with 
numerous, minute, acute granules,: tenter with but few. 



68 ARACHN1DES OF THE 

Length, female nearly seven-twentieths of an inch. 
Much the largest species I have seen. 

genus GONYLEPTES. Kirby. 

YeH moderate ; tarsi from six to ten jointed ; man- 
dibles chelate ; maxillae none ; palpi unguiculated. 

Species. G *ornaturn* Ocular tubercle hardly 
elevated, unarmed ; . hind feet remote ; two erect 
spines behind. 

Inhabits Georgia and Florida. 

Cabinet of the Academy. 

Body ovate reddish-ferruginous, destitute of gra- 
nules, edge slightly contracted over the insertion of 
the fourth and fifth pairs of feet, two small acute tu- 
bercles on the middle of the disk, and Jwo large, 
prominent, erect, acute spines on the hind margin, 
no impressed line before the middle, an anterior ar- 
cuated yellow transverse line connected to a poste- 
rior undulated one by a yellow line which is crossed 
near the middle by two obsolete yellow bands ; ocu- 
lar tubercle slightly raised, unarmed ; distance be- 
tween the eyes much greater than their diameters, 
orbits black ; clypeus abruptly somewhat acute in 
the middle of the tip ; mandibles rather small, the 
fingers subequal, and crossing each other at tip; 
palpi robust, and when at rest concealing the man- 
dibles : penultimate articulation dilated on the exte- 
rior side and elongated and depressed; terminal joint 
half as long as the preceding, cylindrical ; terminal 
nail elongated, moveable, capable of being inflected ; 



UNITED STATES. 09 

feet short, not three times as long as the body, three 
anterior pairs before the middle, posterior ones be- 
hind the middle and remote from the others ; fourth 
and fifth pairs with double nails ; abdomen, segments 
with a series of equidistant, minute tubercles. 

Length, one- fifth of an inch. 

This remarkably distinct species, we first disco- 
vered on Cumberland Island, Georgia, and subse- 
quently many specimens occurred in East Florida, 
where it appears to be common. It is not an inha- 
bitant of the Northern States. 

family 3. ARANETDE^. 

Although I have a considerable number of descrip- 
tions of Araneides, which I think are new, yet, as. I 
am not sufficiently well acquainted with the species 
of this family, in their different ages, prudential mo- 
tives induce me to refrain from publishing them until 
further investigation shall qualify me for the task. 

order 4. MONOMEROSOMATA. 

genus TROMBIDIUM. 

Body consisting of a thorax and head united and 
distinct from the abdomen ; two anterior pairs of feet 
distant from the others ; eyes pedunculated, lateral ; 
palpi with a moveable appendice beneath their tips. 

Species. 1. T. *scabrum. Body ovate, broadest 
and very obtusely rounded before, pale reddish, mi- 
nutely scabrous, surface unequal, with numerous in- 



70 ARACHXIDES OF THE 

dentations, and with hardly perceptible hairs : tho- 
rax obtriangular, short; eyes white ;; feet whitish. 

Cabinet of the Academy. 

In forests, on trees, &c. not uncommon. 

2. T. *sericcum. Body oblong-subovate, broadest 
before, narrowing behind, densely covered with 
short, silken hair ; thorax elongated, sublinear, 
slightly contracted before the middle, and with a 
darker, central line above ; eyes white, placed in a 
transverse line ; feet paler, whitish. 

Cabinet of the Academy. 

Inhabits trees, in forests, under stones, &c. and is 
more common than the preceding. 

genus ERYTHR'JEUS. Latr. 

Body without division, the two anterior pairs of 
feet not distant from the others ; eyes two, sessile ; 
palpi conic, chelate. 

Species. E. *mamiUatus. Body ovate, granu- 
lated, reddish-yellow, with a marginal impressed line, 
edge thickened, a robust, obtusely conic, granulated 
spine on the anterior lateral edge, before the middle 
of the disk two indented punctures, a few distant 
hairs; eyes approximated, whitish ; mandibles gra- 
nulated, a rounded tubercle on each of the middle 
above ; jeet paler than the body, yellowish, with 
scattered hairs. 

Less than one-twentieth of an inch. 

Under bark of trees, &c. Georgia and East Flo 
fida. 



UNITE!) STATES. 7* 

genus GAMASUS. Latr. 

Mouth with mandibles 5 palpi prominent, very dis- 
tinct, filiform ; pulvilli at the apex of the tarsi.. 

Species. 1. G. *antmnwpes. Body ovate, ru- 
fous, somewhat narrowed before, hairy and coria- 
ceous ; edge of the abdomen membranaceous, white ; 
feet, anterior pair filiform, antennaeform, longer than 
the body, remaining pairs much more robust, sub- 
equal, posterior thighs tridentate near-the inferior tip ; 
origin of the palpi with five or six acute spines above. 

Cabinet of the Academy. 

1 have frequently observed this species, inhabiting, 
in considerable numbers, the body of Passalus cor- 
nidus. The fore feet are, as their slender appear- 
ance indicates, used as antennae to feel the w T ay, and 
not as feet to support the body. 

2. G. *spinipes. Body suboval, hirsute, rufous ; 
feet with rather longer distant hairs, second pair very 
robust, third joint armed beneath with a large, pro- 
minent, acute spine, which is nearly as long as the 
transverse diameter of the joint, compressed, slightly 
serrated on its anterior edge, and with an accessary 
tooth or two at its base, fourth joint with an obtuse 
tooth beneath, sixth joint with a robust spine before 
its inferior middle, first and third pairs unarmed, 
fourth pair dentate beneath the third and fourth 
joints. 

Cabinet of the Academy. 

Inhabits , 



72 ARACI1MDKS OF THE 

Remarkable by the prominent spine of the second 
pair of feet. 

3. G. *musculus. Body pale, oval, with scattered 
hairs more numerous each side ; feet paler, with a 
few hairs above, two anterior pairs distant from the 
others, anterior pair longest, second pair rather more 
robust. , ' 

An active little animal, found in great numbers on 
an anonymous species of Mus, which inhabits East 
Florida. 

4. G. *nidularins. Body oblong-oval, somewhat 
depressed, with a slightly elevated argin, and with 
scattered hairs, whitish with internal blackish clouds, 
and two impressed points in the middle of the back $ 
feet paler with a few hairs. 

Cabinet of the Academy. 
Less than one-fortieth of an inch. 
Inhabits Hirundo viridis their nests and young. 
I am indebted for specimens to Mr. Reynall Coates. 

5. G. *Juloides. Body oval, pale brownish, de- 
pressed, behind vesicular and whitish, the coria- 
ceous epidermis of the tergum terminating before the 
vesicular posterior margin in an emargination ; feet 
short and very robust ; jmlvilli dilated, very short. 

Cabinet of the Academy. 

I obtained several specimens from the body of 
Julus marginaius. I have also observed it on Poly- 
desmus Virginiensis. 



UNITED STATES. 7# 

genus 0R1B1TA. Lat. 

Body coriaceous, capitate or rostrated before, palpi 
and mandibles concealed within the mouth ; feet ter- 
minated generally by three nails, w ithout pulvillus. 

Species. — t. 0. *concent<ica. Black, opake; ter- 
gum concentrically lineated ; venter plaiu. 

Inhabits Pennsylvania. 

Cabinet of the Academy. 

Body spheroidal, black, opake, rounded before 
and carinated behind, invested with a brown epi- 
dermis; disk with about four elevated concentric cir- 
cles, connected by numerous interstitial elevated 
lines ; posterior carina crenate in compliance with 
the concentric lines ; head subtriangular, rugose ; 
oral aperture oval, closed by a valvular mentum 5 
eyes two, minute, brownish, elevated on an elongated, 
slender filiform peduncle ; orbits elevated, . rather 
large, placed near the base of the head above ; feet 
rather short, deep black, minutely granulated, ter- 
minated by three incurved nails ; venter plain, gra- 
nulated, valves of the cloaca somewhat lineated. 

" A rather common insect, it moves very slowly, and 
inhabits beneath the bark of trees. I have found it, 
most frequently, beneath the bark of the common 
Carya (Nuttall) tomentosa. 

2- O. *glabraia. Body glabrous, polished, globu- 
lar-oval black. 

Inhabits Georgia and East Florida. 

id 



74 ARACHNIDES OF THE 

Cabinet of the Academy. 

Body spheroidal, somewhat oval, glabrous, po- 
lished, black ; head longitudinally semi-oval : eyes 
sessile, near the base of the head each side, remote ; 
feet hairy, pale testaceous, subequal, shorter than 
the body. 

I found this species several times under stones, 
&c. It is sluggish in its movements, like other spe- 
cies of this genus ; when alarmed or in danger the 
feet are thrown forward together over the mouth, 
and the whole of the thorax is then deflected upon 
the anterior part of the body ; in this state the gene- 
ral form is a solid oval. 

genus EDELLA. Latr. 

Palpi elongated, terminated by setae ; rostrum 
j conic ; eyes four ; posterior feet longest. 

Species. — R. *oblonga. Body oblong-oval, bright 
red, paler in the middle and beneath, with a few 
scattered hairs ; rostrum nearly half as long as the 
body, with two or three pairs of stouter hairs ; palpi 
four jointed, resembling arms; first joint destitute of 
hairs and longer than the others conjunctly; second 
and third joints very short; fourth joint longer than 
the two preceding ones, attenuated towards the base 
and truncated at tip, with several short hairs and 
two terminal setse longer than itself, of which the 
inner one is rather shorter; feet hairy, subequal, 
pale, the posterior ones rather longer. 



UNITED STATES. 75 

Length rather more than one-twentieth of an inch. 
Found in Georgia, under stones, under hark of 
decaying, trees, £fc. in rather moist situations. 

genus IXODES. Latr. 

Palpi short, simple, valvular, forming with the 
haustellura a short rostrum; mandibles none ; feet 
with a pedunculated pulvillus and two nails ; eyes 
obsolete or wanting. 

Species — 1. I. *annulatus. Body oval, pale red- 
dish-brown, tinged with sanguineous, particularly 
behind, and with several longitudinal and oblique, 
black, abbreviated lines, scattered punctures, and 
three abbreviated, longitudinal impressed lines be- 
hind ; rostrum, with the palpi dilated, rather sud- 
denly contracted at base, and annulated more promi- 
nently beneath with about two elevated lines, which 
on the sides produce an angulated appearance, much 
shorter than the haustellum, rounded at tip ; haustel- 
lum, the two superior organs emarginate at tip, ex- 
terior division dentate beneath, inferior organ with 
numerous resupinate teeth resembling fenestrate 
punctures ; posterior to the origin of the palpi above 
is an orbicular, obscure assemblage of punctures re- 
sembling; eves ; black dorsal lines of the male some- 
what regular, consisting usually of a dorsal line di- 
varicating before, and behind, the middle, furnishing 
a branch each side, which at the tip of the abdomen 



76 ARACHNIDES OF THE 

is confluent with a lateral line, which also branches* 
olF in two or three short lines towards the feet ; feet 
with a short robust nail, and a reclivate pedunculated 
pulvillus and nails. 

Found in considerable numbers on a Cervus Vir- 
ginianus, in East Florida. 

2. I. *orbicidatus. Body nearly orbicular, slightly 
narrower before, punctured, ten or twelve longitudi- 
nal, abbreviated, impressed lines on the posterior 
margin, marginal impressed line none, two longitu- 
dinal indented lines before the middle; head trans- 
verse subquadrate, posterior edge very obtusely 
rounded, the posterior angles complying with the 
general curve ; palpi oblong, sublinear. 

Cabinet of the Academy. 

Found inhabiting Sciarus capistratus of the South- 
ern btates. 

3. I. *crcnatus. Body ovate, with distant deeply 
impressed punctures, posterior margin lobated by ten 
or twelve profoundly indented lines, which are abbre- 
viated by an impressed sub marginal line, which be- 
comes gradually obsolete before the lateral middle ; 
posterior edge crenulated ; thorax none, distinct; 
head, posterior edge transversely rectilinear, angles 
slightly arquated backward and rounded at tip; 
palpi oblong, sublinear and regularly rounded at tip. 

Cabinet of the Academy. 

Found in the Southern States, the colour is red- 



UNITED STATES. 77 

dish, sometimes slightly varied with whitish, parti- 
cularly behind, and the lobate divisions of the pos- 
terior margin are sometimes whitish above, and 
the disk is obsoletely lineated with black. 

4. I. *enaticu$. Body oblong-ovate gradually nar- 
rowed before, sides hardly arquated, with distant 
punctures, those behind more deeply impressed, pos- 
terior margin with ten or twelve impressed lines which 
are abbreviated by a sub marginal impressed line, two 
abbreviated lines before ; head, posterior edge trans- 
versely rectilinear, angles extended backward ab- 
ruptly, and subacute ; rostrum rather short ; palpi 
oval-orbicular. 

Found in the Southern States ; the colour is red- 
dish or ferruginous, with acute black lines. 

5. I. ^variabilis. Body oblong-ovate, gradually 
attenuated before ; sides hardly arquated ; a few re- 
mote deeply impressed punctures not more numerous 
behind ; posterior margin with about twelve im- 
pressed, abbreviated lines ; a lateral, impressed, 
punctured, submargiual line, obsolete behind ; two 
deeply indented, abbreviated lines before; head, 
hind edge rectilinear, angles abruptly a little ex- 
tended backward, acute ; rostrum rather short ; palpi 
ovate; colour reddish or ferruginous varied with 
white, incisures of the feet white. 

"Very much resembles the preceding in form'; the 
w 7 hite of the back is more or less reticulated, and the 



ABACHNIDES OF THE 

feet are white above, or only their joints. May not 
this be 1. lineatus, if so, my name must of course be 
rejected. 

6. 1. *punctulatus. Body oblong-ovate, gradually 
attenuated before, sides hardly arquated, crowded 
with impressed confluent punctures : thorax destitute 
of punctures, but with two impressed undulated 
lines : abbreviated lines of the posterior margin not 
deeply impressed, almost obsolete ; lateral submar- 
ginal line deeply impressed, obsolete behind : head, 
hind edge rectilinear, angles abruptly a little pro- 
jected backward, acute ; rostrum rather short ; palpi 
oval ; eyes distinct, impressed ; colour ferruginous, 
thorax white lineated or varied with ferruginous; in- 
cisures of the feet white. 

Considerably like the preceding. 

7- I- *scaj)ularis. Body red, with a few short 
whitish hairs; thorax blackish-red, well defined, 
with numerous punctures ; lergum, punctures spar- 
sate, and four or five blackish, obsolete, dilated radii 
on the disk; a deeply indented submarginal line: no 
abbreviated marginal lines behind ; edge rounded ; 
head beneath and above blackish, posterior edge rec- 
tilinear, angles abruptly projected backward, >ery 
short, acute ; eyes distinct, deeply impressed ; ros- 
trum slightly canaliculate above, paler than the 
head; feet blackisb-red, ciliate beneath, terminal 
joint reclivate near the tip on the anterior edge; oi i- 



UNITED STATES. 79 

gin of the anterior ones, armed behind with a large 
acute spine. 

Rather common in forests, and frequently found 
attached to different animals. 

8. I. *fuscous. Body fuscous, ovate, punctured ; 
ter%um with a few black, obsolete lines, and a pro- 
foundly indented submarginal line, posterior mar- 
ginal impressed line none; no distinct thorax ; edge 
rounded ; food* posterior edge rectilinear, angles not 
prominent beyond the rectilinear edge ; eyes not vi- 
sible ; palpi suboval, terminal joint rather longer 
than the preceding one. 

Cabinet of the Academy, 

A common species. 

genus HYDRACHNA. Mull Lair. 

Rostrum advanced, conic ; mandibles none ; palpi 
projecting, terminated by a moveable appendage ; 
body subglobular ; feet natatory. 

Species. — H. ^triangularis. Body white; eyes 
two, sanguineous ; tergu/m with a black triangular 
spot near the eyes, posterior portion black, with a 
white dorsal line terminating in the cloaca. 

The specimen, from which this portion of a de- 
scription was taken, I found in Unio cariosus, in 
which, possibly, it had adventitiously effected a 
lodgement. 



§0 ARACHNIDES OF THE 

genus LIMXOCHARES. Latr. 

Rostrum hardly prominent ; palpi incurved, sim- 
ple ; mandibles none ; feet natatory. 

Species. — L; *extcndens. Bndy ovate, red. mi- 
nutely lineated : tergum with a few indented points ; 
beneath, origin of the feet paler red : feet, second 
and third pairs ciliate with very fine and long hairs, 
posterior pair destitute of cilia. 

Length nearly three- twentieths of an inch. 

A common species, inhabiting stagnant pools, &c. 
in forests, and shady places. The posterior feet 
being destitute of cilia, are only useful in walking ; 
when the animal is swimming, they are extended 
behind, without distinct motion. The eggs are glo- 
bular, surrounded by a white gluten, and are deposi- 
ted on almost any object indifferently, from two kin- 
dred to three hundred in number, arranged some- 
what symetrically in parallel, rectilinear, or undu- 
lated series. I have found them about the middle of 
May. 



GENUS 



LEPTUS. iMtr. 



Feet six ; trophi forming a capitate body ; palpi 
conic, quadriarticulate ; an obtuse tube, subconic, 
advanced ; body soft. 

Species. — 1. L. *arcmen. Body oval, red, with 
short, distant hairs; head whitish, somewhat rounded. 



UNITED STATES. 81 

contracted at base and acute at tip ; palpi white, a 
little hairy, rather surpassing the tip of the head; 
tergum with a deeper red eye on each side over the 
interval between the anterior and second pairs of 
feet, anteriorly indented, and with two lines each of 
four or five indented points. 

Length one-thirtieth of an inch. 

Cabinet of the Academy. 

Of this species. I have found a specimen adhering 
near the base of the palpi of an Aranea 

The head-like process, is sometimes retracted so 
as to be not prominent, but is not long withheld in 
this position. The body is somewhat contractile, 
not perceptibly as regard its length, but in its breadth, 
by an irregularly undulated motion of the edge. 

2. L. *hispidtis. Body suboval ; head with a dis- 
tinct neck ; palpi more robust at base; feet elonga- 
ted, much longer than the body, filiform and fur- 
nished with numerous robust, incumbent, flexible 
setae, about twice the diameter of the leg in length. 

My Cabinet. 

I took no less than ten of these animals from a 
Phalangium, to which they adhered very strongly ; 
when feeding, they often are supported only by the 
rostrum and palpi, the body and feet being elevated 
go as to be sometimes perpendicular to the support- 
ing surface. 

11 



82 OX THE 1JLUE PHOSPHATE 

genus OCYPETE. Leach. 

Feet six ; mouth rostrated, porrected, with man- 
dibles ; palpi elongate-conic, with a moveable ap- 
pendage at base; body soft; eyes two. 

Species. — C. *comata. Body subtriangular. very 
obtusely rounded behind, hirsute, and narrowed by 
an arquated line to the rostrum; rostrum short, nar- 
rowed and emarginated at tip; posterior feet longer 
than the body, and with much longer hairs than those 
of the body. 

Inhabits several species of T'qnda. 

This is readily distinguishable from the 0. rubra 
Leach, by the elongated hairs of the feet. The spe- 
cimens in my possession, are so disposed that the 
trophi cannot be examined, I therefore refer them to 
this genus by analogy, drawn from habit, &c. 



Analysis oj the Blue Iron Earth of New Jersey, 
made at the School of Mines at Paris, in the year 
1819, by Lardxer Vanuxem. — Read, March 
13th, 1821. 

This is the same mineral that was examined by 
Judge Cooper, and an account of which was published 
by him in the first volume, (second series) of the 
Transactions of the Philosophical Society of Phila- 
delphia. He considered it to be an Hydrate of the 



OF I HON OF NEW JERSEY. 83 

Protoxide of Iron. The means which the Judge 
used were insufficient to shew the existence of Phos- 
phoric acid, which is one of its essential constituents. 
For a description of this mineral the reader is referred 
to the above work, and to the mineralogy of Professor 
Cleaveland. 

'This mineral was analysed as an hydrated proto- 
phosphate of Iron, a preliminary examination having 
shewn that it contained no other substances. 

A. 5 Grammes of the mineral were dissolved in 
nitro-muriatic acid with heat. Water was then added 
to dilute the liquor, and the iron was thrown down 
by ammonia, in union with the phosphoric acid ; the 
precipitate separated from the liquor by filtering was 
washed and calcined : the resulting liquor was set 
by for future examination. 

B. In order to decompose the ferruginous phos- 
phate, it was treated with three times its weight of 
caustic potash, at a red heat, in a silver crucible, the 
mixture was constantly stirred and maintained at that 
temperature for half an hour ; after cooling, it was 
diluted with water and filtered. As one fusion does 
not always free the oxide of iron from phosporic acid, 
it was again fused with another portion of that alkali, 
asrain diluted and filtered. The oxide of iron was 
well washed with water acidulated with acetic acid, 
to separate it from the potash, then dried and cal- 
cined. It weighed %A% grammes. As the iron in 



84 ON THE BLUE PHOSPHATE 

this mineral is in the minimum state of oxidation, the 
difference being eight per cent, the real quantity con- 
tained in it will be 2.227 grammes of Protoxide. 

C. To the liquor, from which the oxide of iron 
had been separated, nitric acid in excess was added, 
and boiled to expel the carbonic acid that might have 
united with the potash during its fusion, &c. Am- 
monia Was then added in excess which gave a slight 
precipitate having the appearance of alumine. It 
weighed, after calcination, 0.02 gramme 

D. The above liquor by the addition of muriate 
of lime gave an abundant precipitate of phosphate of 
lime which separated as usual by filtering and being 
calcined weighed 2.00 grammes. 

E. Supposing that the ammonia in the liquor A 
had decomposed a part of the phosphate of iron, it 
was examined as in C and D ; thus treated it gave 
0.21 gramme of phosphate of lime, making together 
2.81 grammes ; as this salt is composed of M parts 
of base, and 46 parts of acid, the quantity of phos- 
phoric acid will be 1.S926 grammes. 

F. To ascertain the quantity of water contained 
in this mineral, 5 Grammes were dissolved in nitric 
acid evaporated to dryness, and calcined to expel all 
the nitric acid. This was repeated a second time, to 
be certain that all the protoxide of iron was converted 



OF IRON OF NEW JERSEY. 85 

into peroxide. It weighed 3.78 grammes: as no other 
volatile matter exists in the bine iron earth but water, 
the quantity of it ought to equal this loss, (1.22 
grammes) and the difference between the protoxide 
of the mineral and the tritoxide obtained by the ana- 
lysis, which is 0.193 gramme ; together 1.413 
grammes. 

Hence we have for result, 

grammes or per ct. 



Protoxide of Iron . . 


2.2270 . 


. 44.54> 


Phosphoric Acid . . 


1.2926 . 


. 25.85 


Water ..... 


1.4130 . 


. 28.26 


xVlumine .... 


0.0200 ■ 


• 0.40 


Loss ..... 


0.0474 . 


. 0.95 



5.0000 100.00 
To show that the precipitate obtained with the mu- 
riate of lime, really contained an acid with a base of 
phosphorus, it was dissolved in nitric acid, then de- 
composed by oxalate of ammonia, which threw down 
the lime ; this product was removed by filtering, the 
liquor was evaporated to dryness, then calcined at a 
red heat in a platina crucible; nothing remained but a 
vitreous matter, slightly soluble in water, of an acid 
taste, and reddening litmus paper; it resembled 
glacial Phosplwric acid. This acid, exposed to a 
red heat with charcoal in a coated glass tube, gave 
Phosphorus ; hence, no doubt can exist as to this 
mineral being a phosphate of iron. 

Lately this mineral has been re-examined, with 



86 OX SEVERAL NEW SPEC IKS 

the assistance of Judge Cooper, in the laboratory of 
the College of South Carolina, in Columbia, with the 
same results. 



Descriptions of several neiv species of Cuttle-fish. 
Bead March 20, 1821. By C. A. Lesueur. 

Having observed many species of the class Ce- 
phalopoda, and being desirous to arrange them agree- 
ably to the new systematic distribution of this class, 
which Dr. Leach has published, (in the Journal de 
Physique for May, 1818,) I experienced much diffi- 
culty in disposing of one of my species. This spe- 
cies corresponds with those of his first order Octopo- 
da, by having eight arms, similar to those of the 
Eledona, &c. and with those of his second order, by 
the form, of the body, and the position of the fin, 
being similar to those of the species of the Genus 
Loligo. With these characters it ought to form an 
intermediate section, betiueen these two orders. 

Dr. Leach has appropriated the name of Octo- 
poda to those animals of this class, that have 
eight arms, and a body destitute of a fin ; and the 
name of Decapoda to such as are furnished with ten 
arms, and with fins which margin the body (or sac) 
entirely, or partially. 

The latter, constituting his second order, are in 
part referred to a family which he names Sepiidea 
and which is composed of the Genera Sepia and 



OF CUTTLE FISH. 87 

Lnhgo of Lam, and lie places the latter after the 
Sepia. 

But the characters which he assigns to this family, 
do not appear to me to harmonize with those of the 
genus Sepia of Lamark, of which the body is oval, 
short, sub-obtuse, furnished with tins throughout its 
whole length ; sustained by a very distinct, thick, 
sub-obtuse bone, which is sometimes armed with a 
spine posteriorly, is hard and solid towards the 
back, tender and cellular beneath, and is "composed 
of calcareous, very thin, parallel lamina, connected 
together by thousands of very small, hollow columns, 
which are jierpendicidar to their surfaces, (Cuv. 
Kegne Animal.) Are not these last characters suf- 

Jcient to distinguish and to separate entirely the 
& enus Sepia from that of Loligo ? inasmuch as this 
latter genus, on the contrary, has a body enclosed in 
a sheath, which is long^ cylindrical, subulate, nar- 
row, with the fins terminal, united or separate ; a 
very thin, feeble bone, which is often narrow, trans- 
parent, sometimes partially gelatinous^ this bone or 
cartillage, which belongs also to the Sepiola, appears 
to me to present a character which ought to approxi- 
mate the Loligos to the Sepiola, as Mr. Cuvier has 
done, (Regne Animal, t. 2, p. 361.) and which will 
not admit of the interposition of the genus Sepia, as 
in the arrangement of Dr. Leach. 

It may then be proper to establish a distinct family 
for the reception of the genus Sepia, to be distin- 
guished by the name given to it by Dr. Leach ; of 



88 ON SEVERAL NEW SPECIES 

Scpiidea, with the characters which Mr. Cuvier ha* 
assigned to the genus (Regne Animal, p. 305.) 
For there is good reason to believe, that when the 
species of the Mediterranean and the other seas, 
shall be more critically examined, that many species 
will be discovered, that will require new divisions to 
be made in this family, as well as in the present 
genus Loligo. 

It may also be proper to consider the Loligos as 
forming a separate family. It is of little consequence 
what characters we select for the distribution of these 
animals into families and genera, if our arrangement 
is the most convenient, and exhibits, as near as pos- 
sible, a gradual transition from one to the other. 

The order in which Mr. Cuvier arranged them.is 
very natural, he places the Polypus of Aristotle, ifie 
Eledona, the Loligo and the Sepia in succession ; 
and the new genus which I shall propose in this 
essay, may be readily intercalated in the series. 

If we observe the form of the body ; that of the 
fins, and their position ; the form and the number of 
the arms ; the disposition, the number, and the form 
of the suckers, their corneous circles either entire or 
divided, their detentations ; the arms which have 
these suckers regularly or irregularly armed ; in fine, 
those which have nails, either naked or covered by 
a membrane, upon the longer arms ; and those which 
have nails and suckers ; together with the form of 
the bone ; we shall then have characters sufficient 
for the formation of new divisions. 



0F CUTTLE FISH. 89 

A careful examination of all the species which 
exist in the cabinets, and which, from the general 
form of the body, are regarded as the same, would 
prove that many distinct kinds have been associated 
under one specific denomination. 

Thus I regarded the species described in this 
paper, from the collection of the academy, and that 
from the Philadelphia Museum, as specifically the 
same, with one of which I made a drawing at Sandy- 
bay ; but upon comparing them with each * other, 
they all proved distinct. 

In the following arrangement I have considered 
the form of the body, the number of the arms and 
their armature. To the family I apply the name of 
Loligoidea, of which the genera may be divided into 
those which have not long arms ; and those which 
have long arms, and finally, those which have simple 
nails ; those which have nails and suckers ; and 
those which have suckers only. 

family LOLIGOIDEA. 

Characters. — Body enclosed in a sac, which is 
elongated, narrow, cylindrical, subulate posteriorly ; 
fins terminal, united or separate ; bone very thin, 
more or less transparent, sometimes partially gelati- 
nous; arms as in the Sepia, with or without long arms. 

* Arms sub-equal. 

genus 1st, LEACHIA. 
Eight unequal arms, the third pair longer and 
more robust. 

12 



90 ON SEVERAL NEW SPECIES 

L. *cyclura. Terminal fin orbicular; head small : 
eyes large, prominent ; body coniform. 

Inhabits the Pacific Ocean. 

Total length from the extremity of the tentacula to 
the tip of the fin five and a half inches; bodv three 
inches ; tail one inch ; the long tentacula one inch 
and a half. The first pair of tentacula very short, 
second pair longer, third pair still longer and more 
robust,; inferior pair nearly equal to the superior 
ones : terminal fin orbicular, slightly embracing the 
tip of the body ; color, tentacula and superior portion 
of the head light blue ; body and tail tinged with 
bluish and red, irrorate with red points, ornamented 
with several irregular spots of a deeper red, and 
with remote, transverse, black, abbreviated lines, 
two large light brown, suboval, dorsal spots behind 
the middle, preceded by a black spot, and with a 
red one posteriorly. 

This description is taken from a drawing made by 
Mr. Petit, from a specimen obtained in the Pacific 
Ocean, in lat. 37° South, and long. 33° East. 

** Having long arms, furnished with suckers. 

genus 2nd, LOLIGO, Pliny. Lam. 
Fins, united, pointed at the base. 

Species. — 1. L. *Bartramii. Arms sub com- 
pressed, with a large membrane at their inner angles. 

The sac in this species is very firm, cyliudric to 
the base of the fin, where it contracts^and terminates 



OF CUTTLE FISH. 91 

in a point; fins united, entire, forming the third part 
of a circle, of which the center is the extremity of 
the tail, they are superposed, terminated each side by 
an angle, thick upon the posterior side, very thin and 
pellucid on the anterior: head cylindric, truncated be- 
hind, so as to enable it to close the sac ; neck on each 
side furnished with three small, rounded, compressed 
appendices, placed longitudinally ; eyes free in their 
orbit, of which the aperture is small, with an ante- 
rior lacrymal emargination ; uo membrane annexed 
to the orbit for covering the eye. Ten arms, fur- 
nished with suckers, which, on the extremity of the 
long arms, are disposed in four series, with the larger 
ones central ; the other eight arms have but two 
series, which extend from the base to the extremity. 
These eight arms are unequal, the first pair smallest ; 
second pair longer than the first ; third longer than 
the second, much compressed, and furnished with a 
large membrane interiorly and towards the anterior 
extremity ; the fourth and inferior pair, as long as 
the second, the suckers oblique, elevated on the ex- 
terior, and depressed on the interior side, armed with 
a corneous, denticulated circle, the peduncles of the 
suckers repose upon the base of the transverse ver- 
miform muscle, with which the interior lateral mem- 
brane is furnished ; the two long arms feeble, slightly 
compressed, dilated at their extremity, which is mar- 
gined on each side by an undulated membrane, and 
towards the superior extremity opposite to the suck- 
ers by another membrane ; beak concealed and co- 



02 ON SEVERAL NEW SPECIES 

vered by a folded sphincter, which is furnished with 
six very short appendices, hardly surpassing the 
folded membrane of the mouth ; bone very narrow, 
corneous, feeble, transparent, enlarged a little ante- 
riorly, gradually diminishing, cylindrical, and ter- 
minated by a small hollow cone posteriorly, mar- 
gined each side by two strong lines, in the middle 
by a single line ; color violet-blue, passing into pur- 
pleish on the back, head and tail ; a narrow, longi- 
tudinal, yellowish band on each side of the back ; 
sides of a pale blue ; beneath white ; brown points 
disseminated over all the body, but more numerous 
above, 

2. L. *Pealeii. This species, which appertains to 
the fine collection of the Philadelphia Museum, was 
politely confided to my care, for examination, by the 
manager of that interesting and superb establishment 
Mr. R. Peale. It appears to me, not referible to 
any of the species figured by Seba, nor of those pub- 
lished by Montfort. 

The sac is solid, firm, cylindrical, gradually at- 
tenuated to a point, and furnished with a flat appen- 
diee anteriorly ; fin terminal, more than half as long 
as the body, united in a point posteriorly, lateral 
angles rounded, lateral and posterior sides thickened, 
anterior side thin, surface with transverse striae, 
formed by small muscles ; head small, compressed, 
with a small transverse membrane each side below 
the eyes 5 neck small, short 5 eyes covered by a mem- 



OF CUTTLE FISH. 9S 

braue ; arms eight, of which six arc subtriangular, 
the two superior ones a little shorter than the second 
pair, which are equal to the inferior pair, third pair 
very strong, rounded, and depressed, longer than the 
others, furnished with a membrane at their exterior 
part ; all the arms furnished with two series of suck- 
ers, which are hemispherical, alternate and peduncu- 
lated ; the disks are obliquely truncated, most ele- 
vated on the exterior side, beneath indented for the 
attachment of the conic peduncle, they are armed 
with six horny brown teeth above, of which two su- 
perior ones are narrow and pointed, and the four 
others broader ; iuferiorly and upon the narrow side 
of the disk is a long, horny, brown lamina ; the two 
long arms, are subcylindric, dilated at their extre- 
mity, margined on each side by an undulated mem- 
brane, upon which the peduncles of , the suckers re- 
pose ; four series of suckers, of which the middle 
series are largest, and terminated at each extremity 
by smaller suckers ; disks hemispheric, transversely 
truncated, armed with a corneous circle, and having 
strong remote teeth, with two or three smaller inter- 
vening ones, in the central disks ; but I have not 
been able to determine the number of intermediate 
teeth in the lateral disks ; besides the thin lateral 
membrane, i lere is another thicker one, placed ob- 
liquely upon the enlarged extremity of the long 
arms ; the opening of the mouth, has three concen- 
tric folds, the exterior one of which is furnished 
with a much folded membrane, which is terminated 



94 ON SEVERAL NEW SPECIES 

by six small appendices, or false arras, furnished 
with several suckers at their extremities, the two in- 
feriour appendices shorter. 

The bone is broad, naviculiform, terminated in a 
point at each extremity, thin at the manrin, carina- 
ted, and a little more robust at the anterior extremi- 
ty, which is narrowest. 

The superior part of the head, of the teutacula and 
of the back covered with reddish-brown points, which 
are less numerous upon the sides and abdomen. 

Coast of South Carolina ? 



When Mr. Maclure and myself were at Sandy 
JBay in 1816, we saw a great number of Loligos col- 
lected by the fishermen, and held in reserve as bait 
for Cod-fish, which they catch in great numbers on 
the banks of Newfoundland. The beautiful color 
with which they were ornamented, induced me to 
take a drawing of one immediately, but not then hav- 
ing leisure to complete it, I took a specimen with me 
to finish the drawing at my leisure. But recently 
upon comparing this specimen with my drawing, I 
was much surprized to perceive that I had brought 
with me a very distinct species from that which I had 
observed. I mention this circumstance to explain 
the cause of the brevity of the following description, 
taken from my drawing. 



OF CUTTLE FISH . 95 

3. Loligo *illecebrosa. The body of this 
species is rather short, narrow, subequal anteriorly, 
terminated acutely posteriorly ; fins approximated at 
their origin, terminated in a point, and taken together 
rhombiform ; the two longer arms are narrow, dilated 
at their extremity, and furnished with two series of 
suckers, the eight arms are almost equal and provided 
throughout their whole length with two ranges of suc- 
kers 5 the arms are long, and with the head they mea- 
sure two-thirds of the length of the sac ; the bone is 
very narrow in the middle, dilated at each extremity, 
and terminated at the inferior tiy by a hollow invert- 
ed cone. 

Colors vivid and beautiful, passing from a brilliant 
red to a deep and clear blue, upon the back, the head, 
arms, tail, and fin, which are covered with deeper 
points of the same color, the under part of the body 
is paler, region of (the eyes finely tinted with yellow. 

This species is knowu by the name of Squid at 
Sandy Bay, and is made use of by the fishermen as 
bait in the Cod-fishery. 

4 Loligo *Bartlingii. Lateral arms compres- 
sed, and with the inferiorpair, furnished with a 
membrane upon all their exterior length. 

This species for which we are indebted to captain 
Bartling, who obtained it in the Gulf Stream, forms 
part of the collection of' the Academy. It differs 
from the preceding by its arms, which are generally 
longer, filiform at the extremity ; a broad, thin and 



96 ON SEVERAL NEW SPECIES 

softer fin is situated at the superior part of the 
tail ; its body also is larger. The hone presents a 
still greater difference, in being very much compres- 
sed at the base, and a little dilated at the opposite 
extremity. 

Color, deep blackish brown ; the four superior 
arms being very much compressed, have their inte- 
rior surface very narrow and destitute of a lateral 
membrane ; the suckers are very small and crowded, 
and seem to form but a single range, though in reali- 
ty they are disposed in two series and are alternate; 
the eight arms are furnished with suckers through- 
out all their length, and are unequal, the inferior 
ones being longest, and the others diminishing gradu- 
ally. The long arms, the extremities of which had 
been cut off by the fishermen, appear to have been 
very long ; suckers hemispheric, placed upon a short 
peduncle ; corneous ring, broad and mutic ; the body 
is inserted very deep in the sac, which renders it 
very free at the superior part; eyes free in their 
orbit, which is dilated, rounded, destitute of nictita- 
ting membrane, and furnished with a lachrymal 
emargination anteriorly; body, ba<k and tail co- 
vered with reddish brown points ; a slightly depres- 
sed line on the superior part of the sac. 

5. L. *Pavo. Sac much elongated, rounded ; 
eyes very large ; arms very short, depressed ; fin 
cordate, terminated in a point ; bone very narrow 
anteriorly, somewhat dilated posteriorly, and subge- 
latinous. 



QdUU-\w- 



OF CUTTLE FISH. 97 

This species is remarkable by its elongated, point- 
ed, and very soft sac; by its bone, which is sub-equal 
in its greater length anteriorly, and enlarged towards 
the base, where it is terminated in an obtuse point. 
The fins are united and oblong-cordate, entire at 
base, and reading from the sac, which is narrow, 
smooth, and, as well as the head and arms, covered 
on every part with very large ocellations, which are 
connected together by smaller intermediate ones. 
General colour, deep carmine-brown; head small; 
eyes large, prominent, and directed more forward 
than laterally; neck narrow, short; arms very short, 
furnished with two series of suckers, supported by 
narrow pedicles, which are fixed upon the margin 
•at the base of the membrane and towards the narrow- 
est side of the sucker, which is truncated very ob- 
liquely, the larger side being exterior, and the nar- 
rower interior; they are also distant from each other; 
the arms are destitute of lateral interior membranes; 
the large arms are thin. 

I have not been able to ascertain whether this spe- 
cies is armed with hooks or suckers. The tips of the 
small arms, as well as the greater portion of the 
larger arms, had been cut off by the fishermen; an 
operation which they perform upon all they capture, 
for fear of receiving injury from them. 

Length of the sac 10 inches. The figure repre- 
sents the animal half its natural size; it was a female, 
the oviduct of which was exserted and pendant, as 
represented in the plate; it is an aggregation of small, 

IS 



t> 



98 ON SEVERAL NEW SPECIES 

white globules, attached and sustained by a meih 
brane. 

Sandy-Bay, 1816. 

*** Having long arms, furnished with nails, with 
or without suckers. 

genus 3d. *ONYKIA. 

O. *Carriboea. — Arms eight, unequal; tentacula 
two, elongated, and armed near their extremity with 
suckers, and with corneous hooks, concealed, each 
in a membranous sac; fin truncated. 

Inhabits, amongst fuci, in the Gulf of Mexico, and 
in the Gulf Stream. 

Head rounded, short, crowned by eight arms and 
two tentacula; eyes large, lateral, and but little pro- 
minent, pupils black, iris blue; body enclosed in a 
sack, cylindric anteriorly, conic posteriorly, and 
terminated at this extremity by a sub -triangular fin, 
of which the inferior angle is truncated and rounded; 
the space between the origins of the wing which 
forms this fin is % lines long; their extent from one 
angle to the other, is 8 lines, their length is 6 lines: 
the diameter of the sack anteriorly 6 lines. 

The eight arms are, in all their length, each fur- 
nished with two series of suckers; the two superior 
arms are the shortest, being only 10 lines in length; 
the six others are 9 lines long; the tentaculae are one 
inch and an half long, and are armed at their ex- 
tremity with two series of incurved hooks, which al- 
ternate with suckers at their bases; the series of suck- 



OF CUTTLE FISH. 99 

- extend further towards the head, than those of 
the hooks. These curved horny nails are each cover 
ed by a membrane when at rest, which resembles a 
small pocket. The inferior arms are furnished with 
a small longitudinal natatory membrane upon their 
exterior side, and at their base; the lateral arms have 
also a membrane towards their extremity and above. 
Colour, as usual in the species of this family, vary- 
ing from a blue to a purple, or yellow, &c. 

Total length from the extremity of the tentacular to 
the tip of the fin, 3 inches. 

Head 5 lines; tentacular 1 inch and an half; body 
1 inch. 

Observations. — I have had for some time in my 
possession, a drawing of a Loligo, which was obtain- 
ed during a voyage from the Canary Islands to the 
Isle of France, in latitude 36° 40' south, and longi- 
tude 29° east. This drawing, which was executed 
by Mr. Petit, is very finely coloured; but as it is not 
sufficiently detailed, it was regarded as inadequate to 
establish the certainty of the existence of the species 
which it represented. All doubts, however, are now 
dissipated by our observations upon the species of 
the Gulf Stream, and by those recently published by 
Dr. Leach upon a species of the coast of Africa, 
Although Mr. Petit' s drawing is not calculated to 
exhibit minute characteristics, yet the following dif- 
ferential traits are remarkable. The hooks are but 
slightly curved, and destitute of suckers at their base, 
die fin is rhomboidal, prolonged to a point at the 



100 ON SEVERAL NEW SPCCIES 

extremity. To this species 1 have applied the name 
of O. Jingulatus. It has eight unequal tentacula, tho 
two superior ones shortest. Total length from the ex- 
tremity of the tentacular to the tip of the fin, 10 inches; 
body 5 inches; head very small, 8 lines long; the two 
superior tentacula 1 inch and 9 lines; the long tenta- 
cula 5 inches. 

Sepiola cardioptera. Peron. 

Peron has left no description of this species, which 
we saw in latitude 31° south, and longitude 48° east; 
the species appeared to belong to the genus Sepiola, 
and perhaps even to the unguiculated ones. The habit 
of living in many seas, amongst the fucus which floats 
upon the surface of the waters, is similar to that of 
the Gulf Stream, which is furnished with horny nails 
upon the long arms, as described above. 



Observations. — I subjoin the names of the spe- 
cies that Peron and myself observed in New Hol- 
land, in order to note their existence. I have sent de- 
scriptions of them to France. 

Peron designated them by the following names: 

1. Sepia sepiola. Peron. Very small. 

Inhabits the coast of Endrach, in New Holland. 

As this species does not appear to be the sepiola of 
Lin. 1 propose for it the name of minima, as it is very 
small. 



OF CUTTLE FISH. i 01 

Family of Sepiedka. Leach. 

3. Sepia octopa. Peron. Very small. 
Inhabits the island of Dorre, Shark Bay. 
Tiiis species can hardly be the octopus of Lin. I 
propose, therefore, the name of Peronii for it. 

3. Sepia rugosa. Bosc. — 1 do not think that our 
species is the same with that described by Bosc; I 
therefore propose for it the name of that naturalist; 
Boscii 

4. Sepia varietas. Peron. 
Inhabits the small island of Dorre. 

The shores of King's island were covered with 
Sepiae, many of which were living. We there obser-. 
ved also many groups of their eggs. 

REFERENCE TO THE PLATES. 

Plate 6. Leachia cyclura. 
Plate 7. Lol.igo Bartramii. 

fig. 1. lateral view. 

M 2. dortsal view. 

" a. b. sections of the arms magnified, exhibiting front, 
and lateral views of the suckers. 

" c. a portion of the skin of the body magnified. 

" d. beak. 

" e. bone. 

" f. transverse section of the boire. 
Plate 8. Loligo Pealeii. 

fig. 1. dorsal view. 

" 2. side view. 

" a. bone — front view. 

" b. bone — side view. 

" c. beak, sphincter, and appendices. 

" d. d d. suckers, magnified 
Plate 9. fig. 1. Onykia Carrib^a, dorsal view. 

" 2. do. do. lateral view. 

" a. b. bone — profile, and front views. 

" c. transverse section of the bone. 

" d. extremity of one of the long arms magnified. 

" e. hook and sucker, magnified. 

"" 3. Onykia Angulatus. 



102 DESCRIPTIONS UP THE MYRlAPOi 

Descriptions of the Myriapodce of the United States. 
By Thomas Say. Read November 21st, 1820. 

class MYRIAPODA. 
order 1. CII1L0GNAT1IA. 

genus JULUS. 

Body serpentiform, cylindrical ; antennae inserted 
on the anterior margin of the head, second joint long- 
est, terminal one minute ; eyes distinct ; feet many. 

Species. 1. J. fimpressus. Brown, a series of 
lateral black dots, beneath yellowish white ; ulti- 
mate segment mucronate. 

My Cabinet. 

Body cylindrical, immarginate, abo\e brownish, 
beneath yellowish -white appearing glabrous; seg- 
ments each with a lateral black spot, whitish lines 
and dots sometimes obsolete, a transverse series of 
longitudinal abbreviated obsolete impressed lines, 
and beneath the stigmata with impressed, more 
distinct ones, ultimate segment mucronate, spiracles 
not prominent ; eyes rather large, conspicuous, black ; 
labium yellowish white ; antennce brownish. 

A common species inhabiting under stones, and in 
humid situations, a variety occurs with a very distinct, 
•acute^ longitudinal, dorsal line, and variegated head. 

2. J. *punctatw. Body brownish, with an impress- 
ed dorsal line, impressed white dots and spots, ulti- 
mate segment unarmed. 

My Cabinet. 



OF fHE UNITED STATES. 103 

Body cylindrical, i in margin ate, above dark brown, 
glabrous, au obsolete, dorsal, whitish, slightly im- 
pressed, acute line; segments each with a white dot 
on either side above, and a larger transversely oblong 
lateral one, which is gradually more completely bi- 
sected on the posterior segments into two distinct 
dots, which on the terminal segments resemble the 
dorsal ones, ultimate one abruptly narrower than 
the preceding and truncated, anterior segments at- 
tenuated to the head, which is wider than the ante- 
rior one, anterior segment as long as the second and 
third ones conjunctly ; spiracles somewhat promi- 
nent ; eyes very distinctly granulated, sub triangular, 
black ; head dark-brown, labrum white. 

Inhabits the same situations, and is similar in gene- 
ral form to the preceding species, but is less common 
and rather smaller. The dots, spots and lines are 
for the most part slightly impressed. 

3. J. *annulatus. Body with numerous, elevated ? 
obtuse lines, of which four are above the stigmata ; 
ultimate segment glabrous, unarmed. 

Inhabits the southern States. 

My Cabinet. 

Body cylindrical, immarginate, above brownish 
with a slight tint of red, immaculate, beneath yellow- 
ish white ; segments each with about fifteen elevated 
obtuse lines, of which four are equal dorsal, a pyri- 
form, larger, oblique one. on the stigmata, and about 
ten decreasing in size to the feet, anterior segment 



104 DESCRIPTIONS OF THE MVRIAPOD.L 

as long as the three succeeding ones conjunctly and 
glabrous, posterior one glabrous reddish brown, as 
long as the two preceding ones, united and obtusely 
rounded at tip ; head whitish before : antennce white ; 
eyes transverse linear, black; vertex not distinctly 
impressed. 

A rather common species in the southern states, 
inhabiting with the preceding and in decaying wood. 

4. J. *lactarins. Body fuscous with a rufous dor- 
sal line, numerous elevated lines, of which about fif- 
teen are above the stigmata, ultimate segment un- 
armed. 

My Cabinet. 

Body cylindrical, above fuscous, with a dorsal 
rufous vitta and an obsolete one each side; beneath 
yellowish white ; segments each with numerous, ele- 
vated, longitudinal lines, of which about fourteen are 
above the sigmata and about fourteen below, becom- 
ing smaller to the origin of the feet, line of the stig- 
mata geminate, anterior segment as long as the se- 
cond and third conjunctly, and glabrous on the anteri- 
or half, posterior segment not so long as the two pre- 
ceding ones united, widely rounded at tip ; head 
glabrous; antennce reddish-brown ; eyes triangular, 
granulated, deep black. 

Not uncommon under stones &c. and when irritated 
discharges a lacteous globule from the lateral portion 
of each segment, diffusing a strong and disagreeable 
odour. 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 105 

.7. J. *marginatus. Body cylindric glabrous, 
blackish, segments with a rufous margin ; ultimate 
segment unarmed. 

My Cabinet. 

Body cylindric, glabrous, polished, blackish, be- 
neath pale reddish ; segments margined behind with 
rufous, anterior segment as long as the three 
succeeding ones conjunctly and entirely margined 
with rufous, second segment slightly, and obtusely 
angulated at the lateral tip of the anterior one, ulti- 
mate segment as long as the two preceding ones united 
narrowed to the tip which is rounded ; head with an 
impressed line which is obsolete on the front ; labrum 
pale, deeply and widely emarginated at the tip, with 
a submarginal, infracted series of ten or twelve 
punctures furnishing hairs, tip ciliated, reddish, ob- 
soletely dentate. 

Length more than three inches. 

A very large species inhabiting decaying wood, &c„ 
when irritated it diffuses an odor like, that of muriatic 
acid, and is infested by Gamasus Juloides. It varies ■ 
in colour; the margin of the segments and all beneath 
are sometimes white, toe ultimate segment is some- 
times almost acutelj angled at tip, and there is a dis- 
tinct lateral series of black dots. 

6. J. *pusillus. Body with a lateral series of 
black spots, terminal segment unarmed. 
Inhabits the middle States. 
My Cabinet, 

14. 



106 DESCRIPTIONS OF THE Mi'RlAFODA 

Body cylindrical, immarginate, above pale, obao- 
letely reticulate, and varied with reddish; a lateral 
series of large black spots, numerous longitudinal, 
parallel, impressed, acute lines beneath the stigmata 
becoming gradually shorter to the origin of the feet: 
beneath whitish ; head white beneath the antennae ; 
antennce two joints preceding the last somewhat di- 
lated, not attenuated at their bases, nor separa- 
ted by a contraction ; eyes black, longitudinally 
sublimate; idtimate segment unarmed, longer than 
the penultimate one, rounded at tip and blackish. 

Length nearly half an inch. 

Resembles J. impressus in the character of lateral 
impressed lines, but is distinct by the unarmed termi 
nal segment ; I found it rather common on the East- 
ern shore of Virginia under the bark of Pinus varia- 
bilis. 

Genus POLYDESMUS, Lair. 

Body elongated, linear depressed, segments with 
a prominent margin ; ejes obsolete ; feet many ; an 
tennse, second joint shorter than the third. 

Species. 1. P. *serratus. Segments with a dou- 
ble transverse series of slightly raised squamifoTm 
elevations. 

My Cabinet. 

Segments depressed above, with four minute ser- 
ratures each side, first segment transversely oblong 
oval, somewhat angulated on each side behind, second, 
third and fourth segments with but three serratures. 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 107 

first rather longer than the second, and with a single 
obsolete serrature near the posterior angle, each seg- 
ment with a double transverse series of twelve slight- 
ly elevated, squamiform divisions, anterior segment 
with but a single series; head glabrous, an impressed 
longitudinal Hue on the vertex ; antennce, feet and 
terminal segment hairy; colour, above reddish -brown, 
beneath yellowish white. 

Common in similar situations with the preceding. 

Julus Virginiensis of Drury, is also rather com- 
mon, it appears to be synonymous with /. tridentata 
of authors. I have found specimens double the usu- 
al size, in the southern States. It seems also to va- 
ry in having only the second joint of the feet mucron- 
ate, and in being destitute of the robust ventral spines 
between the feet. 

%. P. *granulatus. Segments granulated, granules 
subequal, arranged in four series. 

My Cabinet. 

Body with short hair, pale tinged with red be- 
neath, and feet paler ; head dusky with short dense 
hairs ; labrum whitish ; segments somewhat convex, 
granulated, granules rounded, or longitudinally ob- 
long-oval, elevated, obtuse, approximate and arran- 
ged transversely in about four nearly regular series, 
anterior segment transversely oval, narrower than the 
head or second segment ; stigmata elevated. 

Found in Pennsylvania, 



108 DESCRIPTIONS OF THE BIYRIAPODJE 

Genus POLLYXENUS, Latr. 

Body membranaceous, pennicillate with setae at 
tip ; antennae inserted under the anterior margin of 
the head. 

Species. P. *fasciculatus. Body pale brown, 
linear, incisures ciliated, fasciculated each side; 
head deeply ciliated before. 

Inhabits the Southern States. 

Segments smooth, ciliatc at the incisures and fas- 
ciculate with brown setae each side, terminal pencil 
cinereous ; head semiorbicular, depressed, deeply 
and densely ciliated on the edge with setae; eyes 
small, oval, prominent, placed obliquely in the middle 
of the lateral margin ; antennce very short, thick 
reddish-brown ; feet white. 

Length rather more than one tenth of an inch. 

Beneath stones &c. in humid situations, not very 
common. 

Orbe* 2. SYNGNATHA, 

Genus LITHOB1US, Leach. 

Antennae conico-setaceous ; dorsal scuta alternate- 
ly much shorter and concealed. 

Species. L. *spinipes. Joints of the feet with 
short spines at tip, and a single much longer one 
beneath the tips. 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 1(J9 

My Cabinet. 

Body chesnut brown, polished, impunctate. with 
short sparse hairs ; segments with reflected lateral 
edges, first one shortest, transverse, the second quad- 
rate with rounded angles, five or six posterior ones 
each narrowed behind and emarginate on the hind 
edge, the posterior angles of those near the caudal 
segment more acute, caudal segment truncate conico- 
cylindric; antennce pale testaceous, with dense, very 
short, rigid hair, terminal joint as long as the two 
preceding ones conjunctly; feet pale testaceous, 
joints spinous at tip, an elongated spine at the tip of 
each beneath, anterior pair shortest, posterior longest 
and more robust; labium longitudinally indented, 
impunctate, teeth of the tip black. 

Length, more than one inch. 

Very common under stones &c. The specimeu 
from which this* description was taken has but thirty 
joints to the antennae. 

Genus CERMATIA. 

C. coleoptrata, Villiers. Is an inhabitant of the 
Southern States; we observed it both in Georgia and 
East Florida. It is probable, that, like a vast num- 
ber of the insects now common in our country, it has 
been introduced by our shipping from abroad. 

Genus SCOLOPENDRA. 

Antennse conico-setaceous ; dorsal scuta subequal : 
eyes, four each side, hemispherical. 



11U DESCRIPTIONS OFTHB MYR1AP0DJE 

Species. 1. S. *marginaia. Body obscure oil 
vaceous green ; segments margined with dark green: 
head castaneous. 

Inhabits the Southern States. 

My Cabinet. 

Body obscure olivaceous green, beneath whitish 
or fulvous ; segments impunctured, margined each 
side and behind with black-green, first, third, and 
fourth shortest, five or six terminal ones more dis- 
tinctly margined; head chesnut colour; antennce green; 
feet pale, tipped with blueish green, uails blackish ; 
posterior Jeet hardly longer than the three terminal 
segments of the body conjunctly; length of the joints 
hardly equal to double their breadth; first joint spi- 
nous beneath and within, and armed with an acute, 
strong, projecting angle at the tip. 

Length more than two and an half inches. 

Rather common in Georgia and East Florida; it is 
also found in the West Indies, but does not occur so 
far north as Pennsylvania. 

2. S. *viridis. Body blueish green; base of the 
feet and all beneath, whitish. 

Inhabits Georgia aud East Florida. 

My Cabinet. 

Body above blueish green immaculate; posterior 
segments margined with pale yellowish; mandibles 
yellowish- white; feet whitish at base, terminal joints 
pale blueish-green, posterior pair pale yellow. 

Length, about two inches and an half. 



OF THE UNITED STATES. ill 

I have not known this species to inhabit so far 
north as Pennsylvania. 

genus CRYPTOPS. Leach. 

Anterior edge of the labium not denticulated, hard- 
ly emarginate; eyes obsolete; posterior pair of feet 
longest, basal joint unarmed. 

Species. 1. C. *hyalina. Body much depressed, 
white, with a double blackish internal line; hind feet, 
with the third joint five toothed. 

Inhabits Georgia and East Florida. 

My Cabinet. 

Head reddish-brown polished, impunctured, with 
scattered hairs, no impressed clypeal line; antennce 
reddish-brown hirsute, joints sessile, cylindric, termi- 
nal ones rounded; body white, polished, two black in- 
ternal lines, a few sparse hairs, impunctured ; feet 
with a few hairs; posterior feet reddish-brown, first 
joint not so long as double its breadth, and, with the 
second joint, armed with numerous short rigid setae, 
with an indented line above, third joint four or five 
toothed within, fourth joint about two toothed. 

Length three-fifths of an inch. 

Numerous specimens of this species occurred be- 
neath the bark of a decaying Live Oak (Q. virens) 
on the river St. John, East Florida. The appear- 
ance of the posterior feet approximates it to Scolopen- 



112 DESCRIPTIONS OF THE MYfclAPOD 

dra; but the eyes exclude it from that genus, as the 
number of feet does from Lithobius. 

S. C. *sexspinosa. First joint of the posterior feci 
two spined. 

My Cabinet. 

Body reddish-ferruginous, punctured; second seg- 
ment shortest, then the fourth and sixth, terminal one 
indented at tip, and armed beneath with a double, 
prominent, robust spine; antennae with very short 
dense hair, joints oval, separated by a very short 
peduncle; feet, two moveable short spines at the ex- 
terior tip of the fourth joint, fifth joint with one be- 
yond the middle and one at tip; posterior feet, the 
base beneath a conspicuous, elevated, compressed, 
acute, sub-triangular spine, and a smaller one on the 
inner side above, nearer the middle. 

Not uncommon in decaying wood. It varies in 
being impunctured beneath. 1 have a fortuitous va- 
riety, of which the antennae are clavate and five- 
jointed. 

3. C. *postica. Terminal segment of the body 
longest; posterior feet very short and robust. 

Inhabits Georgia and East Florida. 

My Cabinet. " 

Body rufous, paler beneath, punctured ; segments 
with two impressed, longitudinal lines above, and a 
deeply impressed one beneath; ultimate segment long- 
er than the two preceding ones conjunctly, with two 



OF THE UNITED STATES, ii# 

obsolete impressed abbreviated lines at base, and an 
intermediate more distiuct continued one ; posterior 
feet remarkably robust, hardly longer than the ulti- 
mate segment ; nail very robust, as long as the two 
preceding joints conjunctly. 

A very remarkable species, distinguished at once 
from all others, by the very thick and short posterior 
pair of feet, the nails of which cross each other, and 
are much used by the animal in its defence. 

Genus GEOPHILUS.- r~". V * ° 



r 



Posterior pair of feet not remarkably longer than 
the others ; eyes obsolete. 

Species. 1. G. *rubens. Body attenuated be 
fore and behind ; terminal pair of feet hardly longer 
than the preceding pair. 

My Cabinet. 

Body broadest in the mid die, impurtctured, red, with 
short hairs more numerous on the antennae and feet ; 
segments with tw longitudinal impressed lines, and 
a transverse acute one near the base of each, ultimate 
segment somewhat longer than the preceding, nar- 
rowed and rounded at tip ; head beneath, with a 
blackish spot each side at the base of the mandibles, 
and another at base of the terminal joint 5 labium 
with a profound fissure, not dentated ; antermce, ter- 
minal joint longer than the preceding ones, and of 
equal diameter, not attenuated ; feet subequal. 

Very common in decaying wood, under stones, &c. 
15 



Ill NEW SPECIES OE PLANTS. 

2. Cr. *attenuatus. Body attenuated from tin 
head, posterior i'cet longer than the others. 

Inhabits the Southern States. 

Body broadest before and gradually attenuated to 
the tail, reddish-brown, with a few hairs : head and 
base of the mandibles above punctured : antenna 
setaceo filiform, with numerous short hairs ; feet 
paler than the body, posterior ones longer than the 
others. 

Found under stones, &c. 



A Description of some new species of Plants, recently 
introduced into the gardens of Philadelphia, from 
the Arkansa territory. By Thomas Nuttall. 
Read, August 7th, 1821. 

1. Coreopsis *tinctoria, foliis radicalibus pseudo- 
bipinnatis, foliolis subovalibus iutegris glabris, supe- 
rioribus pseudopinnatis laciniis linearibus; iloribus 
binatis ternatisve; calicibus exterioribus brevissimis* 
radiis bicoloribus; seminibus nudis immarginatis. 

Habitat. Throughout the Arkansa territory to 
the banks of Red river, chiefly in the prairies which 
are subjectto temporary inundation. — Flowering, from 
June to October. 

Description. Annual and biennial, stem erect, 
smooth, and much branched, extremely variable in 
magnitude, being from one to live feet high. Th< 



NEW SPECIES OF PLANTS. 115 

leaves, in common with the genus, are somewhat thick 
and succulent, the primary ones simple, radical pseu- 
dobipinnate, the segments also occasionally pinnate, 
oblong-oval, commonly smooth, and entire, the ulti- 
mate divisions largest. Flowers often terminating 
the branchlets by pairs, with the peduncles unusually 
short. Exterior calix, minute, much shorter than the 
interior, and in common with it, and the number of 
rays mostly eight-leaved. Rays three-lobed at the 
extremity, of a bright orpiment yellow and brown to- 
wards the base; disk brown, and rather small. Re- 
ceptacle paleaceous, the leaflets deciduous. Seed 
small, blackish, immarginate, curved, and naked at 
the summit. 

Economical Use. The flowers of this species af- 
ford a yellow dye, in common with those of the C, 
senifolia. 

As an ornamental plant, of easy culture and un- 
common brilliance, it promises to become the favour- 
ite of ewy garden where it is introduced. 

2. Helianthus *petiolaris, animus; foliis alternis 
ovatis acutis integriusculis, longissime petiolatis sca- 
bris; caule erecto ramoso; floribuslongcpedunculatis; 
seminibus villosis. 

Habitat. On the sandy shores of the Arkansa. 
Flowering in August. 

Description. Annual, and with the stem much 
branched from the base. Leaves mostly alternate, 
ovate, or ovate- lanceolate, and somewhat undulated. 



116 NEW SPECIES OF PLANTS. 

produced upon petioles of an extraordinary length, 
rather small, and as usual scabious and three-nerved, 
appearing somewhat shining and almost destitute of 
serratures. Peduncles solitary, also of great length. 
Segments of the calix, linear-lanceolate, acute; leaf 
lets of the receptacle mostly three-toothed. Rays 
of the flower numerous, bright yellow, the disk dark. 
Seeds small, and spotted, covered with a silky and 
fulvous down. 

This curious species, so readily distinguished at 
the first sight, is an ornamental annual of easy cul- 
ture, remarkable for the smallness of its leaves, and 
the length of their petioles. The flowers are about S 
or 4 inches in diameter, and the stem low, with 
spreading branches. 

8. Aster *graveolens, viscosus; caule pumilo ra 
mosissimo recurvato rigido; foliis crebris consimilibus 
lineari-oblongis acutis subamplexicaulibus integerri- 
rais; ramulis exsertis uuifloris; calicibus squarrosis. 

A. oblongifolius. Nuttall's Genera, 2. p. 136. 

Habitat. On the shelvings of rocks, on the banks 
of the Arkansa and Missouri. — Flowering time, from 
August to December. 

Descriptive observation. Perennial. Stem 
about a foot high; under cultivation more than double 
that altitude, its texture somewhat woody below, and 
very brittle, the main branches are commonly recur- 
ved, and very copiously and regularly sub-divided 
so as to form a roundish annual bush of an almost 



NEW SPECIES OF PLANTS. 11? 

even contour. The leaves are somewhat crowded, 
and similar in appearance, covered with a minute and 
viscid pubescence, communicating to the plant a strong 
and somewhat balsamic odour, very similar to that of 
Gnaphalium amcricanum. The rays of the flow- 
er are of a violet blue, and the disk yellow. 

This is a very elegant, hardy, and ornamental 
perennial, decorating the gardens with a profusion of 
flowers at a season when all the others are generally 
destroyed by the frosts. 1 have altered the unmean- 
ing name, which I had first bestowed from the in- 
spection of an imperfect specimen. 

— B. Subgenus Phrygia. 

4. Centaurka *americana, annua; caule praealto 
parcfc ramoso, sulcato; foliis sessilibus, inferioribus 
oblongo-ovatis repando-denticulatis, superioribus lan- 
ceolatis acutis; pedunculis apice incrassatis; folio- 
lis calicinis ovalibus appendiculato-pennatis recur- 
vatis. 

Habitat. On the banks of streams, and in denu- 
dated alluvial situations, throughout the plains or 
prairies of the upper part of Arkansa territory. — 
Flowering time, July and August. 

Descriptive observation. Stem 4 to 6 feet 
high, smooth; leaves a little scabrous when dry. The 
calix is large and partly globular, its segments fur- 
nished with pennate, recurved, sphacelous, and shi- 
ning appendages, the internal ones purplish. Rays 
of the flower very long, and tinged with red. Recep- 
tacle copiously pilose; the seed also furnished with thf 



1.18 NEW SPECIES 01 PLANTS. 

usual unequal pappus. This species appears scarcely 
distinguishable from C. ausiriaca. Like most of the 
genus, it is a hardy annual, or biennial. 

5. Donia *ciliata, foliis oblongis obtusis subam 
plexicaulibus ciliato-serratis: laciniis calicinis lineari- 
bus planis seto acuminatis; caule herbaceo. 

Habitat. On the alluvial banks of the Arkansa, 
and Great Salt River. — Flowering time, from August 
to October. 

Descriptive observation. Biennial. The whole 
plant smooth and shining, with the calix less resin- 
ous than in D. squamosa, the segments not fili- 
formly reflected, and the receptacle partly paleaceous. 
The serratures of the leaves are somewhat distant, 
and obtuse, but setaceously pointed as in Carthamus 
thidorius. Each branch and branchlet, as in the 
other species, is terminated by a subsessile flower. 

There are few more desirable ornaments for the 
autumnal flower garden than this and No. 3. The 
flowers are large and of a bright golden yellow. The 
plant also attains the height of 4 or 5 feet, and is per- 
fectly hardy. 

Locality. — Cultivated in the garden of the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania. 

6. (Enothera ^triloba, acaulis; foliis interrupte 
pinnatifulis dentatis glabris; petalis apice trilobis; 
capsulis quadrialatis magnis. 

Habitat. In the arid and partly denudated prairies 
of Red river. 



Stew species of plants. Hi) 

Observation. Annual and perennial; its dura- 
tion, like (E. ccespilosa, being checked or extended by 
the incidents of its mode of growth. The leaves 
are larger and more deeply divided than is usual in 
this genus, the segments are directed upwards, are 
acute, and denticulated, the terminal portion being 
the largest. Flowers pale yellow, vespertine; petals 
three-nerved, and slightly three-lobed at the ex- 
tremity. The capsules, which are large, are collected 
together in such dense clusters, as commonly to stifle 
the vegetative vigor, and render the plant annual. 

This species, more curious than beautiful, but 
hardy, begins to flower about May, after surviving 
the winter, but somewhat later as an annual. The 
flowers appear toward sunset, and die at sunrise. 

7. QEnothera *speciosa, puberula; foliis oblon- 
go-lanceolatis dentatis subpinnatiiidis ; racemo nudo, 
primo nutante ; capsulis obovatis angulatis ; caule 
suffruticosa. 

Habitat. On the plains of Red River. — Flower- 
ins; in June and Jul v. 

Observations. Root perennial, and running: 
the stem, by protection suffruticose. Lower leaves 
oblong, entire, and irregularly denticulate, succeeded 
fey others which are pinnatifid towards the base. 
Racemes mostly dichotomal and naked, the flower 
buds nodding. Flowers very large and white, be- 
coming rose red on withering ; the petals obcordate : 
stamina exsertcd : stigmas very long and divaricatedo 



120 NEW SPECIES OF PLANTS. 

This very beautiful and ornamental species, opens 
towards evening, and endures nearly throughout the 
day ; the period of inflorescence is, however, remark- 
ably evanescent compared with that of the rest of the 
genus, but it is a perennial of easy propagation. 
# Cultivated Locality. — The garden of the Univer 
sity of Pennsylvania. 

8. (Enothera Hinifolia, foliis integris, radicalibus 
lanceolatis, caulinis linearibus confertis ; racemo nu- 
do terminali ; capsulis obovatis angulatis pubescen- 
tibus; petalibus obcordatis staminibus longioribus : 
stigma quadrilobo. 

Habitat. On the summits of arid hills and the 
shelvings of rocks, near the banks of the Arkansa. 
— Flowering from May to July. 

Observations. A remarkably small and bien- 
nial species, somewhat allied to CE. pusilla of Mi 
chaux. The whole plant, except the capsule, is com- 
monly smooth, the radical and stem leaves are very 
dissimilar in appearance, the flowers scarcely two 
lines broad, and yellow ; the bractes of the raceme 
are ovate, the seeds very small, and the valves rff 
the capsule, as is usual in this section of the genus, 
•pen by partial involution from the summit. 

9. (Enothera sermlata, foliis linearibus spinu- 
loso-serratis acutis ; floribus axillaribus ; calyces 
foliolis carinatis ; stigma quidrilobo ; capsulis cylin- 
dricis erectis ; caule suffruticosa. 

CE. semdata, NuttalFg Gtan. Am. PL 1. p. 246. 



NEW SPECIE9 OF PLANTS. 121 

0. Stevia *callosa, annua; foliis linearibus confer- 
tis crassiusculis, apice callosis, superioribus alternis ; 
floribus divaricatis subcorymbosis ; pappus subocto- 
phyllus erosus brevissimus. 

Habitat. On the gravelly banks of the Arkansa; 
rare. — Flowering from September to October. 

Observations. Annual. Somewhat scabrous ; 
stem divaricately branched, brittle. Leaves mostly 
alternate, sessile, and somewhat succulent, constantly 
terminating in a yellowish sphacelous or callous point. 
Peduncles and flowering branchlets glandularly pu- 
bescent ; the flowers reddish and dispersed, tending, 
however, to a corymb ; the calix cylindric, consisting 
of about 8 linear leaflets disposed in a single series. 
Florets from 10 to 12? quite similar to those of Mar- 
shallia and Hymenopappus, bearing a slender tube 
and a funnel formed five-cleft border. Anthers 

Habitat. On the summits of hills, on the plains of 
Red River and the Missouri. 

Observations. This species which is low, pe- 
rennial and suffruticose, is remarkable in the structure 
of the calix, the shortness and peculiar disposition 
of the stamina, and the almost undivided stigma, in 
all which characters it approaches the genus Epilo- 
bium, its flowers also expand in the morning in 
place of the evening. The present variety produces a 
stigma which is nearly black ; and a stem consider- 
ably branched. It continues to flower nearly through- 
out the summer, experiencing only a temporary ces- 
sation of vigor in the month of August. 

Cultivated Locality. — The garden of the Univer 
sity of Pennsylvania. 

1S 



i.%% NEW SPECIES OF PLANTS. 

blackish. Stigma bifid. Receptacle naked. Seed 
conic, pentangular, terminated by a short eroded pa- 
leaceous pappus. This species, excepting in the ca- 
lix, does not essentially differ from Hymenopappus. 
Cultivated Locality. — Garden of the University of 
Pennsylvania. 

11. Astragalus *micranthus, decumbens ; folio- 
lis ellipticis emarginatis glabris » pcdunculis subbiflo- 
ris, petiolo longioribus ; leguminibus falcatis bica- 
rinatis glabris ; seminibus truncatis. 

Habitat On the plains of Red River. — Flowering 
from May to August. 

Observation. Root apparently both annual and 
perennial, (perennial by cultivation.) Stems nume- 
rous and decumbent, a little pubescent, scarcely ex- 
ceeding a span in length. Stipules subulate, ad- 
hering to the stem. Leaflets five to eight pair, smooth, 
and often deeply emarginated above. Peduncles 
producing mostly two flowers, sometimes three, which 
are also unusually small, and of a pale blue color. 
The divisions of the calix are subulated. The le- 
gumes curving upwards, are at length black, and of a 
thinnish substance, broad and flat beneath, present- 
ing two carinated or angular margins, distinctly two 
celled. The seeds flattish, and situated so near to 
each other as to be mutually truncated at the extre- 
mities. 

Cultivated Locality. — The garden of the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania. 



NEW SPECIES OF PLANTS. 123 

12. Verbena, (subgenus. Glandularia.) Genus 
Glandularia, Gmelin. 

Calix tubulosus, quinquedentatus, dentibus seta- 
ceis inaequalibus. Corolla liinbus quinquefidus sub- 
a&qualis, lobus cniarginatus, ore villoso. Stigma bila- 
biata. 

Foliis triiidis laciniatis oppositis ; spica solitaria^ 
pedunculata. Corolla Buchnerce. 

— Gl. *bipinnatifida, suberecta, hirsuta, foliis 
trifidis bipinnatifidis, laciniis linearibus ; seminibus 
impresso-punctatis. 

Habitat. On the open calcareous hills of Red 
River. — Flowering in May and June. 

Observation. Perennial. Leaves trifid, divi- 
sions trifidly pinnatifid, somewhat hirsute. Bractes 
subulate, longer than the calix. Calix tubular, den- 
tures subulate, unequal, the lowest segment very 
short. Tube of the corolla nearly straight, longer 
than the calix ; border large and flat, five -cleft, the 
lobes obcordate and emarginate, and with the orifice 
villous. Stamina fertile, didynamous and included. 
Style at length exserted, stigma bilabiate, the lobes 
unequal. Corolla lilac blue, with the border equal 
and similar to that of V. Aubletia, which species the 
whole plant strongly resembles. These two similar 
species appear to justify a subgeneric separation 
from Verbena, which had formerly been attempted by 
Gmelin. 

Cultivated Locality. — Garden of the University of 
Pennsylvania. A hardy perennial, increasing by 
cuttings. 



124 NEW SPECIES 01 IISH 

Observations on several genera and species of fish, 
belonging to the natural family of the Esoces. By 
C. A. Lesueur. 

On the Genus Belona of Cuvier. 

My observations on this genus incline me to be 
lieve, that the Esox Belona, described by Dr Mit- 
chell, is not, as he supposed, the same with that of 
Europe. The drawings of several species which I 
have made in the West Indies and the United States 
gave rise to this doubt, to all of which is alike ap- 
plicable the short description given us by the Doctor, 
and it can therefore be merely regarded as a notice 
of the existence of one of these species in the northern 
atlantic, and on the coasts of the United States. 

Mr. Cuvier observes, that the species of this ge- 
nus are not yet well distinguished,! that they re- 
semble each other so much, and present at the first 
view so little difference, that they all might apparent- 
ly be embraced in the same description ; that those 
who had observed them had been deceived by neg- 
lecting to obtain drawings, by which it would have 
been easy to observe their differences in a manner 
more sensible and more exact. It is from descrip- 
tions, and the comparisons of four different drawings 
from nature, made in different places, that I now con- 
sider myself authorized to distinguish three new spe- 

t Regne Animal, Vol. II. p. 186. 



OF THE UNITED STATES. . i'Z5 

ties, which no doubt have been previously observed 
ami considered as one and the same, existing through- 
out various seas. 

Essential Character. 
In these fish the maxillary bone forms the whole 
border of the upper jaw, which, as well as the infe- 
rior, is extended into a long snout; they are both like- 
wise armed with small teeth. The mouth has no other 
teeth than those of the pharynx, which are as it were 
paved. The body is elongated and covered with 
scales, which are not very apparent, excepting a lon- 
gitudinal carinated range on each side, near the lower 
border. The back is remarkable for its colour, which 
is of a fine green. The species of this genus differ 
also somewhat from the Esoces in their intestines. 

B. -*argalus. 

Dorsal and anal fins unequal, their posterior ex- 
tremities directly opposite, the anterior part of the 
anal more advanced ; tail deeply forked, lobes ar- 
rounded, the inferior longer; the lamina of the oper- 
culum equal ; the head depressed. 

Body subquadrangular, attennuated to more than 
three times the length of the beak, the tail laterally 
carinated. Lower mandible a little longer than the 
superior. Eyes very large, a little oblong, the pu- 
pil somewhat depressed above. Lateral line very 
low, interrupted by the ventral fins, and beginning 
to rise above the base of the anal, are then continued 



126 . NEW SPECIES OF FISH 

along the middle of the tail npon the carina. Anal 
and caudal fins falciform, posteriorly narrowed, high 
and terminating in points anteriorly. Pectoral fins 
small, longer than the half of the space which sepa- 
rates their base from the tail. 

Color of a fine blue upon the back, the under side 
and the opercula silvery ; the iris bluish and argen 
tine. Scales very small. 

P. 18.— V. 6.— A. 19.— D. 16.— 0. 26. 
Collected near the Island of Guadaloupe, in 1816. 

11. Hruncata. 

Lower mandible longer than the upper ; caudal 
fin obliquely truncated, ventral small, lateral line 
passing above and prolonged to the base of the anal 
fin into its posterior part, where it rises to pass along 
the carina to the base of the caudal fin. ' 

Description. Body almost quadrangular, more 
than three times the length of the mandibles, wider 
upon the back, which is flat and sloping on either 
side, so as to form a groove along its middle. 

On each side toAvards the back there is a line with 
an elongated point, and a little lower a small deep 
blue band, which is continued almost to the base of 
the dorsal line. Jaws long and pointedly terminated, 
the inferior a little longer than the superior, armed 
with fine conic teeth, of which some are longer and 
distant with small ones* between them ; teeth of the 
throat collected upon tubercles. Head flat above : 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 127 

throat cd^cd ; eyes large at the summit of the head, 
silvery ; nostrils before the eyes, in a triangular ca- 
vity. Base of the caudal fin depressed and carinated 
as in the preceding species ; caudal fin truncated, 
lobes arronnded. Anal and dorsal fins as in the pre- 
ceding. First rays of the pectoral and ventral fins 
flat and edged. Pectorals small, pointed. Ventrals 
smaller truncated, situated between the tail and the 
eye. 

Color, a deep blue on the back, with a deeper co- 
lored band on each side. Scales very fine, silvery 
upon the head and abdomen. 

B. —P. 16.— V. 6.— D. 16.— A. 19.— C. SO. 

Collected at New-York in October 1816; at Phi 
ladelphia, and at Newport in Massachusetts. 

Observations. At New- York this species is 
called Gar-fish or Bill-fish. I have also seen it some- 
times in the market of Philadelphia. 

B. *carribcea. 

Mandibles equal, slender, and pointed ; dorsal fin 
contiuued further backward than the anal, the last 
rays also longer; caudal fin scalloped, lobes arround- 
ed, the inferior twice as long as the superior. 

Body almost cylindric, more than four times the 
length of the snout. Head depressed, long and 
wrinkled above. Eyes large, at the summit of the 
head, iris blue and silvery, pupil black and notched 
above. Nostrils large, near to the eyes. Opercula 



128 InEW species of eish 

smooth and flat, the lamina silvery, not very distinct. 
Both jaws armed with conic pointed distant teeth, 
producing between them small velvet like teeth, with 
which the jaws are furnished on each side throughout 
their whole length. Pectoral fins in a line with the 
eyes, as long as the space which separates them : the 
first rays of the pectoral, ventral, and the second of 
the anal, are flat, strong and edged. The anal and 
the dorsal fins are narrow posteriorly, and very high 
and pointed anteriorly, in the form of a sickle. Ven- 
tral fins rather long, situated between the eye and 
the base of the caudal fin. The lateral line com- 
mences beneath the origin of the pectoral fins, its 
base touches the ventral and continues along the ab- 
domen to the base of the anal, where it rises and 
continues along the carina, so as equally to divide the 
tail. Seven rays of the tail on each lobe are very 
flat. 

Color, deep blue upon the back, the head, tail, 
and whitish silvery beneath. Scales as in the pre- 
ceding species, small, and rounded. 

P. 13,— V. 6— D. 24.-— A. 22.— C. 30 \ flat. 

Inhabits the Carribean s ;a at Basseterre, near the 
island of Guadaloupe. Collected in 1816. Flesh 
good and firm. 



I \\Jl\HJ\l\JW l\tA' 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 129 

4. Belona *Crocodila. Peron and Lesueur. 
If we might judge from the imposing aspect of 
the individual which we saw, this species appears to 
attain a very considerable magnitude. It is distin- 
guished from Esox Belona and the other species de- 
signated and described by a very strong conic straight 
pointed snout, the bony plates of which are strongly 
radiated in order to protect the head. The body 
is less elongated and thicker, more elevated and not 
carinated towards the tail, the terminating fin of 
which is lunulated with the lower lobe much longer 
than the upper* The dorsal and anal fins are falci- 
form, and long, the anterior part elevated, termina- 
ting in a point, and equally placed, the posterior very 
low and straight, more prolonged to the dorsal than 
the anal fins, ventral rather long and pointed, lunu- 
lated, situated nearer the eyes than the tail, pectoral 
fin small, elevated, placed near to the angle of the 
operculum. Jaws strong, straight and equal, form- 
ing an elongated cone, pointedly terminated and 
scattered, all armed with strong conic straight and 
scattered teeth, between the bases of which there are 
numerous other smaller ones which cover the maxil- 
lary bones throughout their length. The scales 
which cover the body are small. The lateral line 
commences at the gorge, is undulated under the pec 
toral fins, passes above the ventrals, and rises a little 
to continue along the middle of the tail. The color 
is similar to the preceding species. 

17 



' '**•'./ 



130 NEW SPECIES OF FISH 

P. 14.— V. 6.— D. 22 — A. 21. Caadal 28. 

The total length of this individual was thirty-one 
and a half inches, the head alone was nine and a half 
from the beak to the termination of the operculum, 
with a height of about two and a half inches, and 
nearly two wide between the eyes. 

The armature of its jaws renders it dangerous and 
deservedly feared by those who swim or bathe in 
the places which it frequents. This was the species 
in all probability which had been observed by Re- 
nard and which is spoken of by Monsieur Delace- 
p£de, which had been confounded with the Esox 
Belona. 

Collected on the coast of the Isle of Frauce. In 
the Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, marked R. R. 
No. 4. 

5 Belon\ *Indica. This species observed by 
Perron and myself, makes a near approach to that of 
Gaudaloupe, and I shall here endeavour to present 
the characters by which they differ. This species 
as well as B. carribcea, has jaws which are equal, 
but in this they are more robust, obtuse, and thicker 
at their extremity while in that they are slender and 
terminated by a flexible point, it is further recog- 
nisable by its obliquely truncated caudal fin, slightly 
scolloped with arrounded lobes, and the lower one 
longer : the dorsal and anal fins are likewise similar 
in form, placed exactly opposite each other, they are 
also elevated anteriorly, very low and straight, pos- 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 131 

teriorly. Anal fin narrower. Ventral long pointed. 
Pectoral longish. Lateral line originating from the 
throat, passing above the ventrals and almost a- 
long the middle of the tail. Scales very small. 
Teeth as in the preceding species. 

P. 14.— V. 5.D . 19.— Caudal 14. 

Observations. Body subquadrangular larger to- 
wards the head, and attenuated towards the tail, 
where there is no visible keel. The back, head and 
tail blue, sides and abdomen silvery, a clearer colour- 
ed band towards the back. 

We never observed more of this species than the 
individual which is now preserved in the Museum of 
Natural History at Paris, and the figure in my col- 
lection of drawings. 

Inhabits the Indian Ocean. 

SCOMBERESOX. Lacepede. 

In this genus the structure of the snout is similar' 
to that of Belona ; the appearance of the fish itself 
the same and covered with similar scales, having a 
earinated range along the venter ; but the latter rays 
of their dorsal and anal fins are detached into false 
ones as in the mackerel. 

Monsieur Cuvier remarks that he had only seen 
a single species from the Mediterranean and the 
ocean. (The Scombresoces camperien, of Lacepede, 
v. VI. 3. Esox Saums. Schneider 78.) 



132 NEW SPECIES (H-FISII 

Scomberesox *eqnirostrum. Five false fins above 
and below the tail ; jaws equal and flexible. 

Body fusiform, about six times the length of the 
jaws. Head narrow, rather deep, pointed, eye small. 
The operculum prolonged behind. Pectoral fins situa- 
ted a little further back and somewhat higher than the 
middle of the operculum and slightly arrounded. 
Dorsal and anal fins equal, low, opposite each other, 
ventral fins triangular, truncated. Caudal a little 
notched, with equal lobes. — The color of this indivi- 
dual appeared to me nearly tbe same as that of the 
Bel on as. 

P. 14, the first flat and broad. V. 6.--D. 11 — 
A. 14.— C. 20 rays. 

The above notice is taken from an individual pre- 
served and dried iu the cabinet of the Linnean So- 
ciety of Boston, under the name of Saw us. It can- 
not be regarded as sufficiently complete, but may 
serve to call the attention of others who may have 
a better opportunity of completing its description. 

Scomberesox *scutellatum. Upper jaw very 
short, the inferior about twice its length ; pectoral 
fins very short, situated towards the upper part of 
the opercula ; six false fins above, and seven below ; 
the body compressed and edged beneath. 

Observations. The body of this small indivi- 

*/ 

dual was compressed so as to resemble the blade of a 
knife. It is distinguishable from the preceding also 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 133 

by the very small pectoral fins placed very high, and 
near the opercula. I he depth of the head was more 
than twice the diameter of the eye. The ventral 
fins very small, approaching the anal, and situated a 
little more towards the head than the dorsal, all of 
them of the same form, a little elevated anteriorly 
and somewhat lower posteriorly; The tail is long 
and narrow, terminated by a lunulated fin. The 
lateral line was scarcely apparent. The upper and 
lower maxillar bones were furnished with small 
teeth, the upper maxillar the shortest, placed in a 
groove formed by the junction of the two inferior, 
and leaving a space betwixt them towards the angle 
of the mouth. 

The back was blue, the sides silvery and blueisb, 
and the abdomen argenteous. 

P. 13— D 11.— A. 12.— V. 6.— A 15 

The individual here noticed, 1 found in the sto- 
mach of a fresh codfish which had been brought to 
Boston from the Bank of Newfoundland ; it was still 
fresh, and had no appearance of putrefaction. Per- 
haps it might be referred to the Scombresoces Cam- 
perien, but that this has much longer jaws, a forked 
tail, and the pectoral fins placed over the middle of the 
opercula, which forms the distinctive mark between 
the Sc. camperii and the present species. 

Another individual discovered by Peron and my- 
self, bears also a considerable affinity to the Sc. 
camperii, in the form of the body and the jaws ; but 
a distinctive character presents itself in the 6th and 



ISi NEW SPECIES OF FISH 

7th false fins which are distant from the dorsal and 
anal fin, which are re-united by a membrane. 

HEMIRAMPHUS. Cuvier. 
In these the intermaxillary bones form the border 
of the upper jaw, the margin of the lower one is also 
furnished with small teeth, but its symphysis is pro- 
longed into a long point, or half beak, destitute of 
teeth. In their general aspect, their scales and vicera. 
they still resemble the Belona. 

They are found in the seas of both hemispheres : 
and their flesh, although oily, is agreeable to the taste- 
While Mr W illiam Maclure and myself were 
passing the islands of the Antilles, we had occasion 
to observe two species of fish, appertaining to the 
new genus Hemiramphus of Cuvier. These no less 
than the Belonas and Scombresoces appear to have 
been confounded together without sufficiently appre- 
ciating the species which consequently still remain 
uncertain. One of those which came under my ob- 
servation, appears to be that described under the 
name of Esox Brasiliensis. Lix. and Block, 391, 
which is also the Esox Margmatus of Lacepede. 
v. VII. %, The other appears to be new ; but for 
the sake of more accurate distinction, I have consi- 
dered it useful to give the comparative descriptions 
which I made at different places as at Martinique, 
Guadaloupe, Dominique, &c. where these species 
are the object of a particular fishery, sufficiently in- 
teresting by the manner in which it is conducted. 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 185 

»■ 

The mode of procuring these fish whose flesh is so 
much esteemed, is with a large seine taken out into 
the deep water by a company of boats, when the 
weather is fine. On discovering a shoal of the balao, 
they amuse them by throwing some light body on the 
water, such as the leaves of the sugar cane, round 
which they delight to play and jump ; the boats out- 
side the fish then let fall the nets, by which they sur- 
round, and while drawing the net towards the land, 
perogues, each occupied by a single negro, follow the 
net outside, making a noise and throwing stones, in 
order to chase the fish towards the shore, and to 
prevent them from leaping over the net and escaping. 

Hemiramphus marginatus. Body three times the 
length of the lower jaw ; pectoral fins shorter than the 
half of the lower jaw ; posterior fins almost equal. 

Description. Body subquadrangular, short, equal 
from the head to the tail as far as the commencement 
of the anal and dorsal fins. Tail short, terminated 
by a deeply cleft fin, the lobes slightly arrounded, the 
inferior a third part longer than the superior. Pec- 
toral fins pointed. Ventral small, and lunulated, 
pointed interiorly, placed more towards the tail than 
the head. Dorsal fin longer by a third part than 
the anal, their form considerably similar, straight, a 
little elevated anteriorly, the rays separated and free 
about a third of their length, these two fins also cor- 
respond posteriorly. The upper beak is shorter than 



136 NEW SPEC IKS OF FISH. 

the semidia meter of the eye. The inferior very 
long and flexible. The eye is nearly black, with the 
upper part of the iris silvery. The scales large. The 
blue color is most prevalent, particularly upon the 
tipper part of the body, paler along the sides, and ar- 
genteous upon the abdomen, the head of a clear blue, 
and silvery, the tail yellow and bluish ; beak brown 
and deep blue. 
P. lO.— V.6.— D. 14.— A. 12.— Caudal 20 to 24. 

Uab. near Guadaloupe and Martinique, where it 
is called Balao. 

Hemtrjvmphus *balao. Body four times the length 
of the lower jaw, pectoral fin a third part shorter than 
the lower mandible ; anal fin half as long as the dor- 
sal fin. 

It is sufficient to cast an eye over the two figures to 
recognize their difference, although the two species 
seem to be the same. In this the body is more elon- 
gated and less equal, more elevated upon the back, 
and more attenuated towards the tail, in this also the 
fins are longer, the lobes divided by a longer notch 
are pointed, narrower, and the inferior more elonga- 
ted : the pectoral, dorsal, anal and ventral fins also 
more developed, the interior point of the ventral more 
prolonged ; the snout shorter, and lower towards the 
throat, the lower mandible likewise shorter, but with 
the upper nearly as in the preceding species. The 
lateral line commences directly from the gorge, con- 
tinues along the abdomen as far as the ventral fins. 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 137 

where it is interrupted, and then proceeds to the tail, 
passing a little beneath the anal, as in the preced ins- 
species. 

The colour is nearly the same as in the preceding, 
only a little deeper, and the caudal fin bluish. The 
fins contain the same number of rays. Not having 
time to open the species, I am unacquainted with 
its sex. It inhabits the Caribbsean sea, near Gua- 
daloupe, Martinique, and Domingo, where in com- 
mon with the other species, it is known by the name 
of Balao. 

Hem ir amphus *erythrorinchus. 

Dorsal and anal fin equal in length and height ; 
upper beak about the length of the diameter of the 
eye ; pectoral fins half the length of the lower jaw ; 
a blue and argentine band on each side continued 
from the pectoral to the caudal fin. 

Observations. Body four times the length of 
the lower beak from the angle of the mouth to the ex- 
tremity of the tail. The form of this species differs 
little from that of the preceding. The dorsal and 
anal fins, equal in length and height, are perfectly 
opposite, elevated anteriorly, and at the base poste- 
teriorly. Pectoral fins pointed ; the ventral small 
and truncated ,* the caudal forked, the lobes pointed, 
the inferior lobe longer. The lateral line, more ele- 
vated, passes above the ventral and anal fins, but is 
not as in the preceding species interrupted by the 
ventral fin. The eyes are large, and a little oblonsr, 

18 



138 .NEW SPECIES OP FISH. 

\ritli an argentine iris. The scales large. Its color 
the same as the preceding. 

p. 13.— V. 6.-D. 16.— A. 18.— C. 21. 

In the Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, marked 11. 
R. No 3, with a note, by Peron, under the above 
name, and No. S568 of his Journal, he afterwards 
considered it as a new genus, which has now been 
established by Monsieur Cuvierin his Regne Animal. 

b A variety of H. erythrorinchus. 

iNearto Timor and the Isle of France, we met 
with a species which differs a little from the prece- 
ding in the form of its body, its color, and the argen- 
tine band on the side, hut the form of whose dorsal 
and anal fins were, excepting some difference in the 
number of the rays, the only distinctive characters 
which could be remarked. The length of the body, 
moreover, was in this only three times that of the 
lower jaw. The dorsal fin is falciform, high, point- 
ed anteriorly, and very low and straight posteriorly. 
The anal is as long as the dorsal fin, perfectly oppo- 
site to it, and almost straight, being only a little ele, 
vated anteriorly. The pectoral fins are shorter than 
the half of the lower jaw. The ventrals small and 
truncated. Caudal fin deeply forked, the lobes une- 
qual, with the inferior longer. 

P. 11.— V. 6— D. 15.— A. 15.— C. 20. rays. 

In the Cabinet of the Museum d'Histoire Naturelle. 
at Paris : marked R. R. .No. 2. 

One or other of these two individuals probably ap- 
pertains to the species observed by Commerson, or 
the Esoce Gambaru of Lacepede, Vol. V. p. 313, 
tab. 7. fis. 2. 



139 



Analyses of American minerals, by Henry Seybert. 
of Philadt Iphia. 

Of an Amphibole. 

The specimen submitted to analysis was found at 
the Hagley powder mills on the Brandy wine, near 
Wilmington, in the State of Delaware; it is associa- 
ted with Quartz, and on some specimens, minute 
portions of pyrites were observed, although this mi- 
neral, in its external aspect, bears a strong resem- 
blance to the Hypersthene and from that circumstance 
was generally believed, by our mineralogists, to be- 
long to that species. 1 am inclined to consider it an 
Amphibole, because it is fusible, and differs essen- 
tially, from the Hypersthene, in its chemical compo- 
sition. 

The colour of this mineral in the mass, is dark 
brown, 'approaching to brownish black ; when pul- 
verized, it is grey ; lustre metallic. Slightly trans-* 
lucent on the edges. Form indeterminate. Lamel- 
lar. Scratches glass, and gives sparks with steel, 
Magnetic. Specific gravity, 3. 250. Fusible be- 
fore the blow-pipe into an opaque black glass. 

Analysis. 

A. 3 Grammes of the pure mineral, finely pulver- 
ized, were exposed to a red heat ; after the calcina- 
tion, the powder was of a brownish red colour, and 
it weighed 2. 9/ grammes ; then the diminution of 



I'M) ANALYSIS o* 

weight amounts to 0. 03 grammes ; but as the Deut- 
oxide of Iron, contained in the mineral must have 
absorbed 0. 008 grammes of oxygen, in passing to 
the state of peroxide, the loss due to water, there- 
fore, amounts to 0. 038 grammes on 3 grammes, or 
1.266 per 100. 

B. The calcined mineral (A.) was heated to red- 
ness in a silver crucible, during 30 minutes, with 9 
grammes of caustic potash ; the mixture on cooling 
assumed a pale green colour ; it was treated with wa- 
ter, to which it likewise communicated a greenish 
hue ; this indicated a trace of manganese. Muriatic 
acid, in excess, was added to it, the solution was 
complete and of a yellow colour $ it was then evapo- 
rated to a dry gelatinous mass, then treated with 
water, acidulated with muriatic acid, and again mo- 
derately evaporated ; more water was then added, 
and it was filtered ; on the filter there remained Si- 
lex* which, after being washed and calcined, weigh- 
ed 1. 565 grammes on 3 grammes, or 52. 166 per 100. 

C. The filtered liquor (B.) was neutralized with 
caustic potish, when treated with the hydro-sulphate 
of potash, it yielded a black precipitate ; this precip- 
itate was well washed and calcined, in a porcelain 
vessel, to expel the greater part of the sulphur: 
it was then treated with a small portion of nitric 
acid, and exposed to a strong red heat, in a platina 
crucible. The Alumine and peroxide of iron, thus 
obtained, weighed 0.45 grammes; they were treated 
repeatedly with caustic potash, until the Alumine 
was completely separated, the per-oxide of iron then 



AMERICAN MINERALS. 141 

weighed 0. 33 grammes ; as the mineral is of a black- 
ish colour and maguetic, the iron exists in the state 
of a Deutoxide, and the 0. 33 grammes of per-oxide 
are equivalent to 0. 322 grammes of Deutoxide on 3 
grammes, or 10.733 per 100. Then, by difference, 
we have Alumine 0. 12 grammes on 3 grs. or 4 
per 100. 

D. The liquor (C.) when treated with the oxalate 
of potash, gave rise to an abundant precipitate, which 
wjien washed and exposed to a high temperature, 
yielded Lime 0. 60 grammes, on 3 grammes, or 20 
per 100. 

E. After the separation of the lime, the liquor (D.) 
when treated with caustic potash, produced a preci- 
pitate of magnesia, which being washed and strong- 
ly calcined, weighed 0. 34 grammes on 3 grammes, 
or 11. 333 per 100. 

According to the above analysis, 100 parts of this 
amphibole consist of 



A. 
B. 


Water, 

Silex, 




01. 266 
52.166 


containing oxygen. 


26. 239 


B 
C. 


Manganese, a Trace, 

Deutoxide of Iron, 10. 733 




03 028 


c. 


Alumine, 




04 000 




01. 868 


D. 


Lime, 




20. 000 




05. 618 


E. 


Magnesia, 




11. 333 




04. 387 




99 498 










100. 000 


L.OSS 






000. 502 ] 





14£ ANALYSIS 01 

2. Of a Ferruginous Oxydulated Copper Ore. 

This ore occurs in Lebanon County, Pennsylva 
nia, accompanied by oxydulated Iron ore ; occasion- 
ally by minute portions of pyrites, and is frequently 
inciusted with green carbonate of copper. Its co- 
lour, both in the massive and pulverulent state, is 
redish brown. It possesses little or no lustre. 0- 
paque. Amorphous. Fracture, irregular. Frag- 
ments, indeterminate. Strongly magnetic. The 
specific gravity of a piece containing some slight 
traces of carbonate, was 4. 554. 

Analysis. 

A. 5 Grammes, of the pulverized ore, were expo- 
sed to a red heat, and it was stirred in order to allow 
the copper and iron to pass to the state of per- 
oxydes. After the calcination, the powder was 
black, and the loss of weight was 0. 10 grammes ; 
but the quantity of oxygen absorbed by the deutoxide 
of iron and the protoxide of copper, was found by 
calculation to amount to 0. 249 grammes ; therefore, 
the loss in water amounts to 0. 349 grammes, on o 
grammes, or 6. 98 per 100. 

13. The calcined ore (A.) was boiled with nitro- 
muriatic acid, to which it soon imparted a deep green 
colour, when the argilaceous residue appeared flaky 
and colourless ; the solution was evaporated to dry- 
ness, to expel the excess of acid, the residue of a 
green colour, was treated with water, and the solu- 
tion was filtered : the argil remaining on the filter, 



AMERICAN MINERALS. 11.3 

when washed and calcined, weighed 0. 19 grammes 

on 5 grammes, or 8. 80 per 100. 

C The liquor (H.) was treated with an excess of 
uomonia, an abundant precipitate was formed, part 
of which was immediately re-dissolved by the am- 
monia, and communicated to it a beautiful dark blue 
colour, the residue appeared red, and after 21 hours 
digestion it was separated from the ammoniacal li- 
quor by Alteration, when washed and exposed to red 
heat, it weighed 2. 16 grammes. A portion of this 
precipitate was re-dissolved in muriatic acid, and 
treated v\ itli an excess of ammonia, the copper was 
thus found to have been completely separated. Ano- 
ther portion was fused with caustic potash, but hav- 
ing obtained no mineral cameleon, it was ascertain- 
ed that the ore contained no manganese. Therefore, 
the 2. 16 grammes were pure per-oxide of iron, but 
as the mineral was magnetic, the iron must be esti- 
mated in the state of a deutoxide, and the 2. 16 
grammes of tritoxide are equivalent to 2. 108 gram- 
mes of deutoxide, on 5 grammes, or 42. 16 per tOO. 

D. The ammouiacal liquor (C.) was boiled to 
drive off the greater part of the excess of alcali, a 
slight excess of sulphuric acid was then added to it 
and a polished bar of iron, was allowed to remain in 
it, until the liquor, when tested with sulphurated hy- 
drogen, was found to contain no more copper. The 
metallic copper thus precipitated, when well washed 
and expeditiously dried, weighed 1. 95 grammes, 
but from the colour of the ore, the copper must be 
considered to exist in the state of a protoxide, and 
the 1. 95 grammes of metallic copper, are equivalent 



144 ANALYSIS OF 

to 2. 194 grammes of protoxide, of copper on 5 
grammes, or 43. 88 per 100. 

E. A portion of the liquor (D.) was found to con- 
tain neither lime nor magnesia, therefore, neither of 
these substances existed in the ore. 

The constituents of this mineral, are 





Per 100 parts. 




A. 


Water, 


06 98 


B 


Argile, 


03. 80 


C. 


Deutoxide of Iron, 


42 16 


D. 


Protoxide of Copper, 


43 88 

96 82 
100 00 

003 18 Loss. 



3. Of a Green Phosphate of Lime {Aspara- 
gus Stone.) 

This mineral was found in London-grove town- 
ship, Chester county, Pennsylvania. Externally it 
is incrusted with an opaque yellowish white matter ; 
when broken, it is of a beautiful asparagus green 
colour ; in the state of powder it is white. Lustre 
vitreous. Transparent. Chrystalized in six sided 
prisms ; the specimens handed to me, presented no 
well denned terminations. Longitudinal fracture 
uneven ; the transverse fracture, lammellar. Scratch- 
es glass. It does not phosphorize by heat. Speci- 
fic gravity 3. 20/. Infusible before the blowpipe. 



AMERICAN MINERALS. 145 

Analysis. 

From preliminary essays it was ascertained, that 
this mineral contained neither silex, aluminc, magne- 
sia, oxide of iron, nor oxide of manganese. 

A. 5 grammes underwent no alteration from the 
action of heat. 

R 5 grammes treated with nitric acid, yielded an 
entire and colourless solution. Oxalic acid was 
added to the liquor, it occasioned an abundant pre- 
cipitate, which, washed and strongly calcined, af- 
forded, lime 2. 565 grammes, on 5 grammes, or 51. 
30 per 100. 

C. The liquor (B.) after the separation of the 
lime, was evaporated to perfect dryness ; towards 
the close of the evaporation, the matter became black, 
owing to the decomposition of the oxalic acid ; when 
the entire decomposition of the acid was supposed 
to have been effected, the residue was treated with 
water, and the liquor, after being filtered, was treat- 
ed with ammoniac, which occasioned a colourless 
precipitate of phosphate of lime ; this being a portion 
of the mineral, that resisted decomposition by the 
oxalic acid, it weighed 0. 29 grammes on 5 gram- 
mes, or 5. 80 per 100. 

D The liquor (C.) when treated with the muriate 
of harytes, afforded phosphate of barytes, equiva- 
lent to phosphoric acid &. 042 grammes on 5 gram- 
mes, or 40. 84 per 100. 

19 



146 ANALYSIS OP 

According to the preceding results, we have 

Per 100 parts. 

B- Lime, 51. 30 

D. Phosphoric Acid,. 40. 84 

C. Phosphate of Lime, 05- 80 



97 94 
100 00 



002.06 Loss. 

If the undecomposed phosphate of lime be omit- 
ted, the composition of this mineral will be 

Per 100 parts. 
Lime, 55. 67 

Phosphoric Acid, 44. 3S 

This mineral was discovered by Doctor R. Alison, on Alison's 
Farm> London-Grove Township, imbedded in mica slate. 



On two veins of Pyroxene or Jlugiie in Granite 

By Lardner Vancjxem. 

" The substratum of the soil of Columbia (S. C.) 
and its vicinity, consists of Granite, the kind which 
is commonly considered to be primeval. This rock 
commences at Richmond in Virginia, and is visible 
to this place in most of the rivers and streams which 
cross the main road between these two towns. It is 
the only primitive rock known to exist east of this 
road. Its usual colour is grey, sometimes it presents 
Tery beautiful red varieties as on the Saluda river. 



AMERICAN MINERALS. 147 

It is very barren in extraneous minerals ; no marks 
«f stratification appear in it, but it is every where di- 
vided by cracks and fissures breaking it up into irre- 
gular masses, of no great extent ; very often it is 
traversed by small veins, of an extremely fine grained 
granite, of a light flesh or pink colour. Like most gra- 
nite, itis susceptible of decomposition, and varies very 
considerably in different parts of the same mass, 
whether exposed to the surface, or covered with ve- 
getable or other soil ; thus along the lower canal of 
the Saluda, whole fields of it are in a decomposed 
state, here and there presenting among its ruins some 
masses, which from unknown causes have escaped 
uninjured. As commonly observed of this rock, it 
presents large masses rounded upon the surface, 
ascribable either to the progress of decomposition 
which commences with the angles and edges or as 
some have supposed to a species of concretionary ar- 
rangement of its minerals, during its consolidation. 

Last year my attention was attracted by two pa- 
rallel black veins in a mass of granite, occurring by 
the side of Rocky branch,* just below Dr, Fishers 
mill dam. The surface of the rock protrudes but a 
little above the ground. These veins lie near to each 
other, of from one to two inches in thickness, nearly 
vertical in their position, and of an unknown length 
and depth. The substance of these veins scarcely 

* A small creek passing within a few hundred yards of 
the South Eastern boundary of Columbia, and emptying 
into the €ongaree. 



148 ANNALY9IS OF 

adheres to the granite, and breaks with ease into ir- 
regular fragments, whose sides are slightly changed 
or soiled, as we so often observe in the trap rocks. 
In the other fracture, the rock is extremely tough, 
presenting a very fine scaly texture, of a bluish black 
colour, opaque, excepting on the edges of the frag- 
ments, and enveloping as a base, numerous small im- 
perfect crystals, of a dark green colour ; sometimes 
also, though rarely, fragments of granite are also con- 
tained in it. By exposure to the air, the basis be- 
comes of a light dirty olive green colour, whilst the 
crystals assume an ochery appearance. Examined, 
when in minute fragments,with apowerful microscope, 
it presents a confused mass of silvery particles. I was 
not able to ascertain with this instrument, if it con- 
sisted of more than one mineral species. It feebly 
attracts the magnet. Before the blowpipe, it fuses 
into a black globule, whose fragments, when viewed 
by transmitted light, are of a dark green colour. 
As a part of the rock, which encloses these veins, has 
lately been removed by blasting, I collected a consi- 
derable quantity of their substance, and on breaking 
it, I succeeded in obtaining some perfect crystals of 
the dark green substance above mentioned, which on 
examination, proved to be Pyroxene, or augite, pre- 
senting the well known form the triumtaire of 
Hauy, so abundant in the lavas of Auvergne, Italy, 
Sicily, &c. The hemitrope or made of the same 
form also exists in it. 

These veins appear to be almost entirely com- 



AMERICAN MINERALS 149 

posed of Pyroxene, more or less confusedly crystal- 
lised, and varying considerably in tbe size of its crys- 
taline particles. It is probable tbat tbere is an in- 
termixture of a small quantity of Feldspar, from the 
difference of colour, which the perceptible and 
imperceptible particles exhibit when in a state of de- 
composition. From the general character of tbese 
veins, tbeir total dissimilarity with all rocks of the 
class to which the granite belongs, from their being 
composed of Pyroxene and of the trkinitaire form 
so common in almost all lavas, I think in the present 
state of our knowledge, (as to the origin of rocks,) 
that we are in some measure authorized in consider- 
ing them to be of Volcanic, rather than of Neptunian 
origin." 



Descriptions of Univalve shells of the United States. 
By Thomas Say. 

The terrestrial and fluviatile shells which form 
the subject of the following pages, were chiefly ob- 
tained on the late expedition to the Rocky Moun- 
tains, under the command of Major Stephen H. 
Long. They are now deposited in the Philadelphia 
Museum, and constitute, in the collection of that in- 
stitution, a distinct arrangement. 

A few descriptions are added to this essay, of 
shells discovered in East Florida, Alabama, Penn- 
sylvania, and New- York. 



450 UNIVALVE SHELLS 

Type and Class. 
MOLLUSCA GASTEROPODA. 

Genus Helix. 
f Umbilicus none ; labrum reflected. 

i. H. *7nultilineata. Shell thin, convex, imper- 
forated ; of a brown colour, with numerous dark-red 
revolving lines, which are minutely and irregularly 
undulated ; whorls six, with elevated, subequidistant 
lines, forming grooves between them ; aperture luna- 
ted, not angulated at the base of the column, but 
obtusely curved ; labrum contracting the mouth 
slightly, reflected, white, more or less distinctly 
stained by the termination of the spiral red lines, and 
adpressed to the body whorl near the base ; umbili- 
cus covered with a white callus. 

Inhabits Illinois and Missouri. 

Length of the columella about three-fifths ; great- 
est width rather more than one inch. 

Animal granulated ; granules large, whitish, in- 
terstices blackish ; foot beneath black. 

An exceedingly numerous species in the moist fo- 
rests on the margin of the Mississippi near the Ohio, 
and the Missouri as far as Council Bluff. The red 
revolving lines are numerous, varying from four or 
five to twenty-five or thirty and perhaps still more $ 
they are sometimes confluent into bands; when 
viewed within the mouth, they appear sanguineous. 



OF THE UNITED STATES. l5i 

2. H. *appressa. Shell depressed, brownish horn 
colour ; whmis five, depressed, forming an angle on 
the external one, more acute near the superior angle 
of the labrum, with numerous transverse, elevated, 
equidistant lines, with interstitial grooves ; umbili- 
cus covered over with calcareous matter, but con- 
cave within ; aperture moderate ; labrum dilated, 
reflected, white, margined with brownish ; near the 
base, appressed to the body whorl, and covering the 
umbilicus ; a slight projecting dentiform angle on the 
inner middle ; labrum with a strong, prominent, ob- 
lique, compressed, white tooth, which gradually 
slopes and becomes obsolete towards the umbilicus. 

Var. a. Labrum with two projecting angles. 

Breadth, three-fifths of an inch. 

Animal— -foot pale ; neck above and each side 
blackish. 

Inhabits the banks of the Ohio and Missouri. 

This species is very common on the banks of the 
Ohio below Galiopolis: I also found it near Council 
Bluff. It very much resembles H tridentata, but 
the umbilicus is covered over; the outer lip at base 
is flattened upon the shell; and there is but a single 
angle upon it. In Lister's conch, pi, 93, fig. 93, is 
the representation of a shell, which is most probably 
intended for this species. Lister's figure is quoted 
in the books, for H. punctata, but as the figure of a 
different species (Bom mus. pi. 14, fig. 17 and 18) 



152 l/NIVALVE SHELLS 

is also referred to as the same, I conclude that two 
distinct species have been confounded together under 
the common name of punctata; certainly the charac- 
ter from which this name was taken, is never present 
on our shell. Specimens have been subsequently 
found by Dr. Thomas M'Euen, near the fails of 
Niagara. 

3. H. *palliala. Shell depressed, with elevated 
lines, forming grooves between them; epidermis fus- 
cous, rugose with very numerous minute tubercu- 
lous acute prominences; volutions five, depressed 
above, beneath rounded, forming an obtuse angle 
exteriorly, which is more acute near the termination 
of the labrum ; umbilicus covered with a white cal- 
lous ; aperture contracted by the labrum; labrum re- 
fleeted widely, white, two profound, obtuse, sinusses 
on the inner side above the middle, forming a promi- 
nent distinct tooth between them, and a projecting an- 
gle near the middle of the lip; labium with a large, 
prominent, white tooth, placed perpendicularly to the 
whorl, and obliquely to the axis of the shell, and 
nearly attaining the umbilical callus. 

Inhabits Illinois. 

Length of the column 7-20 of an inch. 

Greatest breadth, four-fifths of an inch. 

Yar. a. A very prominent acute carina ; destitute 
of minute prominences. Inhabits Ohio. Breadth 
nearly 1 inch. 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 



153 



This shell is found on the banks of the Mississip- 
pi in moist places. It very much resembles H. triden- 
tata but is destitute of umbilicus, has a rugose epider- 
mis, and is much larger. It is still more closely allied 
to appressus but its superior magnitude, teeth and 
epidermal vesture, distinguish it from that species. 
Specimens have subsequently been found by Dr. 
Thomas M'Euen near the falls of Niagara. 

4. H. *inflecta. Spire convex ; volutions ^we t 
wrinkled across; suture not profoundly impressed ; 
aperture strait; labrum reflected, bidentate, teeth se- 
parated by a profound sinus, the superior teeth in- 
flected, behind the lip a profound groove, which ab- 
rubtly contracts the aperture in that part, so that 
although the lip is reflected, yet its edge is not more 
prominent than the general exterior surface of the 
body whorl, at base the lip is adpressed and covers 
the umbilicus ; labrum with a large prominent ob- 
lique lamelliform tooth; umbilicus closed. 

Greatest transverse diameter nearly 9-20 of an 
inch. 

Inhabits Lower Missouri. 

The teeth of the labrum somewhat resemble those 
oftridentata ; but in the form of the groove behind 
the labrum, and the pillar tooth, it resembles H. hir- 
suta, several specimens were found, but all dead 
shells, and destitute of their epidermis. 



154 UNIVALVE SHELLS 

5. H. *clausa. Shell fragile, slightly perforated, 
subglobular, yellowish horn-colour, above convex.; 
whorls four or five; aperture slightly contracted by 
the lip; lip reflected, flat, white, nearly covering the 
umbilicus. 

Inhabits Illinois. 

Greatest breadth, fr6m one-half to three-fifths of 
an inch. 

A small and handsome species, which somewhat 
resembles albolabris, but is much smaller, more 
rounded, and is sub-umbilicate. This shell also oc- 
curs though perhaps rarely in Pennsylvania. 

6. H. *obstrida. Shell depressed, with elevated 
lines forming grooves between them; epidermis pale 
brownish, naked; volutions five, depressed above, 
beneath rounded, with an acute projecting carina; 
umbilicus covered with a white callus, indented ; 
mouth resembling that of H, palliata. 

Inhabits Ohio. 

Breadth nearly one inch. 

This species is very closely allied to Helix pal- 
Uata, but the epidermis is not covered with small ele- 
vations as in that shell, and the carina is very pro- 
minent and remarkable. 

7. H. *elevata. Shell pale horn colour, spire 
elevated; whirls seven, regularly rounded; umbilicus 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 135 

none; aperture somewhat angulated; labrum dilated, 
reflected, pure white, at base adpressed to the body 
whirl, abruptly narrowed on the inner edge beneath 
the middle, and continuing thus narrowed to the su- 
perior termination, leaving a projecting angle behind 
the middle; labium with a large, robust, very ob- 
lique, sub-arquated, pure white tooth. 

Greatest breadth, 7-8 of an inch. Column, 9-16. 

Found rather common in the vicinity of Cincinnati, 
Ohio, it seems to be distantly related to thyroidus, 
by the tooth on the labium, but this tooth is much 
more robust; it differs more essentially by the much 
more elevated spire, and by the superior half of the 
dilated lip being abruptly narrowed so as to form a 
prominent angle near the middle. It is also a much 
thicker shell. 

tt Umbilicus closed ; labrum simple, 

8. H. *interna. Shell yellowish red; volutions 
six or eight ; whoiis with regular, equidistant, ele- 
vated, obtuse lines across them separated by regular 
grooves; lines obsolete beneath; spire convex, little 
elevated; aperture very strait, transverse less than 
one half of the longitudinal diameter; labrum not re- 
flected; within, upon the side of the labrum, two pro- 
minent lamelliform teeth, of which the superior one 
is largest, and neither of them attain the edge of 
the lip; region of the base of the columella much in- 
dented; umbilicus obsolete or wanting. 



156 UNIVALVE SHELLS 

Transverse diameter more than 3-10. 

Height of the columella above 3-20. 

Inhabits Lower Missouri. 

Of two specimens which I obtained, the larger one 
had six volutions, and the smaller one had eight; the 
superior tooth in the larger was concave towards the 
base of the shell. It is a remarkable and very dis- 
tinct species. 

9. H. *chersina. Shell subglobose- conic, pale 
yellowish-white, pellucid, convex beneath; volutions 
about six, wrinkles not distinct ; spine convex- ele- 
vated ; suture moderate ; body whorl slightly cari- 
nated on the middle; mouth nearly transverse, un- 
armed, the two extremities nearly equal; labrum 
simple; umbilicus none. 

Inhabits the Sea Islands of Georgia. 

Breadth 1-10 of an inch. 

Cabinet of the Academy. 

A very small species. But one specimen occurred 
in a Cotton field. It is rather larger than H. laby- 
rinthica. 

10. H. *gularis. Shell subglobose, pale yel- 
lowish-horn colour, polished, pellucid, beneath near 
the aperture whitish-yellow opake; volutions six or 
seven, with prominent somewhat regular wrinkles; 
spire convex, a little elevated; suture moderate; la- 
brum not reflected; throat far within upon the side of 
the labrum bidentate, teeth lamelliform, of which one 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 157 

is oblique and placed near the middle, and the other 
less elongated placed near the base; umbilicus none. 

Breadth more than 1-4 of an inch. 

Inhabits Ohio and Pennsylvania. 

In general form it resembles H. ligera, but may 
be distinguished by the absence of umbilicus, and 
upon particular examination, by the teeth which are 
situated far within the aperture. In the collection of 
the Academy. 

ttt Umbilicated ; labrum simple. 

11. H. *ligera Shell subglobose, pale yellow 
horn colour, polished ; body whorl, pellucid, yellow- 
ish- white, opake beneath near the aperture ; volu- 
tions rather more than six, all excepting the apicial 
one wrinkled across ; spire convex, a little elevated; 
umbilicus very small ; suture not deeply impressed ; 
labrum not reflected. 

Inhabits Missouri. 

Greatest length 3-10. Oblique length less than 
9-20. Transverse diameter less than 11-20. 

Approaches nearest to H. glaphyra, but is readily 
distinguished by the greater convexity of the spire, 
and the smaller umbilicus. Rather common. In 
Lister's conch, on pi. 81, fig. 82, a shell is represent- 
ed which may be intended for this species. 

12. H. *solitaria. Shell subglobose, with two or 
three revolving, rufous hnesj spire conico-convex ; 



158 UNIVALVE SHELLS 

volutions five and a half, wrinkled across and 
rounded; suture rather deeply impressed; aperture 
wide, embracing a rather small portion of the penul- 
timate whorl; labrum not reflected; umbilicus large, 
distinctly exhibiting all the volutions to the apex. 

Greatest transverse diameter, nearly one inch and 
one fifth. 

Inhabits Lower Missouri. 

But a single specimen was found ; it was a dead 
shell, destitute of its epidermis. It is avery dis- 
tinct species. 

13. H. ^jejuna. Shell subglobular, glabrous, 
pale reddish-brown; volutions five, slightly wrin- 
kled, regularly rounded; spire convex; suture rather 
deeply impressed; aperture dilate-lunate; labrum 
a little incrassated within, not reflected; umbilicus 
open, small; 

Breadth rather more than 1-5 of an inch. 

Inhabits the Southern States. 

Animal — light reddish-brown, with a granular 
surface, longer than the breadth of the shell ; oculi- 
ferous tentacula elongated, and rather darker than 
the body. 

This shell is very closely allied to H. sericea, of 
Southern Europe, but it differs from that species iu 
beins: destitute of the hirsute vesture. I found se- 
veral specimens of jejuna, during an excursion some 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 159 

time since into East Florida, at the Cotvfort, on St. 
John's river. It is in the collection of the Academy. 

14. H. *concava Shell much depressed; sub- 
orbicular, horn colour, or whitish, immaculate; vo- 
lutions five, irregularly wrinkled across, more con- 
vex beneath; suture distinctly impressed; umbilicus 
very large, exhibiting all the volutions to the sum- 
mit distinctly; aperture large, short; labrum to- 
wards the base very slightly and inconspicuously 
reflected. 

Inhabits Illinois and Missouri. 

Greatest width 7-10 of an inch. 

Found in moist places near the Mississippi river, 
on the Missouri as high as council bluff, and on the sea 
islands of Georgia. It is a much depressed shell. 

15. H. *dealbata. Shell conical, oblong, thin 
and fragile, somewhat ventricose; volutions 6-7, 
wrinkled across, wrinkles more profound and acute 
on the spire; spire elongated, longer than the aper- 
ture, subacute ; aperture longer than wide, labrum 
not reflected; umbilicus small, profound. 

Length more than 3-4 of an inch. 
Breadth 9-20 of an inch. 

In the Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia 
Museum. 

luhabits Missouri and Alabama. 

Cabinet of the Academy. 

In outline it resembles a Bulimus. Four speci- 



160 UNIVALVE SHELLS 

mens of this species were sent to the Academy from 
Alabama, by Mr. Samuel Hazard; and a single de- 
pauperated specimen was found by myself on the 
banks of the Missouri. 

• tttt Umbilicated ; labrum reflected. 

16. H. ^profunda. Shell pale horn-colour ; 
spire convex, very little elevated; whorls five, regu- 
larly rounded, and wrinkled transversely ; body 
whorl with a single revolving rufous line, which is 
almost concealed upon the spire by the suture, but 
which passes for a short distance above the aper- 
ture; aperture dilated; labrum reflected, white, and 
excepting near the superior angle flat, a slightly pro- 
jecting callus near the base on the inner edge ; 
umbilicus large, profound, exhibiting all the volu- 
tions to the apex. 

Transverse diameter 19-20 of an inch. 

Var. A. Mutilineated with rufous. 

Var. b. Rufous line obsolete. 

Inhabits Ohio, Mississippi and Missouri banks. 

A pretty shell, neatly ornamented by the rufous 
zone; the spire is very much depressed. Specimens 
occurred near Cincinnati on the Ohio, and at En- 
gineer Cantonment near Council Bluff, on the Mis- 
souri. 

Besides the above new species, T have observed 
in the western regions, the following known species, 



^u^jUrl^U 



Or THE UNITED STATES. 161 

which I described in the American edition of Ni- 
:holson ? s Encyclopaedia, and in the Journal of the 
Axadeiny. 

Helix albolabris common, as far as Council Bluff. 
H. thyroidus, on the banks of the Ohio, Mississippi 
ind Missouri. The Animal is of a pale whitish o 
yellowish colour, immaculate. 

H. allernata. On the banks of the Ohio, Missis- 
sippi, and Missouri rivers; this species varies in being 
somewhat larger, and in having a. rather more eleva- 
ted spire. The Animal is of a dirty yellowish-orange 
colour, the foot obtusely terminatedbehind,head and 
tentacula pale bluish, eyes blackish. Shell 9-10 
sf an inch in breadth. 

H. hirsuta, common, as far as Council Bluff. 

H. labyrinthica ditto ditto. * 

H. minuta ditto ditto. 

H. perspective occasionally occurs on the banks of 
the Missouri, and other western streams, and in some 
parts common. 

Genus Poligyra. 

P. *plicata. Shell convex beneath, depressed 
above, spire slightly elevated; ivhorls five, compres- 
sed, crossed hy numerous raised equidistant lines, 
which form grooves between them; aperture sub- 
reniform, labrum reflected, regularly arquated, de- 
scribing two-thirds of a circle, within two-toothed, 
teeth not separated by a remarkable sinus; labrum 
with a profound duplicature, which terminates in an 

21 



*• 



162 UNIVALVE SHELLS 

acute angle at the centre of the aperture; beneath, ex- 
hibiting only two volutions, of which the external one 
is slightly grooved near the suture. 

Breadth 1-4 of an inch. 

Inhabits Alabama. 

Cabinet of the Academy. 

This species is about the same size with P. avara, 
but, besides other characters, it is sufficiently dis- 
tinguished by the acute fold of the labrum. It was 
sent to the Academy by Mr. Samuel Hazard. 

Genus Pupa. 

1. P. *armifera. Shell dextral ; oblong-oval or 
somewhat obtusely fiisiform ; suture distinct ; whirls 
six, obsoletely wrinkled; aperture longitudinally 
subovate ; exterior lip reflected, but not flattened, in- 
terrupted aboxe by the penultimate whirl, and with 
five teeth, of which the superior one, and that which 
precedes the basal one, are smallest ; labrum with 
an undulated lamelliform tooth, its anterior extremity 
little elevated, but elongated, so as almost to join the 
superior extremity of the exterior lip. 

Length, 3-20 of an inch. 

Inhabits Upper Missouri. 

Var. a. The two smaller teeth obsolete or want- 
ing. 

Var. b. The basal tooth obsolete or wanting. 

Very distinct from corticaria in being a much 
larger and proportionally more dilated shell,and with 
that species, and the next^ seems to belong more pro- 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 163 

perly to the genus Carychium of Muller and Fer- 
russac. 

2. P. *rupicola. Shell dextral, attenuated to an 
obtuse apex, white ; tvhorls six, glabrous ; mature 
deeply impressed ; labium bidentate; superior tooth 
lamiform, emarginate in the middle, and at the ante- 
rior tip obsoletely uniting with the superior termina- 
tion of the labium ; iuferior tooth placed upon the 
columella, and extending nearly at a right angle with 
the preceding ; lab rum tridentate, teeth placed some- 
what alternately with those of the labium, inferior 
tooth situated at the base and immediately beneath 
the inferior tooth of the labium. 
Length, about 1-10 of an inch. 
Inhabits East Florida. 

I formerly found it abundant on the banks of St. 
John's river, in E. Florida, and more particularly 
under the ruins of Fort Picolata, under stones, &c. 
It is about the size of P. corticaria, and conside- 
rably resembles that species, but is sufficiently dis- 
tinguished by the circumstance, of its gradually de- 
creasing in diameter from the body whirl, to its 
obtuse tip, and in the character of the mouth, it is 
widely distinct* 

Genus Succinea. 

S. ovalis. (Joum. Acad. Nat. Sciences, vol. 1. 
p. 15.) A large variety of this species, is found very 
common on the Missouri, of the length of about 4-5 



164 UNIVALVE SHELLS 

of an inch. I observed one specimen, which was 
upwards of an inch long. 

Genus Planorbis. 

1. P. *annigprus. Skell dextral, brownish-horn 
colour, wrinkles obsolete ; spire perfectly regular, 
slightly concave; suture well impressed; umbilicus 
profound, exhibiting the volutions: whorls four, 
longer than wide, obtusely carinated above, carina 
obsolete near the aperture, a carina beneath conti- 
nued to the aperture ; aperture longitudinally sub- 
obovate, oblique; labrum blackish on the edge ; 
throat armed with five teeth, placed two upon the 
pillar side, of which one is large, prominent, per- 
pendicular,lamelliform, oblique, and rounded abrupt- 
ly at each extremity ; near the anterior tip, is a 
small prominent conic acute one ; on the side of the 
labrum, is a prominent lameliiform tooth near the 
base, and two slightly elevated, oblique, lameliiform 
ones above. 

Leugth, 1-4 of an inch nearly. 

Inhabits Upper Missouri. 

ilemarkable by the teeth; but these are only dis- 
coverable by the microscopical examination of tht 
mouth, and they are situated far within it. 

P. trivolvis b earn ius and parvus inhabit ponds 
of water, in the vicinity of Council Bluff. 

2. P. * } arallellus. Shell dextral, witb very mi- 
nute transverse wrinkles, and regular, revolving, 



OP THE UNITED STATES. 16d 

equidistant, parallel, slightly elevated lines ; spire 
a little convex; volutions four: aperture longer than 
wide; umbilicus exhibiting all the volutions. 

Breadth, less than 3-20 of an inch. 

Inhabits Upper Missouri. 

This shell has evidently the habit of a Helix, and 
may probably belong more properly to that genus. 
but having found it only in a dried up pond, in com- 
pany with a vast number of aquatic shells, I refer 
it for the present to this genus. 

8. P. *exacuous. Dextral, depressed, with an 
acute edge. 

Inhabits Lake Champlain. 

Cabinet of the Academy. 

Shell depressed ; ichorls four, striated across, 
wider than long, not elevated above the suture, but a 
little flattened, sides obliquely descending to an acute 
lateral ed^e, below the middle ; spire not impressed; 
suture not profoundly indented; beneath, body whirl 
flattened, on the inner edge rounded ; umbilicus re- 
gular, exhibiting all the volutions to the apex ; aper- 
ture transversely sub-triangular ; labrum angulated 
in the middle, arquated near its inferior tip, the su- 
perior termination just including the acute edge of 
the penultimate whorl. 

Greatest Breadth, rather less than 1-4 of an inch, 

This species was found in Lake Champlain by 
Mr. Augustus Jessup, who deposited it in the col- 
lection of the Academy. Only two specimens oc- 



166 UNIVALVE SHELLS 

-curred. It may be readily distinguished from P. 
parvus, by its more convex form above, the spire 
not being impressed, and by its very acute lateral 
edge. It appears to be pretty closely allied to Plcu. 
norbis nitidus of Europe, but it is larger, the umbili- 
cus much more dilated, and the aperture does not 
embrace the penultimate whorl so profoundly. 

4. P. * campanula tus Sinistral ; whorls longer 
than wide ; aperture sub-campanulate. 

Inhabits Cayuga Lake. 

Cabinet of the Academy. 

Shell sinistral, not depressed : whorls four, slightly 
striate across, longer than wide ; spire hardly con- 
cave, often plane ; body whirl abruptly dilated near 
the aperture, and not longer behind the dilatation 
than the penultimate whirl ; suture indented well 
defined to the tip, the summits of the volutions being 
rounded; aperture dilated ; throat narrow abruptly; 
umbilicus profound, the view extending by a mi- 
nute foramen to the apex. 

Greatest length of the body whorl, 1-4 of an inch. 

Breadth from tip of the labrum, 1-2 inch ; at 
right angles to the last, 2-5 inch. 

This shell abounds in some of the small streams, 
which discharge into Cayuga lake, where it was 
collected by Mr. Jessup, who presented specimens 
to the Academy, and tome. It is readily distin- 
guished from our other species, by the sudden dila- 



OK THE UNITED STATES. 167 

tatiou of the outer whirl, near the aperture in the 
adult shell, forming a la*ge oval chamber. The sum- 
mit of the outer whirl, behind the dilated portion, 
is not, or hardly elevated above the summits of the 
other volutions. 

Genus Lymneus. 

1. L. * elongates. Shell horn colour, tinged with 
reddish-brown; spire elongated, tapering, acute; 
whirls six or seven, slightly convex, wrinkled across; 
body whirl, measured at the back, more than half the 
total length ; suture moderately indented ; aperture 
less than half the length of the shell; labium witk 
calcareous deposit. 

Length, one inch and three-tenths. 

Inhabits in considerable numbers, the ponds and 
tranquil waters of the Upper Missouri. It is very 
distinct from L. catascopium, by the much greater 
proportional length of the spire. 

2. Lymneus columellas. (Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci- 
iences, vol. 1. p. 11.) Var. a. Small, black — from 
Cold water creek of the Missouri. This is most 
probably a distinct species, we obtained but a single, 
specimen of it. 

3. L. *rejlexus. Shell fragile, very much elon- 
gated, narrow, honey-yellow, tinctured with brown- 
ish, translucent, slightly reflected from the middle; 
volutions six, oblique, wrinkled transversely; spire 
more than one and an half times the length of the 



168 UNIVALVE SHELLS 

aperture, acute, two or three terminal whirls vitre- 
ous; body whirl very little dilated : aperture rather 
narrow : labrum with a pale margin, and dusky red 
or blackish sub-margin. 

Inhabits Lakes Erie and Superior. 

Total length, 13-10 — of the aperture 11-20 of an 
inch. 

This shell is remarkable for its narrow and elon- 
gated form, and for the consequent, very oblique re- 
volution of its whirls. V hen viewed in profile, it 
has a slightly reflected appearance. It was kindly 
sent to me for examination by my friends Messrs. S. 
B. Collins andD. H. Barnes of New York, and was 
found in Lake Superior by Mr. Schoolcraft. I re- 
collect to have seen a specimen two or three years 
since brought from Lake Erie, by James Griffiths. 
It is proportionally longer than elongatus. 

4. L. *appressus. Shell elongated ventricose ; volu- 
tions six ; spire regularly attenuated to an acute tip, 
rather shorter than the aperture; body whirl dilated, 
proportionally large; aperture ample; columella 
with the sinus of the fold profound , callus perfectly 
appressed upon the shell, to the base. 

Inhabits Lake Superior. 

This shell exhibits very much the appearance of 
L. stagnalis, but its body whirl is less proportionally 
dilated. The callus of the labium is perfectly ap- 
pressed to the surface of the whorl even to the base, 
exactly as in stagnalis. I have seen but a single 
weathered and broken specimen, which was sent me 



OF THE UNITED STATES, 169 

for examination by my friends Messrs. Collins and 
Barnes, of New York. It was found in Lake Supe- 
rior, by Mr Schoolcraft. 

Since writing the above, Mr. Jessup presented mc 
with several specimens, which he collected in Ca- 
nandaigua and Cayuga lakes. 

5 L *elodes, Shell oblong conic, gradually acu- 
minated, reticulate ^vith transverse lines and longitu- 
dinal wrinkles ; whirls rather more than six ; spire 
acutely terminated ; suture moderately impressed ; 
aperture shorter than the spire ; Zaferura, inner sub- 
margin reddish obscure; labium, calcareous deposit 
rather copious, not appressed at base, but leaving a 
linear umbilical aperture ; body ivhirl on the back 
longer than the spire. 

Inhabits Canandaigua Lake. 

Var. a. Whirls simply wrinkled across, the cal- 
careous deposit at base^ appressed to the surface of 
the whirl. 

This species was found by Mr. A. Jessup ; it bears 
the most striking resemblance to L. palustris> 
The variety was found by the same enterprising 
mineralogist at Morristown, New- Jersey. I have 
subsequently received specimens from Mr. S. B„ 
Collins, of New- York, who procured them in a 
marsh near the Saratoga springs. 

6. L. *desidiosus. Shell oblong sub-conic ; whirls 
five, very convex, the fourth and fifth very small, the 
second rather large ; suture deeply indented ; aper- 
ture equal to or rather longer than the spire 5 la- 

22 



170 UNIVALVE SHELLS 

bium, calcareous deposit copious, not perfectly ap- 
pressed at base, but leaving a very small umbilical 
aperture. 

Inhabits Cayuga Lake. 

Length 7-20 of an inch. 

Found by Mr. Augustus Jessup. It is closely 
allied to L. elodes, but the whirls are more convex, 
one less in number, and the two terminal ones are 
proportionally smaller; the callus of the labium, 
also, near its inferior termination, is applied still 
more closely to the surface of the body whirl. 

7. L. *macrostomus. Shell sub-oval ; whirls five, 
body whirl somewhat reticulated; suture not pro- 
foundly indented; spire about two-thirds of the 
length of the aperture, acute ; aperture much dilated ; 
labrum not thickened on the inner sub-margin. 

Inhabits Cayuga Lake. 

Length one half of an inch, and upwards. 

Imperfect specimens of this shell were found on 
the shore of Cayuga Lake by Mr. A. Jessup, but they 
are sufficiently entire, to exhibit considerable similari- 
ty to some varieties of L. auricularius of Europe. 
It may readily be distinguished from L.catascopium, 
by its much more dilated aperture. 

8. L. *emarginatus. Shell rather thin, translu- 
cent ; volutions four, very convex ; body whirl large; 
suture deeply impressed; spire somewhat eroded; 
mouth two- thirds of the length of the shell. 

Length nearly 4-5 of an inch ; of the mouth half 
inch. 



OF THE UNITED STATES, 171 

Inhabits Lakes of Maine. 

This species was discovered by Mr. Aaron Stone. 

It is a rather larger, and considerably wider shell 
than L. catascopium, and the emargination visible on 
a profile view of the umbilical groove, is far more 
profound. 

Genus Physa. 

1. P. *gyrina. Shell heterostrophe, oblong 5 
whirls five or six, gradually acumiuating to an acute 
apex ; suture slightly impressed ; aperture more than 
one half, but less than two-thirds of the length of the 
shell ; labrum a little thickened on the inner margin. 

Length rather less than one inch. 

Inhabits waters of the Missouri. 

Of this species, I found two specimens at Bowyer 
creek, near Council Bluff. It differs from P. hete* 
rostropha in magnitude, in having a more elon- 
gated spire, and less deeply -impressed suture. 

2. P. *elon%ata. Shell heterostrophe, pale yel- 
lowish, very fragile, diaphanous, oblong ; whirls six 
or seven ; spire tapering, acute at the tip ; suture 
slightly impressed ; aperture not dilated, attenuated 
above, about half as long as the shell ; columella 
much narrowed near the base, so that the view, may 
be partially extended from the base towards the 
apex. 

Inhabits shores of Illinois. 

Length 7-10 inch. 

Greatest breadth 3-10 nearly. 



172 UNIVALVE SHELLS 

Animal deep black, immaculate, above and be- 
neath; tentacula setaceous, a white annulation at 
base. 

In the fragility of the shell, this species ap- 
proaches nearest to columella. It is very common 
in stagnant ponds on the banks of the Mississippi. 
When the shell includes the animal, it appears of a 
deep black colour, with an obsolete testaceous spot 
near the base on the anterior side. Its proportions 
are somewhat similar to those of P. hypnorum, 

P. heterostropha (Nicholson's Encyc.)Is very com- 
mon in ponds of the Missouri as far as Council 
Bluff. 

Genus Cyclostoma. 

C. *marginata. Shell turreted, pale horn colour, 
or dusky, obsoletely wrinkled across ; suture rathei 
deeply impressed ; volutions six ; aperture mutic, 
sub-oval, truncated transversely above by the penul- 
timate whirls, nearly 1-3 the length of the shell ; 
labium nearly transverse, colour of the exterior part 
of the shell ; labrum equally aud widely reflected, 
thick, white ; umbilicus distinct. 

Inhabits Upper Missouri. 

Length 1-5 of an inch. 

Size of Paludina lapidaria. Lister represents a 
species on plate 22 fig. 19, which, although rather 
larger, may possibly be intended for this species ; he 



OF THE UNITED STATES* 173 

denominates it " Buccinum exiguum Ritfum quinq 
orbium." This shell does not perfectly correspond 
in character with Cyclostoma ; it is most probably a 
Pupa, and if so the specific name must be changed, 
as the present name is pre- occupied in that genus. 

Genus Valvata. 

V. triccttinata (Nicholson's Encyc.) occurs in 
considerable numbers in ponds, in the vicinity of 
Council Bluff. 

Genus Paludina. 

1. P. *ponderosa. Shell somewhat ventricose., 
much thickened, olivaceous or blackish ; spire not 
much elongated, much shorter than the aperture, 
eroded at tip, but not truncated ; whirls five, slightly 
wrinkled across ; suture profoundly impressed}; aper- 
ture sub-ovate, more than half the length of the shell j 
labium with much calcareous deposit, and thickened 
into a callosity at the superior angle ; within tinged 
with blue. 

Inhabits Ohio River. 

Greatest length one inch and 11-20. 

Transverse diameter one inch and 1-10. 

This shell is common at the falls of the Ohio, and 
is a very remarkably thick aud ponderous species* 
It bears a striking resemblance to P. decisa, and has 
without doubt, been generally considered as the same ; 
but it differs from that species in being much more 



174* UNIVALVE SHELL8 

incrassated and heavy ; and although much decorti- 
cated and eroded upon the spire, the tip is not trun- 
cated. In the labrum also is a distinctive character ; 
by comparison this part will be perceived to be less 
arquated in its superior limb, than the corresponding 
part in decisa. 

2. P. Hntegra. Shell olivaceous, pale, conic ; 
whirls six, wrinkled across ; spire rather elongated, 
entire at the apex ; suture profoundly indented ; 
aperture sub-ovate, less than half of the length of the 
shell. 

Inhabits the waters of the Missouri. 

Length 1-4 inch. 

Very much resembles P. decisa, the spire how- 
ever is more elongated, and never truncated at the 
apex, but always acute. 

3. P. *porata. Shell obtusely-conic or subglo- 
bose; volutions four, convex, obsoletely wrinkled 
across ; spire obtuse ; labrum and labium equally 
rounded, meeting above in a sub- acute angle ; the 
upper edge of the latter appressed to the preceding 
whirl ; umbilicus very distinct. 

Inhabits Cayuga Lake. 

Cabinet of the Academy. 

This species which was found by Mr. Jessup, is 
rather larger and more globose than P. limosa to 
which it is allied, and has a more distinct umbilicus. 
It resembles P. decipiens of Ferrussac, but is much 
less acute, and rather smaller. 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 175 

4. P. Hustrica. Shell conic; whirls slightly 
wrinkled, convex: suture profoundly indented ; aper- 
ture oval nearly orbicular ; labrum with the superior 
edge not appressed to the preceding whirl, but sin> 
ply touching it ; umbilicus rather large, rounded. 

Length less than i-10 of an inch. 

Cabinet of the Academy. 

The smallest species I have seen. The aperture 
somewhat resembles that of a Valvata, to which ge- 
nus it may probably be referrible. Mr. Jessup ob- 
tained two specimens, on the shore of Cayuga Lake. 

Genus Melania. 

1. M. *canaliculata. Shell tapering, horn-colour ; 
volutions about seven, slightly wrinkled ; spire to- 
wards the apex much eroded, whitish ; body with a 
large obtuse groove, which is obsolete upon the 
whirls of the spire, in consequence of the revolution 
of the suture on its inferior margin ; this arrange- 
ment permits the superior margin of the groove, only, 
to be seen on the spire, in the form of an obtuse ca- 
rina on each of the volutions ; aperture bluish- white 
within, with one or two obsolete revolving sangui- 
neous lines; labrum slightly undulated by the 
groove, and with a distinct sinus at the base of the, 
columella. 

Inhabits Ohio River. 

Length one inch and one tenth. 

Breadth 3-5 of an inch. 

Greatest transverse diameter more than 2-fc 



176 UNI VALVE 8HELLS 

Very common at the Falls of the Ohio River. It 
is probably the largest species of this genus in the 
United States, and may be readily distinguished from 
its congeners by its broad groove. 

2. M. *elevata. Shell gradually attenuating to 
the apex, slightly and irregularly wrinkled, oliva- 
ceous ; suture not deeply impressed ; volutions nine 
or ten, with several more or less elevated revolving 
lines, of which one being more conspicuous gives the 
shell a carinated appearance ; aperture oblique, 
equalling the length of the second, third, and fourth 
volutions conjunctly. 

Length one inch. 

Breadth two-fifths. 

Inhabits Ohio River. 

Distinct from our other species, by the elevated re- 
volving lines. 

3. M. *conica. Shell conic, rapidly attenuating 
to an acute apex, very slightly wrinkled, olivaceous ; 
suture not deeply impressed ; volutions seven or 
eight ; aperture oblique, equalling the length of the 
second, third, and fourth whirls conjunctly. 

Var. a. With from one to three, revolving, rufus 
or blackish lines. 

Length nearly 3-5 inch. 

Of the aperture 1-4 inch. 

Inhabits Ohio River. 

May be readily distinguished from M* virgvmca 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 177 

by the much more rapid attenuation of the spire, and 
in the proportional difference in the length of the 
aperture, which in the virginica is not more than 
equal to the length of the second and third whirls. 

4. M. *prcerosa. Shell subglobular, oval, horn 
colour; volutions three or four, wrinkled across; 
spire very short, much eroded, in the old shell, so 
much so as to be sometimes not prominent above the 
body whirl, body whirl large, ventricose, with a very 
obtuse, slightly impressed revolving band ; aperture 
suboval, above acute and effuse 5 within on the side 
of the exterior lip about four revolving purplish lines, 
sometimes dotted, sometimes obsolete or wanting; 
labium thickened, particularly at the superior termi- 
nation near the angle, and tinged with purplish 5 
base of the columella somewhat elongated and in- 
curved, meeting the exterior lip at an angle. 

Length about 4-5 inch. 

Inhabits Ohio River. 

Found in plenty at the falls of the Ohio, the spire 
is remarkably carious in the older shells, and the 
penultimate whirl, between the aperture and the 
spire is also remarkably eroded in many older shells. 
The spire in the young shell is entire, and but little 
prominent though acute, and the bands are distinct on 
the exterior of the shell. This shell does not seem 
to correspond with the genus to which I have for the 
present referred it, and owing to the configuration of 
the base of the columella, if it is not a Melanopsis, 

83 



178 UNIVALVE SHELLS 

it is probable its station will be between the genera 
Melania and Acathina. I propose for it the generic 
name of ANCULOSA. 

5. M. *armigera. Shell tapering, brownish-horn 
colour ; volutions about six, slightly wrinkled ; spire 
near the apex eroded, whitish ; body whirl with a 
revolving series of about five or six distant, promi- 
nent tubercles, which become obsolete on the spire, 
and are concealed by the revolution of the succeeding 
whirls, in consequence of which arrangement there 
is the appearance of a second, smaller, and more ob- 
tuse subsutural series of tubercles on the body whirl ; 
two or three obsolete revolving reddish-brown lines ; 
aperture bluish- white within 5 a distinct sinus at the 
base of tne columella. 

Inhabits Ohio Uiver. 

Length about one inch. 

Distinguished from other N. American species, by 
the armature of tubercles. 

GENUS BULLA. 

13. fluviatilis. Shell sub-oval, pellucid, pale yel- 
lowish white, finely wrinkled ; volutions three ; body 
whirl large with a prominently carinated shoulder 
bounding the spire ; spire perfectly flat or slightly 
concave, giving to the shell a perfectly truncated ap- 
pearance in that part ; aperture longer than the co- 
lumella, oblong-ovate, extending beyond the tip of 
the spire ; umbilicus profound, edged by a slight 
carina. 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 179 

Length of the aperture 1 5 of an inch. 

Greatest breadth somewhat less. 

Inhabits the River Delaware. 

This species seems to be rather rare ; it was dis- 
covered by Mr. Aaron Stone, deeply imbedded in 
the mud ; Mi\ William Hyde of this city, has since 
found specimens of it, amongst some dead shells of 
other genera assembled in a small inlet of the river. 

Descriptions of rare plants recently introduced into 
the gardens of Philadelphia. By Thomas Nut- 
tall. Read March 5, 1822. 

* NEMOPHILA.f 

Calix decemfidus, laciniis exterioribus reflexis* 
Corolla subcampanulata quinquelobata, lobis emar- 
ginatis, ad basin foveolis marginatis staminiferis. 
Stamina brevia, filamentis nudis. Capsula carnosa 
unilocularis bivalvis. Semina quatuor. 

Herba succulenta annua, caule triquetro ; foliis al- 
ternis pinnatifidis, pedunculi longissimi uniflori op- 
positifolii et terminali subracemosi, racemis incurvis, 
fructibus defiexis. Corolla sastivatione convoluta. 
HydrophyUum affinis. 

N. Phacelioides. 

Description. Root fibrous annual, but more 
commonly biennial. Stem fragile, smooth, some 

t From 7i/a«c, a grove, and 0»m«» I l»ve, a plant peculiar to 
shady woods 



180 NEW SPECIES 

what tender and diaphanous, plano-convex, 12 to 
18 inches long, branching from the base and decum- 
bent, possessing a tenaceous and elastic centre. 
Leaves alternate, pinnatifid, somewhat succulent, 
and on the upper surface a little scabrous, seg 
ments 5 or 6 pair, subovate, or lanceolate, acute, 
partly falcate, and presenting a few incisions ; petiole 
ciliated, its internal base lanuginous. Peduncles one- 
flowered, terete, very long, sometimes near upon a 
span, and attenuated towards their extremities, at 
first remote, and coming out opposite the leaves, but 
at length, as the period of inflorescence advances, ap- 
proximating into a kind of raceme, which is prima- 
rily curved. Calix campanulate, ten-cleft, the seg- 
ments ovate and acute, ciliate, the larger connivent 
and erect, the exterior much smaller and reflected. 
Corolla pelviform-campanulate, flax flower blue, the 
lobes oval and naked, obliquely emarginated, before 
expansion convolute, the exterior base producing 10 
purple spots, the internal base furnished with ^vt 
foveolate nectariferous cavities, with tomentose mar- 
gins, bearing the stamina. Stamina about half the 
length of the corolla, the filaments filiform and 
smooth ; anthers sagitate- oblong, brownish-yellow. 
Style one, bifid, below hirsute. Capsule oval, co- 
vered by the connivent calix, somewhat hirsute, one- 
celled, four-seeded, the seeds by pairs alternately 
immersed in a fleshy succulent receptacle occupying 
the whole cavity of the capsule. 

Hab. In the shady woods of Cedar prairie, ten 
miles from Fort Smith, and from thence in similar 



OF PLANTS. 181 

situations to the sources of the Pottoe. Flowering 
in May. 

It is a hardy biennial, the seeds germinate in au- 
tumn, and the seedlings after surviving the winter, 
flower in the succeeding spring. 

* CALLIRHOE. 

Calix simplex, quinquefidus. Capsular plurimse 
monospermy in annula congests. 

Habitu Sida consimilis. 

C. digitata, glauca, foliis inferioribus pseudo- 
digitatis, subpeltatis, laciniis linearibus subdivisie 
glabriusculis, supremis tripartitis simpliciusque, pe- 
dunculis subracemosis longissimis. 

Hab. In the open prairies near Fort Smith, in 
bushy places, not very common. Flowering in May 
and June. 

Description. Root tuberous, somewhat fusiform 
and perennial. Stem simple or sparingly branched, 
smooth and glaucous, about three to four feet high. 
Radical and lower leaves like those of a Delphinium 
but the divisions partly peltate, the segments 8 or 9 
in number, 3 or 4 inches long, linear, simple, bifid 
and trifid, the primary radical ones occasionally 
somewhat hispid, the succeeding foliage smooth. 
Branchlets merely floriferous, naked, the peduncles 
a foot or more in length, attenuated and articulated a 
little below the calix, which is simple and 5-cleft, 
attenuated at its base, the segments ovate, acumi- 
nate. Flowers carmine red, about the size of those 



182 ANNALY9IS OF 

of the common cultivated Mallows ; the petals cre- 
nulate and distinctly unguiculate. Capsules one 
seeded, and roughened with depressed punctures, not 
spontaneously opening, and as in Malva and Althaea 
disposed in a ring. 

This genus, of which the species are hardy orna- 
mental and perennial, appears to afford an additional 
link of connection between the genera, Sida and 
Malva. 

Cultivated by Mr. William Dick in the garden of 
the University of Pennsylvania, by whom it has been 
dedicated to the author. 

Description and Analysis of the Table Spar, from 
the vicinity of Willsborough, Lake Champlain. 
By Lardner Vanuxem. Read March 5, 1832. 

This mineral, which by some was considered to be 
Ichthyopthalmite, and by others Grammatite, ap- 
pears in masses, composed of imperfectly tabular 
crystals, irregularly grouped together, of a white 
colour, and presenting a slight pearly lustre in al- 
most every directiou in which it is viewed. The 
crystals present natural joints, parallel to a quadran- 
gular prism, with a rhombic base, whose angles are 
about 94 and 86°; other cleavages again divide this 
prism according to the diagonals of its base ; all the 
joints are easily separated with a knife, and all of 
these apparently presenting the same degree of 
smoothness and lustre : no joints are perceptible in 
the direction of the base. Itis fusible into a transparent 



TABLE SPAR. 183 

colourless glass. Hardness between common glass 
and carbonate of lime. Specific gravity 2. 89. Ac- 
companying this mineral are small grains of cocco- 
lite, whose colour is brown and green ; the former 
ones, no doubt belong to Garnet, the latter, from pos- 
sessing natural joints, seems to be a distinct sub- 
stance. 

The mineral in question, forms a jelly with muri- 
atic acid : loses nothing by calcination, although 
maintained for half an hour at a red heat : on ex- 
amination, I found it to consist of Silex, of Lime, and 
a small quantity of oxide of Iron. Its analysis was 
made in the following manner. 

150 grains were boiled with muriatic acid, as long 
as any part appeared to be unattacked; water was 
then added and the solution filtered, the Silex an in- 
soluble part when calcined, weighed 77 1-2 grains. 
That no uncertainty should exist with respect to the 
quantity of Silex, it was a second time repeated upon 
another portion of the mineral, with precisely the 
same result. 

To the liquor from which the Silex had been se- 
parated, carbonate of ammonia was added until it 
ceased to give any further precipitate ; this was se- 
parated by filtering, when well dried, it weighed 
121 grains; and consisted of carbonate of lime, 
slightly coloured with oxide of Iron. It was set aside 
for further examination. The ammoniacd liquor 
was evaporated to dryness, then calcined ; nothing 
remained but 4 i-% grains of muriate of Lime ; which 
had escaped decomposition. 



184 analyssis of 

Sulphuric acid was added to the Carbonate of 
Lime, which converted it into Gypsum and dissolved 
the Iron mixed with it. It was filtered and the Iron 
so held in solution, was thrown down by ammonia 
thus separated and calcined, it weighed 2 grains. 

The result of this Analysis, gives us on estimating 
the quantity of lime by difference, 

Silex - - 77. 5 or per cent. M. 67 
Lime - - 70. 5 - - 47. 00 
Oxide of Iron - 2. - - - 1. 35 



100. 100. 00 



But as the Iron appears to be an accidental ingredi- 
ent in this mineral, the real composition of it will be, 

Silex 52. 36 ~> Containing according to this (26. 71 > of oxi~ 
lame 47. 64 3 presumed composition, ^ 13. 38 5 g e n« 

100. 00 



Hence this mineral is a bisilicate of Lime, if the 
oxygenous composition of these earths be correct ; 
the quantity of oxygen in the Silex being twice that 
contained in the Lime. 

From the external and other characters of this mi- 
neral, and from its chemical composition, it appears 
to be identical with the rare mineral called Schaal- 
stein or Table Spar, although according to the Ana- 
lysis of Klaproth, this mineral contaius 5 per cent, 
of water. But Berzelius in his new system of mine- 
ralogy published in 1819, at Paris, says, "from ex- 



TABLE SPAR. 



periinents which I have had occasion to make with 
this mineral, L am induced to consider the water as 
accidental. I have examined very pure specimens 
of Table Spar, which did not contain any at all." 



Geological and Mineralogical notice of a portion of 
the North- Eastern part of the State ofNeiv- York. 
By Augustus E. Jessup. Read March 19, 1822. 

On the eastern, and a considerable part of the west- 
ern shore of Lake Champlain, as far north as Bur- 
lington in Vermont, shell Limestone is the only rock 
that appears ; hence, I am induced to believe, that 
the bed of the lake rests on the Secondary or Floetz 
formation. This rock extends in some places four 
and five miles from the lake on the eastern side, but 
is seldom found to extend more than a few paces from 
its western shore : it abounds with fossil reliquiae ; 
such as Terebratulites, Encrinites, Orthoceratites, 
and Corallines. Its colour is generally bluish-gray. 
To the west, it appears to rest on the Primitive, and 
I think, also to the east. JVIy reasons for supposing 
it to rest on the primitive, on the Vermont shore of 
the lake, are the following : 1st. That many of those 
minerals which occur in the vicinity of the western 
shore of the lake, are also found imbedded in the 
same rocks near the eastern shore. 2nd. Near 
Crown Point in New- York, are very extensive beds 
of magnetic oxide of iron, and the same variety is 
also found north-east of this, near Vergennes in Ver- 



186 GEOLOGY, &C. OF A 

mont. I think that the Transition, docs not inter- 
pose between the Primitive and Secondary forma- 
tions in this vicinity ; or, if it does, but partially so. 
The hills in the vicinity of Lakes George and Cham- 
plain, extend in a line nearly north and south ; they 
consist of detached masses, the tops of which are either 
rounded, or extend nearly in a horizontal line of 
greater or less extent $ their sides are generally very 
abrupt ; their height varies from five to fifteen hun- 
dred feet above the level of the adjacent lakes. 

At Essex in New- York, the hills of Lake Cham- 
plain, retire from its western shore, about six miles ; 
their usual height at this place, is about eight hun- 
dred feet. Nine miles north-west of Essex, in the 
town of Willsborough is a detached mountain mass, 
which extends from east to west : on its northern 
face, near its base, is a bed of Garnet-resinite, in pri- 
mitive Trap : the bed is from six to ten feet in 
width ; it extends from South-east, to North-west, 
and dips towards the North-east, making an angle 
of inclination with the horizon, of about thirty-five 
degrees. The Garnet resinite is accompauied by 
Tabular Spar, common massive, and granular Gar- 
net, and Pyroxene. This locality was first visited 
in 1810, by Doct. William Meade ; by whose direc- 
tions 1 was enabled to fiud it. The Garnet resinite 
is also found imbedded in primitive Trap, at Char- 
lotte, in Vermont, eight miles east of Essex. 

Three miles south of the upper falls of Lake 
George, is an abrupt acclivity, the eastern face of 
which, presents a surface composed apparently of 



PART OF NEW YORK. 187 

an entire rock, destitute of herbage, and constituting 
about three-fourths of the whole height of the moun- 
tain ; which I suppose to be about twelve hundred 
feet. The foot of this rock terminates abruptly at 
the margin of the lake, and extends along its shore 
for more than half a mile : it is commonly known by 
the name of Roger's Rock. Near the northern ex- 
tremity of this rock, a spur sets out towards the east, 
which is apparently about two-thirds as high as the 
main body of the mountain : it is on this spur, that 
the following minerals occur either in veins, or im- 
bedded in primitive Trap, Sienite, or Carbonate of 
Lime; viz, Augite; Coccolite (Pyroxene- granuli- 
forme of Hauy) ; Sphene ; granular and massive 
Garnet; and Plumbago. 

The primitive Trap is well characterised, the 
Hornblende being in distinct crystalline laminae, not 
unlike that which occurs in many places in the vicini- 
ty of Philadelphia, particularly at the head of the 
old canal road, on the Schuylkill, and on the Brandy- 
wine, near Wilmington. The rock which I have 
called Sienite, is composed of Hornblende, and com- 
pact Feldspar ; it therefore differs from the common 
Sienite in as much, as the Feldspar does not possess 
a crystalline structure : the colour of the Hornblende 
is black, and greenish-black, that of the Feldspar is 
white and reddish- white, or flesh coloured : the pro- 
portion of the Hornblende is very small : this is the 
most abundant rock in the neighbourhood of this part 
of lake George. 



188 GEOLOGY, &C. OF A 

The Carbonate of Lime is white ; its structure is 
coarse-grained, crystalline : the grains, which are 
generally about the size of a pea, after having been 
exposed to the action of the atmosphere, for a consi- 
derable length of time, are easily separated between 
the fingers. In one place I saw a bed of reddish- 
brown Serpentine, throughout which small specks 
of Bronzite were thickly interspersed ; it was ap- 
parently situated in Sienite. It was impossible to 
ascertain the order of the strata ; they appear to dip, 
towards the north-east and north, and were much 
interrupted and broken. 

Garnet Resinite. 

This mineral, constitutes almost the whole of the 
large bed in the primitive Trap at Willsborough, 
mentioned in the preceding Geological sketch ; its 
colour in the mass, is brownish-black and reddish- 
brown ; by transmitted light, hyacinth-red, inclining 
to crimson ; by exposure to the air, many specimens, 
become beautifully iridescent ; external lustre, semi- 
metallic ; internal, resinous : translucent : form, inde- 
terminable : fracture, slightly conchoidal : structure, 
coarse, and fine grained, and compact ; grains feebly 
adhering. Specific Gravity 3. 52, 

Common Gamet. 

This accompanies the preceding : colour light hy- 
acinth-red : lustre, resinous : transparent : struc- 
ture, granular ; in some specimens indistinctly la- 



PART OF NEW YORK, 189 

mellar ; grains, less than in the preceding variety : 
this is not abundant. 

Tabular Spar. 

This is found interspersed in small beds, in the 
bed of Garnet resiuite, with which it is more or less 
intimately mixed. Colour, pure and greyish- white ; 
by exposure to the air, it becomes more opaque, than 
when first taken from the bed ; lustre, pearly : the 
tables are semi-transparent : it occurs in tables con-v 
fusedly intermixed ; a few of which have a tendency 
to the hexagonal form ; this was noticed by Karsten 
in some of the European specimens of this mineral: 
the tables are longitudinally striated. It possesses 
a double cleavage, parallel to the sides of a slightly 
rhomboidal prism, its angles by the common gonio- 
meter are 93° and 87° \ longitudinal fracture fibrous; 
transverse, uneven : scratches glass : moderately* 
frangible : structure, crystalline : specific gravity 
2. 98. Phosphoresces by friction and heat. 

Augite. First Variety. 

This accompanies the Garnet resinite and Tabu- 
lar Spar, among which it is sparingly interspersed, 
in grains, of about the size of a small pin's head. 
As the term, Coccolite, has been applied to granular 
Pyroxene, it is probable, that this mineral ought to 
be classed under that name. Its colour in the grains 
is emerald green^ in powder, greenish white : exter- 



190 GEOLOGY OF A 

nal lustre, dull ; internal, glistening : semi-transpa- 
rent : scratches glass : cleavage, distinct. 

Jlugite Second Variety, 

This variety occurs at Roger's Rock, near Ticon- 
deroga, associated with Feldspar, crystallized 
Sphene, and Plumbago. Colour of the mass, light 
blackish -green, by long exposure to the atmosphere, 
it becomes dark blackish-green ; colour of the pow- 
der, greenish- white ; lustre, dull : opaque, in mass ; 
in thin fragments, slightly translucent : form, regu- 
lar, octagonal prisms, generally without distinct ter- 
minal faces : I have one specimen on which there are 
two terminated crystals; but T do not know that the 
form is described : it is an octagonal prism termi- 
nated by four faces, two of which correspond with 
the two principal faces of the Pyroxene sexoctagone 
of the Abbe Hauy ; the two other faces may be con- 
sidered as the result of a decrement upon the edges, 
formed by the junction of the third terminal face of 
the sexoctagone with the two principal ones above 
named : its cleavage, is imperfect : transverse and 
longitudinal fracture, splintery : fragments, angular : 
scratches glass : tough: structure, crystalline : the 
crystals vary from a few lines, to near three inches 
in diameter. Specific Gravity, 2. 33. 

Coccolite, ( Pyroxene granuliforme of Hauy. J 

The geological position of this, is the same, as the 
preceding mineral ; of which (both from its physical 



PART OF NEW YORK. 191 

and chemical characters,) it may he considered as be- 
ing only a variety. The south face of the hluff near 
Roger's rock-, presents an entire mass, which is com- 
posed principally of this mineral ; its height is ahout 
fifty feet, and length eighty. 

Colour, light blackish-green, and black : lustre, 
generally feeble, sometimes resinous : semi-transpa- 
rent: fracture in mass,fine grained : scratches glass : 
structure, granular : the grains, which are small ; in 
some specimens, adhere firmly, in others, feebly. It 
is accompanied by Sphene, Garnet, Carbonate of 
Lime, and Feldspar, 

Sphene. 

This accompanies the Pyroxene and Coccolite. 
Its colour is reddish and yellowish-brown : lustre 
resplendent : nearly transparent : crystalline : form 
dioctaedre of Hauy : that which occurs with the 
coccolite has no regular form. 

Granular Garnet 

This accompanies the Coccolite ; and is also found 
in large masses unmixed with any other mineral : It 
has been called by some mineralogists, red Coc- 
colite. 

Its colour is red, of various shades : grains small, 
and feebly adhering. 

Massive Garnet. 

This is found in large masses : it passes into the 
preceding variety. 



i 



The Publishing Committee have great pleasure in 
acknowledging the very valuable donation lately re- 
ceived by the Academy from their president, Wil- 
liam Maclure, Esq. 

This donation includes many very rare, costly and 
splendid works on Natural History, which in addi- 
tion to those previously in the possession of the Aca- 
demy, many of which have likewise been presented 
by Mr. Maclure, constitute one of the most valuable 
and extensive Libraries of Natural History in the 
United States. 

The succeeding catalogue includes a part only of 
Mr. Maclure's recent donation, the publication of the 
remainder is unavoidably postponed for the present. 
It will appear at the end of the volume, together 
with a list of donations to the Museum. 



JOURNAL 



OF THE 



Academy of Natural Sciences 



OF 



THIIiADEliTJHIA. 



VOL. II. PART II* 



PHILADELPHIA: 

PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY. 

BY J.HARDING. 



JOURNAL 

OF THE 

ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES 

OF 

PHILADELPHIA. 
JUNE 1822. 

lAst of Officers lor the Xeax 1833. 

President. 

William Maclure. 

Vice Presidents. 

Zaccheus Collins, George Ord. 

Corresponding Secretary. 

Reuben Haines. 

Recording Secretary. 

William H. Keating. 

Curators. 

Thomas Say, C. A. Le Sueur, Isaac Hays, M. D. 

J. P. Wetherill. 

Treasurer. 
Jacob Gilliams. 

Librarian. 

Jacob Peirce. 

Committee of Publication. 

Thomas Say, Thomas Nuttall, Isaac Hays, M. D. 

Isaac Lea, R. E. Griffith, M. D. 

24 



194 DESCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS 

Account of the Jeffersonite, a new miner all disco- 
vered at the Franklin Iron Works, near Sparta 
in New- Jersey, by Lardner Vaxuxem and Wil- 
liam H. Keating. Described and analysed by 
W. H. Keating. Head June 4th, 1822. 

About six miles to the north-east of the town of 
Sparta, in Sussex county, New- Jersey, are to be seen 
the remains of the old Franklin furnace. This fur- 
nace, situate on one of the most beautiful and eligible 
spots for the working of iron, offers a striking exam- 
ple of the failures which attend all works, which are 
not conducted with a sufficient degree of attention to 
scientific acquirements. Placed in the centre of an 
extensive forest, with an abundant supply of water, 
surrounded by numerous and inexhaustible beds of 
ore, at a convenient distance from two good markets, 
the Franklin works must have appeared to their first 
owners calculated to become of the highest impor- 
tance ; and such most undoubtedly would have been 
the result, but for one difficulty which intervened, 
arrested the operation, and after many fruitless at- 
tempts caused the total abandonment of the works. 
This difficulty was, it is true, of vital importance. It 
arose from ignorance as to the nature of the ore in- 
tended to be worked, and of the minerals which ac- 
company it. Having long attempted to work by the 
common process, an ore which was of a distinct nature, 
and which, consequently, required a distinct mode of 
treatment, they at last threw up in disgust an under- 
taking which very little science would have made 



OF THE JEFFEUSONITE. 195 

highly productive. To the late Dr. Bruce, we are 
indebted for the first light thrown upon this interest- 
ing section of our country, and to him the honour of 
the discovery of the red zinc ore is due. This was, 
undoubtedly, the first step toward the advancement of 
that section of the country. The next, and a more 
important one, was the determination of the real na- 
ture of the substance, which had hitherto been consi- 
dered as a common iron ore, and which is now known 
under the name of Franklinite, as a combination of the 
oxides of iron, zinc, and manganese. This discovery 
was made in the Laboratory of the Royal School of 
Mines in Paris, in the spring of 1819, and has been 
published by Professor Berthier, in the 4th volume 
of the " Annales des Mines," 1819. 

Having in the month of August last, visited this spot 
with my friend Lardner Vanuxem, esquire, of the 
South Carolina College, our attention was directed 
with peculiar pleasure to a bed of ore, which offered a 
number of new and interesting varieties of minerals, 
and which we think bids fair to become as celebrated 
in mineralogy, as the localities of Uto or Arendal. 

It is not my object at present, to enter into an enu- 
meration of the minerals which occur there ; this I 
shall defer, until I am enabled to furnish the Acade- 
my with a mineralogical and geological description 
of that vicinity, an object which Mr. Vanuxem and I 
have long had in contemplation, and which we shall 
probably soon accomplish, unless it be previously 
undertaken by some abler observer. I shall merely 
state, that the minerals which we collected, in.- 



196 DESCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS 

elude besides the oxidule of Iron, Franklinite crys- 
talized in regular octahedrons with truncated edges, 
Garnets of various kinds, and among others, a black 
emarginated dodecahedral Garnet, analogous to the 
Melanite of Monte Somma, Chondrodite, the same 
variety as exists at Sparta, and also a new variety 
of the same substance, besides many other interest- 
ing minerals. 

The present communication is intended to make 
known a mineral, which an attentive examination 
made by Mr. Vanuxem and myself, has induced us 
to consider as a new species. Our observations upon 
this mineral made separately, and at a distance, have 
led us to the same conclusion ; and the analysis which 
I undertook at his request, has fully confirmed the 
conclusions drawn from its mineralogical characters. 
The following description includes, besides my ob- 
servations, those with which Mr. Vanuxem has fa- 
voured me. For the results of the chemical analysis 
I alone stand answerable. 

This mineral has hitherto been found in lamellar 
masses, the largest of which does not exceed a pi- 
geon's egg, imbedded in Franklinite and Garnet. 

It presents three distinct cleavages, two of which 
are considerably easier than the third. These clea- 
vages lead us for a primitive form to a rhomboidal 
prism, with a base slightly inclined. The angles of 
the prism are i 06° and 74°, those of the inclination of 
the base are 94° 45' and 85° 15'. There is another 
face, which makes with the vertical face of the prism, 
angles of 110° and 70°. I have likewise seen, in one 



OF THE JEFFERSONITE. 197 

instance, cleavages parallel to a rhomboidal prism of 
116° and 61°. I have also obtained cleavages under an 
angle of about 99° 45' and 80° 15'. I have not been 
able to trace the connexion between these and the 
former, but I am inclined to think, that they result 
from the combination of the two prisms just mention- 
ed. 1 had hoped, as some of the cleavages have a 
tolerable degree of lustre, to have been enabled to de- 
termine the angles by the reflecting goniometer, but 
all my attempts to that effect have proved unsuccess- 
ful. I have not been able to obtain a reflection from 
any one face. 

The hardness of this mineral is intern ediate be- 
tween that of Fluor Spar and Apatite. It is very 
readily scratched by Pyroxene, (Malacolite.) 

Its specific gravity varies from 3. 51 to 3. 55. I 
have in one instance obtained it as high as 3. 64, but 
I suspect the mineral to have been mixed with Frank- 
linite. 

Its colour is dark olive-green, passing into brown. 

It is slightly translucent upon the edges. 

Its lustre is slight, but semi- metallic upon the faces 
of cleavage ; in the transverse fracture it is resinous. 

The fracture is lamellar when in the direction of 
cleavage, otherwise it is uneven. 

When scratched with a knife, the streak is gray- 
ish. 

The colour of the powder is a light-green. 

Before the blowpipe it melts readily into a dark 
coloured globule. 



198 DESCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS 

It displays no electric signs, either naturally or by 
heat or friction. 

It is not magnetic, either in the common way, or 
by the ingenious method of double magnetism which 
we owe to Abbe Hauy. 

The acids do not act upon it when cold. When 
digested a long time with boiling nitro-muriatic acid 
about 10-100 is dissolved. The residue is of a 
lighter colour. 

Its chemical composition was ascertained by two 
analyses, the results of which were strikingly simi- 
lar, and were as follows :* 

* The mode of analysis was as follows. Having by prelimi- 
nary experiments ascertained that this mineral was chiefly com- 
posed of silex, lime, oxide of manganese, and oxide of iron, 
and suspecting the presence of alumine, magnesia and oxide of 
zinc from its gangues the Franklinite, Garnets, &c. I treated 
it as follows : the finely pulverized mineral was fused in a silvei 
crucible, with three parts of caustic potash and kept in fusion 
during half an hour; the fusion was readily obtained, the mineral 
communicated to the mass a reddish colour, with a greenish 
tinge on the edges. Having diluted the mass with water, and 
saturated with muriatic acid, a complete solution ensued. By a 
careful evaporation to dryness, the silex became insoluble in 
water slightly acidulated, while all the other ingredients were dis- 
solved. By the addition of a solution of saturated hydro-sulfate 
of potash, the lime and magnesia (if any,) were separated from 
the other substances which were precipitated. (Care had been 
taken to ascertain that the hydro-sulfate used, precipitated nei- 
ther of these earths.) Oxalate of potash was then added to pre- 
cipitate the lime, after which, no precipitate resulting from the 
addition of sub-carbonate of soda, it was evident that this solution 
contained neither magnesia nor any other substance, except the 



OF THE JEFFERSONITE. 199 

Silex . . . o. 560 containing oxygen 29. M700 29 

Lime . o. 151 4.24159 4 

Protoxide of Manganese 0. 135 . . . 2.95790 3 

Peroxide of Iron 0. 100 - . . 3.06600 3 



Oxide of Zinc 


0. 010 


Alumine 


0. 020 


Loss by calcination 


0. 010 



0. 986 
Loss 0. 014 



1. 000 



By assuming the mineralogical formula 4 CS*+ 
S?ngS 3 -j-2FS :i , which is very nearly that indicated by 

alkalies added. The precipitate by the hydro-sulfate, which 
consisted of the oxides of iron, manganese, and zinc, with alu- 
mine, was then calcined and weighed, after which it was re-dis- 
solved in nitro-muriatic acid, (the alumine being in very small 
quantity was also re-dissolved.) A saturated carbonate of soda, 
added without excess, precipitated the oxide of iron, leaving 
those of manganese and zinc. On examining the iron, it was 
found to have carried down with it the alumine which was rea- 
dily separated. The oxides of manganese and zinc were then 
precipitated by sub-carbonate of soda, and separated by means 
of ammonia, according to the accurate method recommended by 
Mr. Berzelius, and described by Mr. Berthier in the " Annales 
des Mines." 

The loss by calcination was ascertained by heating it to a white 
heat in a platina crucible, during a quarter of an hour. The co- 
lour of the mineral was slightly altered, it became of a browner 
hue, and lost one per cent. 

The powder was not magnetic, either before or after calcina- 
tion. 



200 DESCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS 

the results of the analysis, we have for the chemical 
formula, 

4CaSi 2 +3MuSi 2 -f gjVSi 3 which gives us 

Silex . . . 20 atoms, containing 60 atoms oxygen. 
Lime ... 4 8 

Protoxide cf Manganese 3 6 

Peroxide of Iron 2 6 

Which proportions are so near those of the results 
of the analysis, that we may adopt them without he- 
sitation. From this formula, we obtain the true com- 
position of this mineral to be, 

4 at. Trisilicias Calcicus . 1 7619. 60 

3 at. Trisilicias Manganosus . 63; 3. 23 

2 at. Trisilicias Ferricus . . 5535. 38 



1 atom new mineral . . 19468. 21 

Or else 

20 Silex . . . 11928. 40 

4 Lime .... 2848. 24 

3 Protoxide of Manganese . 2734. 71 

2 Peroxide of Iron . . 1956.82 



.9468. 21 



Which reduced to 1,000 parts gives 

Silex . . . 0. 6125 contg. oxygen 3.0808750 30 

Lime . . 0. 1463 . . .4109567 4 

Protoxide of Manganese 0. 1404 . . .3080376 3 

Peroxide of Iron . 0. 1005 . . .3081330 3 



0. 9997 



This mineral will therefore present, in the new and 
expressive language of Mr. Berzelius, 



OF THE JEFFERSONirE. 20l 

4rCS 3 +3;^S 3 +2FS 3 forits mineralogical, & 
4CaSi 2 +3MnSi 2 +2FeSi 3 for its chemical 
formula. 

According to Professor Mohs' new and elegant 
mode of classifying and describing minerals, this 
would form a new species, in his genus Augite Spar,* 
and come immediately after the Pyramido-prismatic 
Augite Spar (Pyroxene, Haiiy.) On account of its 
many cleavages I would propose to give it as a specific 
name, the epithet of Polystome. It would therefore 
be thus designated : 

Class I. 
ORDER SPAR. 

Genus Augite Spar. 
Species, Polystome^ Augite Spar. 
Prismatic. P, unknown. Cleavage P+ 00= 106 c 
H=4. 5 G=3. 51—3. 60. 

But until Mr. Mohs' system be more generally 
known and approved of, it may be proper to give this 
mineral a name unconnected with his arrangement. 
Accordingly Mr. Vanuxem has proposed to dedicate 

* In order to make this species enter fully into the genus 
Augite Spar, it will be necessary to extend the limits of the 
specific gravity of this genus ; and instead of from 2. 7 to 3. 5 
make them from 2. 7 to 3. 6. An alteration which I think Mr, 
Mohs can by no means object to. Should the cleavages be as I 
am inclined to consider them, the species would be described as 
hemi-prismatic instead of prismatic, but this is an alteration 
which it will always be time enough to make. (Vide Mohs* 
Characteristic of Minerals, &c. Dresden and Edinburgh, 1820.) 

•t From ir»?.v§ many and rtpiet I cue. 

25 



203 DESCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS 

this mineral to Mr. Jefferson ; I have readily assent- 
ed to this proposal, and we now offer this mineral to 
the public under the name of the Jeffersonite. 
This mineral has hitherto been found in too small a 
quantity, to offer any utility in the arts. Should it, 
however, be found in sufficient abundance, it would 
become valuable as a flux for the iron- works in the 
vicinity. The absence of magnesia, and the abundance 
of manganese, seem to make it very valuable for this 
object. 

REMARKS. 

The Jeffersonite presents some points of resem- 
blance with the Pyroxene of Haiiy, but still it can 
be well distinguished from it. Its cleavages are es- 
sentially different from those of the Pyroxene, but 
appear to approach some of the faces of crystals of 
substances which have been united to this species : 
for instance, the augles in the Diopside (Mussite and 
Alalite), Fassaite, and in the Pyroxene analogique, 
come very near some of the angles of cleavage ob- 
tained in the Jeffersonite. I at first indulged the 
idea, that these cleavages might be considered as 
cleavages parallel to the faces of secondary crystals 
of Pyroxene, but upon reflection I am fully convinc- 
ed that this is not the case; for the angles which 
we have measured, cannot be deduced from the others 
by a strict mathematical calculation, and though they 
may approximate, they are not the same. Besides, 
no analogy can warrant us in admitting, that the re- 
gular cleavages of one substance can disappear en- 



OF THE JEFFERSONITE. 203 

tirely, and be replaced by cleavages parallel to se- 
condary crystals. On the contrary, wherever mine- 
rals have been found presenting different orders of 
cleavage, the first or those parallel to the primitive 
form were always predominant. Thus in Carbonate 
of Lime, it is not uncommou to meet the cleavage pa- 
rallel to the equiaxe, but 1 believe in every instance 
the primitive is predominant. In a rarer and more 
interesting instance, that of Fluor Spar, Professor 
Mohs has described, and I have seen in his posses- 
sion in Freyberg, specimens of the Saxon Fluor 
which cleaved in the direction of the cube and the 
dodecahedron, but the octahedral cleavage was very 
distinct. Before we change our opinion on this point, 
we must change all our ideas of cleavage, and of its 
high importance in the determination of minerals. 

In the hardness there is also a remarkable differ- 
ence, the Pyroxene being decidedly harder. The 
specific gravity is likewise different: the highest spe- 
cific gravity of Pyroxene recorded by Haiiy, is that 
of a large crystal from Vesuvius, which gave 3.3578. 
The highest specific gravity indicated by Mohs is 
3.5, while that of the Jeffersonite has, in every in- 
stance which I have seen, exceeded this limit. 

The chemical analysis offers another important 
difference, in the absence of magnesia, which ap- 
pears to be essential to Pyroxene. 

For these and other reasons, I conceive that there 
can be no doubt as to the necessity of considering 
this mineral as a distinct species. I am inclined to 
believe that a closer study of the Diopside and Fas- 



204 ON THE GALES OF 

saite, and of the Pyroxene analogique, might lead 
to their separation from the Pyroxene and union 
with the Jeffersonite. This is a subject which ap- 
pears to me fraught with interest, but upon which I 
am not able to offer any thing but conjectures, as my 
specimens of these minerals are not as good as would 
be necessary to enable me to decide this point. 1 
shall merely close these remarks by observing that 
a similar opinion is, I believe, entertained by Mr. 
Vanuxem. 



On the Gales experienced in the Atlantic States of 
North America. By Robert Hare, M. D. Read 
May 14th, 1823. 

Of the gales experienced in the Atlantic States of 
North America, those from the north-east and north- 
west are by far the most influential : the one remark- 
able for its dryness; the other for its humidity. Du- 
ring a north-western gale, the sky, unless at its com- 
mencement, is always peculiarly clear, and not only 
water, but ice evaporates rapidly. A north-east 
wind, when it approaches at all to the nature of a 
durable gale, is always accompanied by clouds, and 
usually by rain or snow. The object of the follow- 
ing essay, is to account for this striking diversity of 
character. 

When to the lower strata of a non- elastic fluid, 
heat is unequally applied, the consequent difference 



THE ATLANTIC STATES. 205 

of density (resulting from the unequal expansion,) 
soon causes movements, by which the colder por- 
tions change places with the warmer. These being 
cooled, resume their previous situation, and are again 
displaced by being again made warmer. Thus, the 
temperature reversing the situations, and these re- 
versing the temperatures, a circulation is kept up 
tending to restore the equilibrium. Precisely similar 
would be the case with our atmosphere, were it not 
an elastic fluid, and dependant for its density on 
pressure, as well as heat. Its temperature would be 
far more uniform than at present, and all its varia- 
tions would be gradual. An interchange of position 
would incessantly take place, between the colder air 
of the upper regions, and the warmer, and of course 
lighter air near the earth's surface, where the most 
heat is evolved from the solar rays. Currents would 
incessantly set from the poles to the equator below, 
and from the equator to the poles above. Such cur- 
rents would constitute our only winds, unless where 
mountains might produce some deviations. Violent 
gales, squalls, or tornadoes, would never ensue. 
Gentler movements would anticipate them. But the 
actual character of the air with respect to elasticity, 
is diametrically the opposite of that which we have 
supposed. It is perfectly elastic. Its density is de- 
pendant on pressure, as well as on heat, and it does 
not follow, that air which may be heated in conse- 
quence of its proximity to the earth, will give place 
to colder air from above. The pressure of the atmos- 
phere varying with the elevation, one stratum of air 



206 ON THE GALES OF 

may be as much rarer by the diminution of pressure 
consequent to its altitude, as denser by the cold, 
consequent to its remoteness from the earth, and an- 
other may be as much denser by the increased pres- 
sure arising from its proximity to the earth, as rarer 
by being warmer. Hence when unequally heated, 
different strata of the atmosphere do not always dis- 
turb each other. Yet after a time, the rarefaction in 
the lower stratum, by greater heat, may so far ex- 
ceed that in an upper stratum attendant on an infe- 
rior degree of pressure, that this stratum may pre- 
ponderate, and begin to descend. Whenever such a 
movement commences, it must proceed with increas- 
ing velocity ; for the pressure on the upper stratum 
and of course its density and weight, increases as it 
falls; while the density and weight of the lower 
stratum, must lessen as it rises. Hence the change 
is, at times, so much accelerated, as to assume the 
characteristics of a tornado, squall or hurricane. In 
like manner may we suppose, the predominant gales 
of our climate to originate. Dr. Franklin long ago 
noticed, that north-eastern gales are felt in the south- 
westernmost portions of the continent first, the time 
of their commencement beins; found later, as the 
place of observation is more to the leeward. This 
need not surprise us, as it is evident that a current 
may be produced either by a pressure from behind, 
or by a hiatus consequent to a removal of a portion 
of the fluid from before. 

The Gulf of Mexico is an immense body of water, 
warm in the first place by its latitude, in the second 



THE ATLANTIC STATES. 207 

place by its being a receptacle of the current pro- 
duced by the trade winds, which blow in such a di- 
rection as to propel the warm water of the torrid 
zone into it, causing it to overflow and produce the 
celebrated Gulf Stream, by the ejection to the north- 
east, of the excess received from the south-east. 
This stream runs away to the northward and east- 
ward of the United States, producing an unnatural 
warmth in the ocean, as well as an impetus, which, 
according to Humboldt, is not expended until the 
current reaches the shores of Africa, and even mixes 
with the parent flood under the equator. The heat 
of the Gulf Stream enables mariners to ascertain by 
the thermometer when they have entered it: and in 
winter this heat, by increasing the solvent power of 
the adjoining air, loads it with moisture; which, in a 
subsequent reduction of temperature, is precipitated 
in those well known fogs, with which the north- 
eastern portion of our continent, and the neighbour- 
ing seas and islands, especially Newfoundland and 
its banks, are so much infested. An accumulation 
of warm water in the Gulf of Mexico, adequate thus 
to influence the ocean at the distance of 2000 miles, 
may be expected in its vicinity to have effects pro- 
portionably powerful. The air immediately over the 
Gulf must be heated, and surcharged with aqueous 
particles. 

Thus it will become comparatively light ; first, be- 
cause it is comparatively warm, and in the next 
place because aqueous vapour, being much lighter 



208 ON THE GALES OF 

than the atmospheric air, causes levity by its ad- 
mixture. 

Yet the density arising from inferiority of situa- 
tion in the stratum of air immediately over the Gulf, 
compared with that of the volumes of the fluid lying 
upon the mountainous country beyond it, may to a 
certain extent, more than make up for the influence 
of the heat and moisture derived from the Gulf : but 
violent winds must arise so soon as these causes pre- 
dominate over atmospheric pressure, so far as to ad- 
mit the cold air of the mountains to be heavier. 

When instead of the air covering a small portion 
of the mountainous or table land in Spanish Ame- 
rica, that of the whole north-eastern portion of the 
North American continent, is excited into motion, 
the effects cannot but be equally powerful, and much 
more permanent. The air of the adjoining country 
first precipitates itself upon the surface of the Gulf, 
then that from more distant parts. Thus a current 
from the north-eastward is produced below. In the 
interim the air displaced by this current rises, and 
being confined by the high land of Spanish Ame- 
rica, and in part possibly by the trade winds, from 
passing off in any southerly course, it is of necessity 
forced to proceed over our part of the continent, 
forming a south-western current above us. At the 
same time its capacity for heat being increased by 
the rarefaction arising from its altitude, much of its 
moisture will be precipitated, and the lower stratum 
of the south-western current mixing with the upper 
stratum of the cold north-eastern current below, 



THE ATLANTIC STATES. 209 

there must be a prodigious condensation of aqueous 
vapour. If it be demanded, wherefore does this 
change produce north-eastern gales only, why have 
we not northern gales accompanied by the same phe- 
nomena? the answer is obvious. The course of our 
mountains is from the north-east to the south-west. 
Thus no channel is afforded for the air proceeding 
to the Gulf in any other course than that north- 
eastern route which it actually pursues. The com- 
petency of the high lands of Mexico to prevent the 
escape over them of the moist warm air displaced 
from the surface of the Gulf, must be evident, from 
the peculiar dryness of their climate ; and the evi- 
dence of Humboldt. According to this celebrated 
traveller, the clouds formed over the Gulf, never 
rise to a greater height than four thousand nine hun- 
dred feet, while the table land for many hundred 
leagues lies between the elevation of seven and nine 
thousand feet. Consistently with the chemical laws, 
which have been experimentally ascertained to ope- 
rate throughout nature, air which has been in contact 
with water, can neither be cooled nor rarefied with- 
out being rendered cloudy by the precipitation of 
aqueous particles. It follows then, that the air dis- 
placed suddenly from the surface of the Gulf of 
Mexico, by the influx of cold air from the north- 
east, never rises higher than the elevation mention- 
ed by Humboldt as infested by clouds. Of course, 
it never crosses the table land which at the lowest is 
2000 feet higher. 

Our north-western winds are produced, no doubt, 
26 



210 ON THE GALES OF 

by the accumulation of warm moist air upou the sur- 
face of the ocean, as those from the north-east are by 
its accumulation on the Gulf of Mexico. But in the 
case of the Atlantic, there are no mountains to roll 
back upon our hemisphere the air displaced by the 
gales which proceed from it, and to impede the im- 
pulse thus received, from reaching to the shores of 
Europe. Our own mountains may procrastinate the 
flood, and cause it to be more lasting and more ter- 
rific when it ensues. The course of the wind is na- 
turally perpendicular to the boundary of the aquatic 
region producing it, and to the mountainous barrier 
which delays the crisis. The course of the North 
American continent is like that of its mountains, from 
north-east to south-west, and the gales in question 
are always nearly north-west, or at right angles to 
the mountains and the coasts. The dryness of our 
north-west may be ascribed not only to its coming 
from the frozen zone, where cold deprives the air of 
moisture, but likewise to the circumstance above 
suggested, that the air of the ocean is not like that 
of the Gulf, forced back over our heads to deluge 
us with rain. 

Other important applications may be made of our 
chemical knowledge. Thus in the immense capacity 
of water for heat, especially when vaporized, we 
see a great magazine of nature provided for mitiga- 
ting the severity of the winter. To cool this fluid, a 
much greater quantity of matter must be equally re- 
frigerated. Aqueous vapour is an incessant vehicle 
for conveying the caloric of warmer climates to colder 



THE ATLANTIC STATES. 211 

ones. Mistaking the effects for the cause, snow is 
considered as producing cold by the ignorant ; but it 
has been proved that as much heat is given out dur- 
ing the condensation of aqueous vapour, as would 
raise twice its weight of glass to a red heat. Water, 
in condensing from the aeriform state, will raise ten 
times its bulk one hundred degrees. The quantum 
of caloric which can raise ten bulks 100 degrees, 
would raise one bulk 1000 degrees nearly (or to a 
red heat visible in the day) and this is independent 
of the caloric of fluidity, which would increase the 
result. 

Further, the quantum of heat which would raise 
water to 1000, would elevate an equal bulk of glass 
to 2000. Hence we may infer, that from every snow, 
there is received twice as much caloric as would be 
yielded by a like stratum of red hot powdered glass. 

It is thus that the turbulent wave, which at one 
moment rocks the mariner's sea-boat, on the border 
of the torrid zone, transformed into a cloud and 
borne away towards the arctic, soon after supports 
the sledge or the snow-shoe of an Esquimaux or 
Greenlander; successively cooling or warming the 
surrounding media, by absorbing or giving out the 
material cause of heat. 



212 DESCRIPTION OF A NEW CRYSTALLINE 



Description of a new Crystalline form of Quartz, 
By Dr. G. Troost. Head June 4th, 1S22. 

Among the mineral productions of our country, the 
beautiful quartz crystals of Lake George are much 
admired : their apparent irregular shape has often 
embarrassed those, who, though acquainted with geo- 
metrical figures, yet not being in the habit of examin- 
ing crystals, expected to find in those of Lake George 
the hexahedral prism terminated by the hexahedral 
pyramid with isosceles triangular faces ; or the do- 
decahedron, and such little modifications as the rhom- 
bifere, plagiedre, pentahexaidre and co-ordonne des- 
cribed by Haiiy. In some of these isolated crystals, 
(as the Abbe Haiiy in his treatise has remarked res- 
pecting the Variete prisme >bis- alt erne,) the prism has 
sometimes entirely disappeared ; even the smallest 
faces are nearly invisible, so that the solid beiug the 
result of this apparent anomaly, is a rhomboid not dif- 
fering much from the cube. In fact such crystals are 
found occasionally at Lake George : a remarkably 
beautiful specimen, in the collection of Mr. J. Lukens, 
is upwards of one inch long. These varieties are 
however not new, they have been found elsewhere; 
but this is not the case with a variety, the description 
of which, I will proceed to lay before the Academy. 
These crystals which we will call JLnnulaire, are 
hexahedral prisms with the edges of their bases 
bevelled. This new variety is formed by the de- 
crement of one row of molecules parallel to the 



FORM OF QUARTZ. 



213 



summit of the rhomboid (the primitive form of the 
quartz ;) and ought to be represented as follows : 

The primitive form being a slightly obtuse rhom- 
boid Fig. I. of 94° 4' and 85° 56'. (See Traite 
de Mineralogie par lc Citoyen Hauy, Tom. 2 ; 
p. 293. Edition in 4to.) 

Fig. 2. Fig. 1. 





rcTwN\ 




y£g. 


/PI \ 


> 


• 


• 


• 


: 




fr 


rj 


r 


■ 


■ 


:.. 


X^V"" 


[ — ^ 7 






Quartz Annulaire 



2 ~ * 
ePeA 

r P zo 



Fig. 2. P. 



Inclination of P upon r 141° 40' 
z upon r 141° 40' 
P & z upon o 128° 20' 
r upon r 120° 
In the same group are several of this form, and one 
Laving some of the solid angles of the prism trunca- 
ted, forming a combination of the rhombifere of the 
Abbe Hauy and the annulaire described in this, paper. 
These crystals which are from J of an inch to 



214 ON SEVERAL NEW SPECIES 

nearly half an inch long, are imhedded in a cariatcd 
quartz, intermixed with a small quantity of carbonate 
of lime. This specimen is in the collection of Mr. 
Benjamin Say. 



Descriptions of the five new species of the Genus 
Cichla of Cuvier. By C. A. Le Sueur. Read 
June 11, 1822. 

1. CICHLA. 

C. *cenea. Specific Character. Dorsal fin 
long; spiny part composed of twelve large rays, 
longer than the soft part; anal fin long, with six an- 
terior rays. The soft part of the dorsal fin rounded 
off and elevated. The eye large ; pupil large, of a 
very dark blue colour ; the Iris red and black ; lines 
of black spots on the sides. 

Description. Body short, thick, compressed, elip- 
tic ; head of a moderate size ; narrow between the 
eyes ; snout short ; jaws rounded, furnished with 
small conical teeth, slightly curved in several rows. 
Those of the throat and of the palate, conical, small 
and compressed; mouth extending as far back asunder 
the middle of the eye; inferior jaw somewhat longer 
than the upper one, which is somewhat protractile : 
opercules without spines or denticulations. Eye 
large, somewhat prominent ; pupil of a very deep 
black, tinted with' bluish ; iris black, with a red bor- 
der surrounding the pupil ; eye-lid, varies from yel- 



OF GENUS CICHLA. 215 

Low to red, and to burnt-umber, with a blue margin 
of a very deep colour in some individuals. 

Dorsal iiu long ; spiny part half as low as the soft 
part, with large spiny rays, imbricated so as to rest 
in the dorsal groove ; pectorals rounded, placed 
pretty low and near the operculum. Thoracic fin 
triangular, sufficiently long to reach the basis of the 
anal tin, and attached to the thorax by a small mem* 
brane ; first ray long and thorny ; caudal slightly lu- 
nulated ; lobes rounded ; anal long, with six strong 
spiny rays in the anterior part ; these fins are marble- 
coloured, of a reddish-brown and blue ; the soft part 
of the dorsal fin is maculated with small irregular 
spots ; the anal and dorsal have a black border, and 
are of a dark-brown at their bases, where the rays 
are distinguished by their light colour. 

The general colour is brilliant coppery, with irre- 
gular spots of a blackish-brown, and olive upon the 
back, the head, and the opercula ; the jaws, lips and 
the throat are black ; thorax bluish-grey ; these co- 
lours, which are very beautiful during the life of the 
fish, disappear when it dies, and become of a bluish- 
gray, brown or black ; scales round, mutic, large on 
the sides, smaller on the back and abdomen, small on 
the breast, on the neck, and on the opercular, none on 
the snout and between the eyes ; lateral scales with 
their base, and. extremity black, so that by their junc- 
tion, they produce those lines of black spots which 
ornament this fish. 

Length 8 to 10 inches. 

This fish is edible ; we took many of them by 



216 ON SEVERAL NEW SPECIES 

means of a hook and line and seine, at Presque Isle, 
opposite to the town of Erie. They feed upon small 
scarabaeii. The stomach is very strong, folded into 
three lobes, of which the first is the largest, and fur- 
nished with seven ccecums around the neck of the 
intestine, which is twice folded upon itself. 

B. 5.— P. 16.— Tho. 5.-D. 12. 11.— A. 6. 1.— 
C. 17 4-4. 

2. C. *fasciata. Specific Character. Fourteen 
or fifteen transverse brown bands on each side of the 
body, and two or three oblique ones on the opercula, 
scaly margined with black ; spinous and soft parts of 
the dorsal fin equal in length, the fin less arquated 
upward than the posterior one. 

Description. Body, elongated, compressed, ta- 
pering at the two extremities, three and a half times 
as long as the head, by one length in depth ; head of 
moderate size, narrow, destitute of scales between 
the eyes, and upon the snout, which is short ; mouth 
extending beneath the eye ; jaw large, truncated pos- 
teriorly, intermaxillary long and narrow ; teeth very 
small, numerous, pointed, curved, and serrated in 
the manner of a card, on the jaws palate and extre- 
mity of the vomer; inferior jaw hardly longer than 
the superior jaw, mandible strong, enlarged spoon- 
shaped ; eye small and round ; iris white, brown and 
red : pupil small and of a deep colour ; dorsal fin high, 
rounded behind, arquated before, and very low at its 
junction with the soft part, the spinous rays imbri- 



OF GENUS C1CHLA. 



217 



cated and reclined into the longitudinal cavity of the 
back ; anal rounded, shorter than the soft part of the 
dorsal, with three spinous rays anteriorly ; pectorals 
moderate, rounded ; thoracics truncated, hardly long- 
er than the pectorals, distant from the anals, and 
armed with a strong spinous ray ; caudal slightly 
emarginate, lobes rounded with 17 principal rays, 
including the lateral flat ones, beyond which are 
eight small ones ; scales rounded, not denticulated, 
sub-irregularly placed, large on the sides, smaller on 
the back, small upon the back of the neck, very small 
under the belly, throat and cheek, and a little larger 
on the pre- operculum, and sub-operculum ; there are 
also very small ones between the rays of the anal and 
caudal fins ; general colour brownish-olivaceous, 
deep and fuliginous upon the back, lighter on the 
sides, the middle of the scales browned with a black 
margin ; anal fin greenish ; posterior part of the 
dorsal and the caudal violaceous, abdomen and throat 
bluish and violaceous, the 13, 14 and sometimes 15 
bands with which this species is ornamented, are a 
little deeper than the general tint ; they are more per- 
ceptible in the fresh state of the fish, when but re- 
cently taken from the water ; the opercula are also 
traversed with many olivaceous bands, the lateral 
line is undulated oblique, the colour chauges in the 
dying fish, it is then sometimes all blue or bluish, or 
entirely black, and the transverse bands disappear. 

Length 18 or 20 inches. 

This is one of the best fish of Lake Erie for the 
table, and with that which the fishermen call herring 

27 



218 ON SEVERAL NEW SPECIES 

salmon (Corregonus Aretidi, Lesueur, vol. 1, part 2, 
p. 231;) it is salted to preserve it till sold. They are 
taken at all seasons of the year, by the seine and 
hook and line. We observed them at Erie in the 
month of July 1816, and at Buffaloe, at which latter 
place we captured many with the seine. A variety 
occurred in Lake George, of which the specimens ap- 
peared to us to have the lower jaw more advanced. 
The fishermen name them Black bass. 

B. 6.— P. 18 to 20.— T. 5.— D. 10 to 15. A. 
3-12— C. 17J. 

3. C. Ohioensis. Extremity of the anal fin sensibly 
more remote from the head than that of the dorsal ; 
scales more regular than in the preceding species. 

The larger of the two individuals which were 
brought from the Ohio river by Mr. Thos. Say, and 
deposited in the cabinet of the Academy, is 22 inches 
long, by five deep, and about three in thickness : the 
skin of these two specimens, is stronger in its texture 
than in specimens from Lake Erie, the scales are 
more uniformly disposed and equal, the anterior por- 
tion of the dorsal fin is not so much elevated, less 
arquated, but also furnished with 10 spinous rays, 
the soft partis equally long with the first, but is more 
elevated, rounded and composed of 14 branched 
rays ; the anal fin is rounded, short, with 14 rays, of 
which the 3 anterior ones, are spinous, the extremi- 
ty of this fin extends beyond that of the dorsal, in 
these individuals, further than in the species of Lake 
Erie. If this character is constant, we must regard it 



OF GENUS CICHLA. 219 

as belonging to a distinct species, but 1 think it is 
proper to wait for further observations for confirma- 
tion. 

The scales are in the same progression; large, 
rounded on the sides, moderate on the back towards 
the spinous portion of the dorsal fin, small upon the 
neck, upon the middle of the abdomen they are a 
little more elongated, very small between the thora- 
cic and pectoral fins, on the throat, the cheek, and 
larger on the preoperculum and suboperculum ; the 
teeth also differ little from the preceding species ; the 
pectoral and thoracic fins are equal and similarly 
situate ; lateral line near the back, a little undulated, 
originating from the angle of the opening of the 
operculum, and passing on the middle of the tail ; 
colour, in the dried specimens, yellowish brown ; the 
scales did not appear to me to be margined with 
black as in the preceding species. 

B. 6.— P. 18.— T. 5.— D. 10-14.— A. 3-11.— 
C. U% 

4. C. Floiidana. Dorsal fin with 9 spinous rays 
anteriorly, and 15 soft ones posteriorly; anal with 3 
spinous rays and 13 divided soft ones. 

The total length of this fish is one foot five inches, 
the depth 5 inches towards the dorsal fin ; the body 
is attenuated, more obtuse anteriorly ; snout short ; 
inferior jaw a little longer than the superior one ; 
mouth deeply divided ; intermaxillary bone long ; 
maxillary bone prolonged untq^the end of the eye ; 
teeth very small, equal, approximate, card-like 



220 ON SEVERAL NEW SPECIES 

before, smaller and more delicate at the angles of the 
mouth ; on the vomer and on the wings of the palate 
they are small and like velvet ; eye round, near the 
summit of the head ; scales rounded, large upon the 
sides near the pectoral fins, diminishing towards the 
back, and in approaching the tail and the abdo- 
mea, smaller, and subequal on all the pieces of the 
operculum ; the snout, and the upper part of the head 
are destitute of scales ; mandible and posterior man- 
dible very strong and broad ; dorsal fin divided into 
two nearly equal parts, the anterior spinous, elevated 
before, very low behind, and but little arquated ; the 
posterior part more elevated and rounded ; the anal fin 
short, extending beyond the dorsal, as in the species 
of the Ohio, so that its middle corresponds with the 
posterior base of the dorsal ; the rays of the fins are 
also much divided and articulated ; pectorals small 
and rounded; thoracic fins subtriangular, as long as 
the pectorals ; operculum without any denticulation, 
or spine; lateral line oblique, undulated ; the colour of 
this dried specimen is black on the back and lighter 
towards the abdomen. 

We are indebted for this species to the researches 
of Messrs. Maclure, Ord, Say, and Peale, who 
brought it from East Florida. 

5. C ^minima. Dorsal long, spinous and soft 
parts of equal length, the former straight and very 
low ; anal long, equal to the soft part of the dorsal; 
eye large. 

Body very long sub-compressed, more elevated to- 



OF GENUS CICHLA. 221 

wards the dorsal anteriorly ; head arquated ; eye ve- 
ry large ; pupil and iris very large ; dorsal fin long, 
divided into two equal parts, the anterior part of 9 
spinous rays, and much lower than the soft part, 
which is rounded, with 14 divided rays ; anal equal 
to the posterior part of the dorsal and of 13 rays, of 
which 3 are spinous ; caudal of 15 to 18 rays ; pec- 
toral large, placed very low near the operculum ; tho- 
racic fin much smaller than the pectoral, and placed 
exactly heneath them ; anal large : scales very small; 
colour deep gray, tinted with bluish on the back, with 
metallic reflections on the sides and abdomen, and 
with points or small black and brown spots on the 
abdomen and back, and a spot upon the neck ; lateral 
line straight, on the middle of the body ; caudal fin 
subtruncated, of 17 or 18 rays ; teeth very small, in 
many ranges on the jaws and palate ; mouth deeply 
divided. 

Lives in the small lagoons of tranquil water, which 
discharge by narrow channels into Lake Erie. 

Its length is 9 lines. 



An account of some of the marine shells of the United 
States. By Thomas Say. Read July 24, 1821. 

During occasional visits to our sea coast, and par- 
ticularly on a journey to East Florida, in company 
with Messrs. Maclure, Ord, and T. Peale, I availed 
myself of every favourable opportunity to collect ma- 



222 MARINE SHELLS 

rine shells, whilst engaged in the pursuit of other 
and more favourite objects. 

No naturalist, however conversant he may be with 
marine productions, can examine our sea coast for a 
single day with ordinary assiduity, without disco- 
vering something new or interesting to reward his 
labours, and to gratify his laudable curiosity. Ac- 
cordingly, these researches furnished my cabinet 
with a great number of shells which were unknown 
to me, and of which many appeared to be unnoticed 
in those works on conchology to which I could ob- 
tain access. 

But, supposing that these apparently new species, 
many of which, being either abundant in individuals, 
or attractive to the eye by beauty of colouring or 
symmetry of form, had been often observed by fo- 
reign naturalists and collectors, and iu all probabi- 
lity had long since been transmitted to Europe, and 
perhaps published in some splendid volume, or, to 
us, obscure tract, of which the title had not yet reach- 
ed this country, I was induced to relinquish any 
further investigation of the subject, and to dwell up- 
on the hope of receiving more exotic information than 
we already possessed. 

This course I was the more readily inclined to 
pursue, in consequence of being informed that an 
American zoologist had already commenced the ex- 
amination of our marine shells, with the intention of 
publishing the result of his observations. Several 
years have, however, since elapsed without any ad- 
dition to our knowledge in this department of Na- 
tural History, from the pen of an American author. 



Or THE UNITED STATES. 223 

Several naturalists who now devote a portion of 
their attention to conchotomy, and particularly to 
that of the United States, having recently requested 
me to publish an account of our marine shells, I have 
thought it iniirht be useful to communicate to them 
immediately, descriptions of those which 1 do not 
find to be distinctly described by attainable authors. 
Such species or varieties, only, are made known in 
the following essay. 

With a view to condense this paper as much as 
possible, 1 have omitted the generic characters, but 
at the same time, I have been careful to subjoin to the 
generic names that are here adopted, abbreviations 
of the authors names, who formed them respectively, 
or whose generic definitions I have followed. 

Type and Class, 

MOLLUSCA GASTEROPODA. 

PATELLA. Lin. Lam. 

P. *amoena. Shell oblong-oval, whitish reticula- 
ted with reddish-brown, and sculptured with nume- 
rous minute concentric wrinkles and close set radii; 
margin entire ; apex placed behind the middle, and 
pointing backwards. 

Coast of New England states. 

Length of a small specimen, 7-20, breadth 1-5 of 
an inch. Breadth of a larger one 3-10 nearly. 

My cabinet. 

It may be readily distinguished in general by the 
beautiful reticulated disposition of the rufous colour, 



%%\ M\RINE SHELL9 

inclosing small irregularly oval, white, or yellowish- 
white spots. They sometimes however, are of a uni- 
form greenish or brownish colour. Several speci- 
mens of this species were communicated to me by 
Mr. Aaron Stone, who found them on the coast of 
Maine. 

FISSURELLA, Lam. 

Species. 

F. *alternata. Shell oblong-ovate, moderately 
thick, cinereous or dusky, with equal concentric lines, 
crossed by alternately larger and smaller radii, all 
which are equable or not dilated in any part ; vertex 
placed nearer the smaller end ; perforation oblique, 
oblong and a little contracted in the middle ; within 
white ; margin simply crenate ; apex with an in- 
dented transverse line at the larger end of the perfo- 
ration. 

Length four-fifths of an inch. 

Breadth three-fifths. 

Height more than two-fifths. 

Inhabits the coast of the United States. 

Cabinet of the Academy, and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum. 

Bears a general resemblance in its sculpture to 
F. Grceca, but the radii are not dilated at the points 
where they are crossed by the concentric lines. I 
have specimens from the coast of Maryland that 
measure one inch and a half in length. 



OF THE UNITED STATES. S25 

CREPIDULA. Lam. 
Species. 

1. C. fornicata ? var. Shell transversely wrinkled, 
varying in convexity, with obsolete longitudinal, un- 
dulated, rufous lines ; one side more oblique than 
the other ; apex excurved, a little prominent, but not 
separated from the body of the shell, and generally 
united with the margin of the aperture ; aperture 
suboval ; diaphragm a little concave, occupying at 
least half of the length, edge generally reclivate. 

Inhabits the coast of the United States. 

Length 2 inches. 

Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum. 

Seems to differ from the species as described by 
Roissy in Sonni. Buff, by having lateral lineations 
instead of spots. It may very probably be a distinct 
species. 

2. C. *depressa. Shell very much depressed, 
transversely wrinkled, nearly equilateral ; epidernis 
pale yellowish- brown ; apex not curved, forming a 
simple acute terminal angle upon the margin of the 
aperture ; aperture subovate ; within white ; dia- 
phragm convex, edge contracted in the middle and at 
one side. 

Length four-fifths of an inch. 
Inhabits the southern coast of the United States. 
28 



226 MARINE SHELLS 

Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum. 

Diners from the preceding in the form of the beak, 
which is never arquated. 

3. C. *glauca. Shell thin, convex, glaucus, with 
minute transverse wrinkles ; apex conic, acute, not 
excurved, but declining and distinct from the margin 
of the aperture ; aperture oval-orbicular ; within en- 
tirely reddish brown ; diaphragm plain or convex, 
less than half the length of the shell, edge widely 
contracted in the middle. 

Length about half an inch. 
Inhabits the coast of the United States. 
Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum. 

Very distinct from the preceding species. 

4. C. *plana. Shell depressed, flat, oblong oval, 
transversely wrinkled, lateral margins abruptly de- 
flected ; apex not prominent, and constituting a mere 
terminal angle, obsolete in the old shells ; within 
white ; diaphragm occupying half the length of the 
shell, convex, contracted in the middle and at one 
side. 

Length 1 and 1-10 of an inch. 
Inhabits the coast of the United States. 
Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum. 

A remarkably distinct species, the surface of the 
shell is flat, and sometimes slightly concave. The 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 227 

youug shell is generally orbicular, and gradually be- 
comes proportionally more elongated as it increases 
in size. I have found it on the coasts of Maryland, 
Carolina, Georgia and East Florida, and my brother, 
Mr. Benjamin Say, discovered it on the shores of 
New Jersey. 

5. C. intortaP var. Shell convex, ovate, with 
about twenty elevated, somewhat undulated, lines, 
with alternate smaller ones ; lines somewhat confused 
on the convex side of the shell, the larger lines with 
a few slightly elevated, very thick fornicated tuber- 
cles ; apex curving laterally, tip pointing upwards 
and not elevated from the body of the shell. 

Inhabits the southern coast. 

Of this shell I found but a single specimen, which 
is very imperfect. It seems to correspond very well 
with the description of C intorta of the coast of 
England, with the exception of the form of the 
vertex, which in that species is said to turn down- 
wards, whereas, iu our shell, it not only turns down- 
wards, but the curve is continued until the tip points 
upwards. 

6. G. *convexa. Shell very convex, obsoletely 
wrinkled or glabrous, one side vertical, the other 
oblique ; apex prominent, decurved, slightly inclin- 
ing towards the oblique margin, tip generally free 
and extending lower than the edge of the aperture ; 
aperture suboval; diaphragm less than half the 
length of the shell, edge simply arquated. 



228 MARINE SHELLS 

Length three-fifths of an inch. 

Inhabits the coast of the United States. 

Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum. 

This species is not uncommon, particularly upon 
our southern coast. The description is drawn from 
what are termed dead shells, but I have one specimen 
which is varied with rufous and whitish. 

OLIVA, Brug. 

Species. 

O. *mutica. Shell suboval, white, or yellowish- 
white ; body whirl with about three revolving macu- 
lated bands of pale rufous, of which the superior one 
is continued upon the spire, the intermediate one is 
dilated so as to be sometimes confluent with the in- 
ferior one, which is narrowest ; spire short ; suture 
very narrow ; columella destitute of striae. 

Length more than two-fifths of an inch. 

Inhabits the southern shores. 

Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum. 

A common shell, varying somewhat in colour; the 
bands are sometimes deep reddish-brown, sometimes 
livid, rarely all united and offering only a white line 
near the base. It seems allied to the 0. zonalis as 
described by Lamarck^ but is a larger species. 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 229 



BUCCINUM, L. Lam. 

B. *ornatum. Shell sub turbinated, with about 
two bands of arched scales. 

Inhabits the coast of East Florida. 

Cabinet of Mr. William Hyde. 

Shell subturbinated, with numerous revolving striae 
and intermediate grooves ; whitish cinereous, with 
rufous bands, and transverse, irregular wrinkles, and 
obsolete undulations separated by somewhat rugged 
incisures ; near the base is a band of ten or twelve 
elevated arched scales, disappearing in the aperture ; 
whirls flattened above the shoulder, and armed in 
that part with undulated lamellse, which on the 
shoulder are elevated into prominent concave spines ; 
spire prominent ; whirls transversely undulated, the 
arched scales disappearing towards the tip ; aperture 
effuse ; throat varied with pale green and yellowish, 
the rufous bands being very distinct ; umbilicus none. 

Length 4? inches. Aperture 2 3-4 inches. Spire 
If inch. 

This fine coronated shell, seems to agree better 
with the descriptions of B. armigerum and bezoar, 
than with those of any other species, as far as I have 
been able to ascertain. To the latter it seems to be 
more closely related, with Argenville's figure of 
which it corresponds in the form and position of the 
basal band of scales, excepting that it has this band 
far more oblique ; that figure however is much less 
elongated than our shell, and it appears to have a 



230 MARINE SHELLS 

double series of prominent scales on the shoulder. 
The bezoar, moreover, is described to be umbilica- 
ted, a character which does not exist in our species. 

COLOMBELLA, Lam. 
Species. 

C. *avara. Shell small, covered with a dirty - 
brownish pigment, beneath which it is whitish reticu- 
lated or maculated with rufous; spire elevated, acute ; 
volutions eight, with spiral impressed lines, and 
transverse elevated obtuse costa ; the costa upen the 
body whirl are terminated at the middle, and are 
about eleven in number ; labium with a distinct plate 
crenated on the submargin; labvum denticulated 
within, but not very perceptibly thickened on the in- 
ner middle. 

Length less than half an inch. 

Inhabits the coast of the southern states. 

Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum. 

Does not fully correspond with the characters of 
this genus, as the labrum is not very distinctly dila- 
ted on the inner middle, and the spire has the eleva- 
tion of a Mitra. 

It is a common species, and occurs as far north as 
the coast of Maryland. 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 231 

NASSA, Lam. 
Species. 

1. N. * vibe x. Shell cancellate, veutricose, cine- 
reous or pale reddish-brown, with two or three irre- 
gular, sometimes obsolete darker fascia ; body whirl 
with twelve thick, prominent costa, and about as 
many revolving filiform lines, which are not much 
elevated, and but simply crenate the costa and lip; la- 
brum incrassated, with about two more prominent 
teeth within ; labium callous ; spire short, rapidly at*- 
tenuated to an acute tip. 

Length three-fifths of an inch. 

Inhabits the southern and middle coast. 

Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum. 

Rather rare. I found but four specimens. For 
the locality of the coast of the middle states, I am 
indebted to my brother, Mr. B. Say, who brought me 
a specimen from the shores of New Jersey. 

2. N. *trivittata. Shell conic acute, yellowish- 
white, cancel late so as to appear granulated, granules 
prominent, equidistant ; ten revolving impressed lines 
on the body whirl, and a somewhat more conspicuous 
groove near the summit of each volution ; spire as 
long or longer than the body, and with a rufous re- 
volving line near the suture ; body whirl trilineate 
with rufous, the lines placed one near the suture, one 



232 MARINE SHELLS 

on the middle, and the third rather darker, at the ori 
gin of the beak ; suture regular aud deeply impress- 
ed ; beak distinguished by a profound depression, 
from the body whirl, slightly reflected ; labrum not 
incrassated, with raised lines within upon the fauces 
which do not extend quite to the edge of the lip ; la- 
bium distinctly lamellar, with an obsolete fold of the 
basal edge, and a tooth near the superior junction 
with the labrum. 

Length about 7-10 of an inch. 

Inhabits the middle and southern states. 

Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum. 

A very common species. 

It somewhat resembles Maton and Rackett's figure 
of Buccinum macula, (Linn. Trans. Lond. vol. 8.) 
in the cancellated appearance, but it is a longer shell 
and destitute of the incrassated aperture. This spe- 
cies is closely allied to the genus Phos of Montfort, 
by the striated labrum, and the projection or slight 
fold at the base of the columella, but it has no ap- 
pearance of umbilicus, a character, which, in the 
system of that author, is an essential one. 

3. N. *obsoleta. Shell ovate-conic, subacute, can- 
cellate, exhibiting a granulated appearance, dark 
reddish-brown, or blackish, sometimes tinged with 
olivaceous ; spire shorter than the body ; suture not 
deeply impressed ; beak not distinguished from the 
body whirl by any profound depression, and not 
prominent; labrum within lineated with elevated. 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 333 

abbreviated or interrupted lines, not incrassated, 
purple-black; columella at base with a prominence 
or fold. 

Leugth three-fifths of an inch. 

Inhabits the coast of the United States. 

Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum. 

Animal — Foot as long as the shell, rounded be- 
fore, with the anterior angles elongated, conic, re- 
flected and resembling short tentacula ; head not ex- 
tended beyond the shell ; eyes above the base of the 
tentacula, placed on their exterior side and black ; 
tentacula setaceous, abruptly smaller above the eyes; 
trunk cylindrical, the suture beneath, exserted over 
the head, half as long as the shell and very con- 
spicuous. 

Inhabits the shores of our estuaries in great num- 
bers. When left by the recess of the tide, they col- 
lect together in small pools, or crawl in pursuit of the 
retiring water ; but when left quite dry, they burrow 
in the sand so as to conceal themselves from the ac- 
tion of the sun, and patiently await the returning 
tide. They assemble about dead crabs and other 
animals, and appear to feed upon them. 

This shell is more frequented by Pagurus longi- 
carpus than any other; it bears a general resemblance 
to the preceding species, but is sufficiently distin- 
guished by being less elongated, the suture and im- 
pressed lines not being so profound, and the beak 
less prominent and distinct ; the colour also is very 
different. 

29 



234 MARINE SHELLS 

It resembles the shell represented by Lister, plate 
976, fis;. 32. " Buccinum B. r. parvum nigrum ex 
toto laeve." It is usually covered by a blackish pig- 
ment which obscures its character : within the aper- 
ture, on many specimens, a dull or obsolete whitish 
line may be seen. 

The description shows the near approach of this 
Shell toMontfort's genus Phos, to which it is as close- 
ly allied as the preceding species. 

4. N. *acuta. Shell conic-acute, whitish, cancel- 
lated so as to appear granulated, granules prominent, 
somewhat transverse, inequidistant, the transverse 
grooves being more profound and dilated than the 
spiral ones, which are six in number ; spire longer 
than the body whirl, slender towards the tip, acute : 
suture impressed, but not profoundly ; beak distin- 
guished by a depression from the body whirl, and 
slightly reflected ; labrum incrassated, and with ele- 
vated lines upon the fauces, which do not attain the 
edge of the lip. 

Length half an inch. 

Inhabits the shores of the southern states. 

Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum. 

A species which not unfrequently occurs, it is 
very distinct from the two preceding ones, and may 
be readily distinguished from them by the incrassa- 
ted outer lip. 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 235 

CER1THIUM, Brug. 
Species. 

C. *dislocatum. Shell attenuated, acute at the 
apex; volutions with numerous, minute, revolving 
impressed lines, and from fifteen to eighteen trans- 
verse, elevated costa to each volution, which are dis- 
located near the summit of each volution hy a revolv- 
ing line, as deeply impressed as the suture. 

Length one and one-fourth of an inch. 

Inhabits the coast of the United States. 

Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu 
seum. 

This shell is very common on the southern shores, 
particularly on that of East Florida, but I have also 
found specimens on the shore of Maryland. Lister 
tab. 979, fig. 36, represents a shell very similar to 
this, but larger. 

The effect of the impressed line, which revolves 
above the middle of the volutions, is, to separate the 
longitudinal raised lines into two series, whereof the 
lines of the superior series, are much shorter and 
thicker than the others. 



236 MARINE SHELLS 

FUSUS, Montf. 
Species. 

F. *cinereus. Shell with a cinereous epidermis, 
reddish- brown beneath ; volutions cancellate, the 
transverse costa eleven, robust ; revolving lines fili- 
form, irregularly alternately smaller, crenating the 
edge of the exterior lip, which is acute, aud alterna- 
ting with the raised lines of the fauces ; fauces tinged 
with chocolate colour ; beak short, obtuse, not recti- 
linear ; labrum not incrassated. 

Length one and one-fourth of an inch. 

Inhabits the estuaries of the United States. 

Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum. 

I have frequently found this species in oozy places 
of the bay of Great Egg Harbour, and on the Eastern 
shore of Maryland. My brother, B. Say, ascertained 
that it is also an inhabitant of the coast of New Jer- 
sey. 

RANELLA, Lam. 

Species. 

R. *caudata. Shell pale reddish-brown, cancel- 
late with eleven robust costa to the body whirl, and 
several revolving filiform lines passing over them, 
which are more prominent upou the varice of the 
aperture, terminate at its inner edge, and there alter- 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 237 

nalc with the raised lines of the fauces ; volutions 
flattened at their summits, abruptly declining to the 
suture ; canal coarctate, rather longer than the spire : 
leak rectilinear, reflected at the tip. 

Length one inch. 

Inhabits the coast of the United States. 

Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum. 

A rather common species. 

This generic name I think objectionable, inasmuch 
as it borders too closely upon Itenilla, which desig- 
nates a genus of the class Polypi of Lanarck. Mont- 
fort's appellation Buffo is not preferable for a similar 
reason, as it would be liable to be confounded with 
Bufo, a genus of Reptilia. 

FULGUR, Montf. 

F. *pyruloides. Shell with spiral striae alternate- 
ly larger ; whirls white, transversely lineated with 
ferruginous lines, interrupted or obsolete on the mid- 
dle ; above flattened, unarmed ; spire short ; suture 
profoundly canaliculate. 

Seba. Vol. 3. pi. 68. fig. 19, 20 ? 

Lister, conch, pi. 877 ? 

Length three inches and four-fifths. 

Breadth one inch and one-tenth. 

Inhabits the southern coast. 

Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum. 

At first sight this species would be referred to the 



238 MARINE SHELLS 

genus Pyrula, but upon inspection it will be observed 
to have a fold on the columella. I formerly mistook 
the young shells for those of F. caniculata or gra- 
num, which they much resemble in form, in the 
grooved sutures, and in the spiral striae ; but they dif- 
fer from them in having a much less elevated spire, 
by being entirely destitute of armature, either of 
spines or tubercles upon the angulated ridge of the 
volutions, and by being marked with coloured lines. 
In this last character they approach jF. perversus, 
but they will not be mistaken for that species. 

As the shell advances in growth, the acute edge 
of the depressed top of the whirls becomes obtuse, 
and in the adult shell it is nearly obsolete ; in which 
state the almost regular curve of the whirl is very 
like that of Pyrula. 

Seba's figures above quoted, are probably intended 
for this species ; they certainly represent it very well 
as it appears in the young state. 

I think it highly probable that this is the Bulla 
Ficns, Var. b. Gmel. which Dillwyn describes un- 
der the name of Bulla pyrum, with the country of 
which he was unacquainted. 

PYRULA, Lam. 

Species. 

P. *papyratia. Shell inflated, thin, white, with 
small pale rufous spots, within pale, dull purplish- 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 239 

red ; whirls with numerous spiral striae, which are 
alternately larger, crossed by smaller striae. 

Length four inches and one- tenth. 

Greatest breadth two inches and one-fifth nearly. 

Inhabits the coast of Georgia and East Florida. 

Cabinet of the Academy. 

This species has been hitherto confounded with 
P. ficus, to which indeed it is closely allied, but dif- 
fers in having the beak proportionably longer, and in 
being but slightly spotted. 

It is also an inhabitant of the West Indies. 

TURBO, Lin. Montf. 
Species. 

1. T. *irroratus. Shell thick, greenish or pale 
cinereous, with numerous revolving, elevated, obtuse, 
equal lines, which are spotted with abbreviated 
brownish lines ; suture not indented ; spire acute ; 
labium incrassated, yellowish-brown ; labrum within 
white and thick, at the edge thin, and lineated with 
dark brownish ; throat white ; columella with an in- 
dentation ; operculum coriaceous. 

Length four-fifths of an inch. 

Inhabits the coast of the United States. 

Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum. 

This has the general appearance of T. littoreus, 
but is sufficiently distinct by the above characters : 
the calcareous deposit on the labium is copious. 



240 MARINE SHELLS 

An inhabitant of our estuaries of the middle and 
southern states. I have found them on the Eastern 
shore of Maryland, and upon the coast of Carolina, 
Georgia and Florida; and my brother obtained a 
specimen on the coast of New Jersey, of the length 
of one inch and one-tenth nearly. Mr. Cuvier would 
place this shell in the genus Paludiua. 

2. T. *canaliculatus. Shell thin globular, with 
about four volutions ; body whirl with four profound 
striated grooves, and several smaller ones near the 
base and suture ; suture profoundly indented ; colour 
pale reddish-brown, immaculate. 

Length about one-tenth of an inch. 

Inhabits the southern coast. 

Animal— -foot shorter than the shell, oval ; tenta- 
cula rather robust, filiform, half as long as the foot ; 
eyes at the external base of the tentacula. 

I have obtained but a single individual of this spe- 
cies. If it is only an immature specimen, we know 
nothing of the parent of it. 

3. T. *palliatus. Shell suboval, not remarkably 
thickened ; whirls four or five, wrinkled transverse- 
ly ; spire short, convex, obtuse, much shorter than 
the aperture ; suture moderately indented. 

Length about one-third of an inch. 
Greatest breadth about the same. 
Inhabits the shores of the New England states. 
Cabinets of Mr. Aaron Stone, Mr. Wm. Hyde 
and my own. 



aMj It**- 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 241 

This species was found by Mr. Aaron Stone on 
sea- weed, about low water mark. It is often varie- 
gated with olivaceous and white, or green and yel- 
lowish, so as to exhibit a reticulated appearance ; but 
they are very frequently covered with a greenish, or 
reddish-brown pigment, which sometimes conceals 
the reticulated surface ; and sometimes with a plain 
yellowish white immaculate one. The shell within 
is very often of a dark reddish-brown colour, with 
the oral margiu whitish; but the same part is some- 
times entirely whitish. 

4. T. *obligatus. Shell suboval, not thickened; 
whirls five, transversely wrinkled, and longitudinally 
striated with obtuse slightly elevated lines ; spire 
short, much shorter than the aperture; suture in- 
dented. 

Length about one-third of an inch. 

Greatest breadth about the same. 

Inhabits Portland, Maine. 

Cabinets of Messrs. Stone, Hyde and Say. 

This species strongly resembles the preceding, but 
is distinguished by the elevated, obtuse, revolving 
lines, or acute impressed ones. The colours are 
greenish, olivaceous, or whitish, with darker, irre- 
gular, transverse lines or shades, and the throat is 
dark reddish- brown, the margin of the mouth whitish. 
It is very possible that it is only a variety of the 
preceding. 

5. T. *vestita. Shell conic, rather thin ; whirls 

30 



« - rm 1 






242 MARINE SHELLS 

about six, rounded, transversely wrinkled ; spire as 
long as the aperture ; suture deeply impressed. 

Length two-fifths. Width more than three-tenths. 

Inhabits Maine. 

Cabinets of Messrs. Stone, Hyde and Say. 

We are indebted for this shell to Mr. Aaron Stone. 
It is commonly invested with a dirty greenish- white 
pigment, beneath which it is sometimes reticulated 
with abbreviated yellowish lines, on a brown or 
dusky ground. 

SCALARIA, Lam. 

Species. 

1. S. Wineata. Shell brownish, elongated, with 
about seven volutions ; costa robust, obtuse, little 
elevated, and from seventeen to nineteen on the body 
whirl ; body whirl with generally a blackish, more or 
less dilated line, which is nearly concealed on the 
volutions of the spire by the suture ; margin of the 
mouth robust, white, more dilated at the columella 
base. 

Length about half an inch. 

Inhabits the southern coast. 

Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum. 

Very much resembles Turbo clathratulus of Mon- 
tague, which is figured by Maton and Rackett as a 
variety of T. Clathrus, (Trans. Lin. Soc. Lond. 
vol. 8. pi. 5. fig. 1.) but the lip is more robust, and 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 243 

the basal portion of that part is more dilated than the 
quoted figure of that species. It is possible, however, 
that it is only a variety of that species. 

TURRITELLA, Lam, 

Species. 

1. T. *alternata. Shell dusky ; acute at the apex $ 
volutions eight, with about eight unequal, revolving, 
slightly elevated lines, which are maculated with 
rufous, and decussated by transverse, elevated, obtuse 
lines, which are obsolete below the middle of the 
body whirl and prominent on the spine! ; labrum not 
thickened, a slight indentation at its base. 

Length one-fifth of an inch. 

Inhabits the coast of the United States. 

Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum. 

Animal — Foot longer than the aperture of the 
shell, rather acute behind, and truncated a little con- 
vexly before ; tentacula filiform, cylindrical, obtuse 
at tip, nearly as long as the foot, white, annulate 
with brownish lines ; eye at the external base of the 
tentacula, not prominent; rostrum about one-third 
the length of the tentacula ; operculum blackish. 

The shell when taken from the water, becomes 
whitish-cinereous. They abound amongst Fucus, 
and sometimes on the shell of Limulus Polyphemus. 
The animal considerably resembles that of tetania 
Virginica as respects form, and, in common with 



244 MARINE SHELLS 

many fresh water shells, it possesses the power of 
gliding along the surface of the water, with the shell 
downward. 

This shell is somewhat like T. reticulata, but the 
sculpture is less profound, and it has never any ap- 
pearance of varices, or incrassation of the labrum. 

2. T. *impressa. Shell dusky, acute at the apex : 
volutions six, with about four acute, impressed re- 
volving lines ; labrum not thickened, a slight inden- 
tation at its base, and a projecting angle within on 
its middle. 

Inhabits the coast of Maryland. 
Length more than one-eighth of an inch, 
I have seen but two specimens of this species. 
The aperture is precisely similar to that of the pre- 
ceding species. 

3. T. *bisuturalis. Shell thin, pellucid, small, 
conic ; whirls five, wrinkles almost obsolete, a re- 
volving impressed line near the suture ; suture not 
deeply impressed ; spire gradually tapering, rather 
longer than the aperture ; aperture rounded at base, 
and perfectly entire. 

Length rather more than one-tenth of an inch. 

Inhabits Boston harbour. 

My cabinet. 

I am indebted to Mr. Aaron Stone, for this small 
species of Turritella. It is distinguished from all 
others that I have seen, by the single impressed line. 
which revolves near the suture. 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 245 

BULLA. 

Species. 

B. *solitaria. Shell remarkably thin and fragile, 
pellucid, oval, narrowed at base, with numerous im- 
pressed revolving lines, and transverse very obtuse 
wrinkles ; aperture surpassing the tip of the shell ; 
spire none, substituted by an umbilicus ; umbilicus 
of the base uoue. 

Less than half an inch. 

Inhabits the southern coast of the United States. 

I found a specimen of this species of Bulla on the 
coast of Maryland, but have not seen another. It is 
probable that it is rare. It approximates to the de- 
scription of B. hydatis, but it cau hardly be the same, 
as it is more oblong than the species B. naucum, 
agreeably to the figure in the Encyc. Meth., which 
species is referred to by Dillwyn, as being of the 
same form with hydatis. 

MELAMPUS, Montf. 

Species. 

M. *bidentatus. Shell thin, fragile, dirty-brown- 
ish; very little elevated, obtuse; body whirl with 
minute transverse wrinkles, and revolving impressed 
striae; labium bidentate, the superior tooth trans- 
verse, prominent, placed below the middle, the other 
oblique, less prominent, terminating at the exterior 
edge of the columella ; labrum with four or five ele- 



245 MARINE SHELLS 

vated striae, not attaining the edge ; base not con- 
tracted. 

Length nine-twentieths of an inch. 

Animal — about as long as the shell, and the foot 
is transversely bifid ; tentacnla somewhat wrinkled, 
cylindrical, rather smaller towards the tips, which 
are obtuse or rounded ; eyes placed at the inner base 
of the tentacula ; rostrum somewhat wrinkled, nearly 
as long as the tentacula, bilobate before 5 foot, ante- 
rior segment emarginate behind, posterior segment 
bifid at the extremity ; all above, with the exception 
of the tentacula and rostrum glabrous, reddish- brown, 
beneath paler. 

Inhabits East Florida. 

Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum. 

Var. a. With three or four fuscous revolving 
lines 5 base of the aperture narrower than in the spe- 
cies. 

Length seven-twentieths of an inch. 

Inhabits the coast of Maryland and New Jersey. 

These shells inhabit the salt marshes, and have 
the habit of crawling up the culms of grasses, and 
other plants. I observed them to be very numerous 
near the mouth of St. John's river. It is sufficiently 
distinct from the M. coniformis by the paucity of 
striae on the labrum. 

The variety is a very common inhabitant of our 
coast, and is very possibly a distinct species, as it is 
lineated and is narrower at base ; if so, it may be 
called lineatus. 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 247 

Great numbers of this species are devoured by the 
dusky duck {Anas obscura,) and perhaps by other 
birds. 

NATICA, Lam. 

Species. 

i. N. *duplicata. Shell thick, sub- globose, ci- 
nereous, with a black line revolving on the spire 
above the suture, and becoming gradually diluted, 
dilated, and obsolete in its course ; within brownish- 
livid ; a large incrassated callous of the same colour 
extends beyond the columella, and nearly covers the 
umbilicus from above; umbilicus with a profound 
sulcus or duplication. 

Greatest length about two inches. Greatest breadth 
rather more. 

Inhabits the coast of the United States. 

Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum. 

Very numerous upon almost the whole extent 
of our coast. The spire in some specimens is much 
more elevated than in others, and the duplication 
within the umbilicus, is sometimes partially conceal- 
ed by the projecting callous. 

In the collection of the Academy of Natural Sci- 
ences, is a species from Candia, presented by Mr. S. 
Hazard, which very much resembles this, but it dif- 
fers in being destitute of the black line, and in having 
the umbilicus partially covered from the side, leaving 
only a linear, semicircular, lateral opening. Another 
specimen from India strongly resembles it, and is 



248 MARINE SHELLS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

also marked with the black line, but there is only 
a circumscribed callous extending laterally, leaving 
a large umbilicus, and marked transversely by a 
groove. 

I formerly referred this species to .TV*, rugosa, but 
it appears to be a much larger species, as Dillwyn 
states the rugosa to be only ten lines long. It is 
probably the same species as that represented by 
Lister on plates 562 and 563, but 1 do not find those 
figures referred to at all by Dillwyn. 

2. N. *heros. Shell suboval, thick, rufo-cinere- 
ous ; within whitish ; columella incrassated ; callous 
not continued over the upper part of the umbilicus, 
hardly extending beyond a line drawn from the base 
of the columella to the superior angle of the labrum ; 
umbilicus free, simple. 

Length about two inches and a half. 

Inhabits the coast of New Jersey. 

I have two specimens from Great Egg Harbour. 
It differs from the preceding species in being less 
dilated, destitute of the black line of the apex, and 
of the much incrassated projection from the columel- 
la so conspicuous in that shell. This is our largest 
species. I have a specimen more than three inches 
in length. 

I formerly considered this to be the J\T. rufa, 
Gmel. but that species is said by Dillwyn to be only 
half an inch or au inch long, and he refers to Born, 
t. 17, f. 3, and 4, and also to Lister, Conch, t. 506, 
f. 3, neither of which figures resemble our species. 

[to be continued.] 



ON THE AUTOMALITE. 249 



On a new locality of the Automalite. By Lardneu 
Vanuxem. Head July 16, 1822. 

Among the many various and interesting minerals 
which are presented to us by the new and prolific 
locality of Franklin, in Sussex county, New Jersey, 
is the Automalite, or Spinelle Zincifere of the Abbe 
Haiiy, a mineral hitherto confined to Uto in Sweden, 
and which is there found imbedded in talcous rocks. 

The Automalite of Franklin was discovered in 
August 1821, by William H. Keating, Esq. and 
myself. It occurs in crystals presenting its primitive 
form, the regular octahedron, with all its edges 
emarginated ; in size it varies from microscopic to 
two-thirds of an inch in leugth. Its colour is of a 
beautiful dark green, usually translucent and some- 
times almost transparent. With borax it fuses be- 
fore the blowpipe, forming a yellow glass when hot, 
which on cooling changes to a beautiful and perma- 
nent violet ; this colour is due to the oxide of man- 
ganese, which gives to the mineral its green colour. 
This action with the blowpipe is analagous to that 
of the Swedish Automalite. Its hardness is the same 
as that of the Swedish. Instead of being accom- 
panied by talc as in Sweden, it is found at Frank- 
lin with quartz, feldspar, Jeffersonite, silico cal- 
careous oxide of titanium, &c. 

In order to ascertain that this mineral was really 
a Zinciferous Spinelle, it was chemically examined 
in the following manner : the quantity operated on 

31 



250 ON THE AUTOMALITE. 

being too small for an analysis, in which the propor- 
tions are to be determined. 

It was first reduced to an impalpable powder, then 
boiled for several hours in sulphuric acid, which ex- 
erted a considerable action upon it ; the soluble part 
was then separated from the insoluble by filtering. 
To the soluble part, ammonia was added in great ex- 
cess, and the solution filtered. The precipitate was 
tinged with a yellow colour, produced by oxide of 
iron. It formed alum with sulphuric acid and pot- 
ash, and hence contained al limine. The ammonia- 
cal liquor by evaporation threw down a white sub- 
stance, soluble in ammonia, precipitable when the 
excess of ammonia was saturated by an acid, and in 
short presenting all the characters of oxide of zinc. 

Note — After the foregoing account of the Auto- 
malite had been sent to the Academy, I met with the 
second number of the New York Medical and Physi- 
cal Journal, containing Thomas Nuttall, Esq's. 
"Geological and Mineralogical Uemarks on the 
Minerals of Patterson, and on the valley of Sparta," 
in which I find he notices the Automalite of Franklin, 
under the synonyme of Gahnite. The only difference 
between his description and my own of sufficient im- 
portance to be uoticed, is his having observed that 
the edges of one of the basis of the octahedrons is 
more commonly truncated than the other basis, a fact 
all important in the consideration of crystals, as pre- 
senting an anomaly not hitherto observed in the re- 
gular octahedron, and which would in itself have 



GENUS SCI^NA. 251 

been sufficient to induce the author to believe that this 
mineral was not Gahnite, but a substance, whose 
primitive form was an octahedron, with angles ap- 
proaching those of the regular octahedron of geome- 
try. 

Description of three new Species of the Genus Sci~ 
cena. By C. A. Lesueuh. Read July 26, 1822. 

In the month of July, 1816, we observed a great 
number of fish, abandoned by the fishermen, on the 
shores of Lake Erie. They were very well preserved 
in their exterior form ; the viscera being destroyed 
by iusects, and the remainder dried in the sun: but 
as they had been rolled on the beach by the waves, 
their fins broken and in part destroyed, we could only 
decide upon their belonging to the genus Scisena, a 
decision which was confirmed a few days afterwards, 
by the examination of many living individuals that 
had been taken in the lake. There, as well as at 
Pittsburg, they are known by the name of sheeps- 
head ; and although the individuals takeu at Lake 
Erie, were closely related to those of the Ohio which 
we observed on our journey to Pittsburg, yet I have 
observed such differences between them, as have in- 
duced me to offer a particular description of each ; 
they may, however, be only varieties. 

Those of the lake are not esteemed as food, if we 
may judge by their being rejected by the fishermen; 
this circumstance, however, may only prove the fish 
to have been then out of season. 



252 ON THREE NEW SPECIES 

Those of the Ohio are brought to the table, and are 
much fatter, living in the muddy water of that river, 
which seems to be more favourable, by affording a 
greater proportion of nourishment, than the clear, 
limpid water of Lake Erie. 

These fish seem to attain a much larger size than 
that of (he specimens we observed, of which the total 
length was not more than from fourteen to sixteen 
inches. 

They are taken by the seine, and hook and line, 
and are salted, when other species are less abun- 
dant. 

SCLENA. 

1. S. *oscula. Second dorsal long, elevated, 
equal ; tail short ; neck prominent ; scales soft. 

Body subeliptic, compressed towards the back, 
broader at the abdomen; back elevated rectilinear ; 
head much declining ; snout small, rounded, a little 
prominent, with three small openings at the end ; 
mouth very small, horizontal, having the superior 
maxillaries and the inferior jaws concealed under 
the inferior corners of the nostrils ; teeth very small, 
conic, the exterior series a little stronger, those of 
the throat rude, obtuse, placed upon a triangular 
bone, the strongest being in the middle, and the 
weakest on the sides, and upon two bones separately 
placed at the superior part of the throat ; the eye is 
round, placed near the end of the snout, and very 
near the summit of the head ; preoperculum larger 



OF THE GENUS SCIiENA. 253 

than the operculum, with serratures hardly sensible 
on the preoperculum, the other pieces being destitute 
of spines; dorsal fins subequal in height, the first 
rounded anteriorly, and lower towards the three last 
rays, all of which are strong and spinous, and im- 
bricated to lay close upon the back ; the second dor- 
sal is very high and equal in its length, sustained by 
from twenty-nine to thirty soft and much divided 
rays, of which the first is spinous ; the base of the 
rays of this fin, and of the caudal, are covered with 
scales ; jiectorals moderately pointed ? thoracic fins 
armed with a strong spinous ray ; anal moderate, of 
seven divided rays and two spines, of which the first 
is very short, the second strong and very long ; cau- 
dal subtruncated, wider than the abdomen ; scales 
oblique, shorter than broad, and slightly denticula- 
ted, without being rough to the touch, crowded to- 
wards the neck above the pectorals, larger upon the 
opercula, the sides of the body, and upon the tail ; 
the colour on the head, snout, and caudal fin was of 
a bluish-gray, drawing upon black upon the snout 
and above the eyes, more gray towards the back, and 
above the pectorals ; all the other fins are of a lighter 
gray ; there were some red tints upon the cheeks, a 
yellowish reflection upon the scales of the back of 
the tail, and of the opercula ; the abdomen beneath 
the throat was white; lateral line arquated. 

Length sixteen inches, by about four inches and a 
half in depth. 

B. 7. P. 19. D. 9.— 30. T. 1—5. A. 2— 7. C. 
18 5-5. 

This species inhabits Lake Erie. 



254» ON THREE NEW SPECIES 

2. S. *grisea. Second dorsal long, low anteri- 
orly, elevated and rounded posteriorly; scales rough: 
a slight frontal depression. 

Inhabits the Ohio. 

Body eliptic, attenuated at the two extremities, 
elevated on the neck and on the back ; head small, 
pointed ; snout a little prominent, round ; opening 
of the mouth small ; fates unequal, the inferior one 
smaller, closing within the superior; many pores be- 
neath the inferior one and at the tip : maxillaries 
and intermaxillaries in these two species covered by 
the inferior corner of the nostrils ; teeth very small 
and short in the jaw, very strong, round and obtuse 
at the opening of the throat, and placed upon a trian- 
gular bone, furnished with two large and inferior 
apophyses, for the attachment of the muscles; to these 
teeth there are others which correspond with them, 
and are grouped upon two separate bones placed su- 
periorly and at the opening of the throat ; eye round, 
large, near the summit of the head ; iris black above 
and silvery below ; no spine upon the operculum, the 
denticulations of the preoperculum and interopercu- 
lum are hardly sensible ypectoral fins falciform, placed 
a little before the thoracic fins; thoracic fins armed 
with a strong bony ray ; aval small, pointed, sub- 
triangular, having two strong bouy rays anteriorly, 
of which the first is very short : this fin is smaller 
than that of the oscula, and more distant from the 
end of the tail ; caudal subtruncated ; scales broader 
than long, border rounded, denticulated; larger upon 
the sides, the abdomen and the back, than upon the 



OF THE GENUS SCIJENA. 255 

neck and above the pectorals, where they are crowd- 
ed ; the head, the opercula, and the snout are co- 
vered with scales, which are not detached like those 
of the sides of the body ; the base of the second dor- 
sal and of the caudal are scaly between the rays ; 
lateral line curved above the pectorals, straight and 
oblique towards the anal; colour of the head, back, 
tail aud fins grayish-silvery- blue; abdomen white 
on the thoracics, the anal, at the base of the pectorals 
and upon the opercula. 

B. 6.— P. 16.— D. 9.— 33.— T. i.— 5.— A. 2.-8. 
— C. 19 4-4. 

This species arrives at a considerable magnitude ; 
the individuals we examined measured from 18 to 24 
inches in total length. 

3. S. multifasciata. Dorsal very long, emargi- 
nate, anterior part high, triangular, posterior part ve- 
ry low, long, equal, and half the height of the ante- 
rior portion; 15 to 16 narrow, oblique, cinerous 
bands. 

Inhabits East Florida. 

Body compressed, subeliptic, elongated ; head ar- 
quated ; back slightly arquated ; no teeth upon the 
preoperculum, or spines upon the operculum ; ytecto- 
vols and thoracics pointed ; anal quadrangular ; can- 
dal lunulated ; dorsal, anterior part a little before the 
pectorals; eye round, large, distant from the front; 
jaws subequal, the opening of the mouth large, hori- 
zontal, the angle not extending beyond the eye; 
teeth very small, like those of cards ; snout obtuse, 



256 GENUS SCUENA. 

not prominent ; the operculum, snout and head cover- 
ed with thin scales, upou the sides of the body they 
are oblique, small and crowded towards the neck, and 
large towards the abdomen ; the base of the pectorals 
and of the anal are furnished between the rays with 
scales ; lateral line slightly arquated at its origin ; 
colour in general golden-yellow, traversed by narrow 
undulated bands of a bluish tint; these bands originate 
at the back, and descend obliquely forward, they be- 
come more perpendicular towards the tail ; anal, 
caudal, and thoracics red at base ; the dorsal lightly 
and delicately ornamented with a red band, orange 
at the base of the rays ; the remainder of the mem- 
brane of all the other fins, appears to have been 
bluish, and like the anal irrorate with black points. 

B.— P. 20.— D. 9.— 30.— T. 6.— A. 2.— 11.— 
C. 17. 

This individual was communicated to me, by 
Messrs. Maclure, Ord, Say and Peale, who brought 
it among their collections from Florida, in the dried 
state. 



CUh 



«Aut&~ 



An account of some of the Marine Shells of the 
United States. By Thomas Say. 

[continued from page 248.] 

3. #pusilla. Shell thin, suboval, cinereous or 
rufous, with sometimes one or two obsolete, dilated, 
revolving bands ; columella callous ; callus pressed 
laterally into the umbilicus, whitish; umbilicus near- 
ly closed and consisting only of an arquated, linear, 
vertical aperture. 

Length about a quarter of an inch. 

Inhabits the southern coast. 

Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum. 

A small species, generally mistaken for the young 
of one of the preceding species. 

THEODOXUS, Montf 
Species. 

N. *reclivatus. Shell thick, strong, globose-oval, 
greenish-olive, with numerous, approximate, parallel, 
irregularly undulated green lines across the volu- 
tions; volutions about three, the exterior one occu- 
pying nearly the whole shell ; spire very short, ob- 
tuse at the apex, and frequently eroded to a level 
with the superior edge of the body whirl ; mouth 
within bluish-white ; labrum acutely edged ; labi- 
um callous, minutely crenated on the edge, and with 
a very small tooth near the middle. 

Greatest diameter nineteen-twentieths of an inch, 
greatest transverse diameter four-fifths of an inch. 

Inhabits East Florida. 

32 



258 MARINE SHELLS 

Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum. 

Animal — pale, more or less distinctly lineated, or 
clouded with black; foot rounded, almost orbicular, 
hardly as long as the shell is broad ; above with four 
more or less distinct, black, parallel lines ; rostrum 
dilated, truncated, tip with four black lines, a black 
band connecting the eyes: eyes prominent, appearing 
to be placed on a tubercle at the outer base of the ten- 
tacula, black with a white orbit; tentacula with 
darker or black lines, setaceous, and longer than the 
breadth of the rostrum; beneath immaculate. 

I found this species in great plenty, inhabiting St. 
John's river in East Florida, from its mouth to Fort 
Picolata, a distance of one hundred miles, where the 
water was potable. It seemed to exist equally well, 
where the water was as salt as that of the ocean, 
and where the intermixture of that condiment, could 
not be detected by the taste. Its movements are re- 
markably slow. 

Class, 

CONCHIFERA. 

OSTREA, Lin. Lam. 

O. *semicylindrica. Shell elongated, semicylin- 
dric, white, covered with a fuscous epidermis ; sides 
parallel; base and tip rounded, equally obtuse; in- 
ferior valve very convex ; superior valve flat : within 
white, somewhat perlaceous; muscular impression 
large, white. 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 259 

Length seven-twentieths of an inch. 

Inhabits the coast of Georgia and Florida, im- 
bedded in sponges. 

Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum. 

This species has the habit and manners of the 
genus Vulcella, but differs from it in having very un- 
equal valves and beaks, and at the same time it dif- 
fers from the Ostreas in being unattached. I found 
several specimens imbedded in sponges, or interposed 
between a large Ascidia and our common Thethya, 
Lam. 

PECTEN, Lam. 

1. P. *concentricus. Shell suborbicular, with 
from eighteen to twenty elevated, rounded ribs, and 
very numerous simple transverse wrinkles ; longitu- 
dinal striae, none ; one valve somewhat ventricose, 
pale-yellow, fasciated concentrically with reddish- 
fuscous or blackish ; the other valve convex, brown- 
ish-cinereous ; auricles subequal ; hinge margin rec- 
tilinear in each valve; within white. 

Length two inches and nine-tenths. 

Breadth three inches and one-tenth. 

Inhabits the coast of New Jersey. 

Var. a. Somewhat more compressed, variegated. 

Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum, and Mr. Hyde's collection. 

Although this shell is a large species, and is one 
of our most common shells, yet I cannot perceive that 



S60 MARINE SHELLS 

it has been either figured or described distinctly in 
any work to which I can refer. The inner margin, 
particularly between the ribs, is sometimes of a dirty 
reddish-brown colour. I have not seen this speciei 
on the southern coast. 

The variety occurs on the coast of New England, 
and several specimens are preserved in Mr. William 
Hyde's cabinet. One specimen is of a fine bright 
orange-colour, and on one of the valves only, are the 
concentric bands of blackish : the margins, which de- 
cline from the beaks, are transversely mottled with 
white. Another has one valve blackish-brown, with 
about a dozen rather large white spots on the disk, 
longitudinally disposed, and white transverse varie- 
gations on the umbones and beaks ; the margins, 
which decline from the beaks in both valves, are 
similarly coloured, and varied with transverse white 
marks ; the opposite valve is yellowish-white, with 
the usual bands. It must, however, be observed, that 
the epidermis of both these specimens was removed 
by muriatic acid. It is probable that the examina- 
tion of numerous specimens, will prove this to be a 
distinct species, if so, it may be distinguished by the 
name of P. borealis. 

2. P. *dislocatus. Shell suborbicular, with twen- 
ty or twenty-two elevated rounded ribs, and very 
numerous concentric wrinkles ; longitudinal striaa 
none; whitish tinged with yellow or reddish, with a 
few narrow, transverse, interrupted, and dislocated, 
sanguineous, undulated lines, and five or six pale- 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 26l 

reddish, almost obsolete spots, on the margin, at the 
base of the auricles ; auricles subequal ; hinge mar- 
gin rectilinear in each valve. 

Length one inch and a half. 

Breadth one inch and three-fifths. 

My Cabinet. 

This is a very pretty species, and seems to be con- 
fined to the southern coast, where it is rare. It is 
very different in its coloured markings from the pre- 
ceding species, which, however, it much resembles in 
form. I have a young specimen, on which the red 
lines are numerous, but are dilated; pale, and tinted 
with dull purplish. 

PANDORA, Brug. 

Species. 

P. *trilineata. Shell white, subpellucid, concen- 
trically wrinkled; hinge placed at the posterior slope, 
which is very abrupt, and forming a very considerably 
obtuse angle with the hinge margin ; hinge margin 
concavely much arquated, the surface flattened, and 
bounded on its edges by two elevated approximate 
lines, originating at the beak and continued to the 
tip, which is rostrated ; rostrum ascending ; a distinct 
slightly impressed line originates at the beaks, and 
passes to the middle of the basal margin 5 right valve 
a little convex ; left valve flat. 

Length nine-twentieths of an inch. 

Greatest breadth nineteen-twentieths of an inch. 



262 MARINE SHELLS 

Inhabits the American coast. 

Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum. 

I first discovered a single valve of this curious 
shell several years ago at Great Egg Harbour, on 
the shores of New Jersey ; since which, I have found 
two or three others on the coast of Georgia and East 
Florida, so that it may be said to inhabit our whole 
southern and middle coast. The inner edge of the 
hinge margin of one valve, closes over that of the 
other. This species is very different from the l J . in- 
cequivalvis, particularly in having the hinge placed 
much further back, and consisting of a mere angle, 
not prominent ; the rostrum also has a direction more 
upward. 

AVICULA, Brug. 

Species. 

A. hirudo. Var. Shell perl aceous ; epidermis red- 
dish-brown, with very numerous undulated wrinkles, 
which are disposed in radi, and rendered more con- 
spicuous by a white longitudinal line at the junction 
of each series of wrinkles with its contiguous one. 

Width about three-fourths of an inch. 

Inhabits the southern coast. 

Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum. 

It appears to be rare. I have found but a single 
entire specimen, which is young. In its radiating 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 263 

series of wrinkles, it approximates to A. morio of 
Leach, but (lifters from it in magnitude, and in being 
radiated with whitish lines. I have a specimen from 
the West Indies, which corresponds very well with 
this, but as it is a much older shell, it is of a much, 
darker colour, and the radi are interrupted into ab- 
breviated lines. 

A valve of an adult shell, also occurred on the 
southern coast, but so much worn by attrition, that 
its superficial characters are destroyed. 

MYTILLUS, Lin. Lam. 

Species. 

1. M. ^cubitus. Shell oblong, striated with ele- 
vated, subglabrous lines, which are smaller on the 
anterior side ; anterior edge linear, or slightly con- 
cave ; posterior edge ascending from the base in a 
right line to a prominent angle, which is rather be- 
hind the middle of the shell, from which it descends 
by a concave line to the obliquely and very obtuse- 
ly rounded tip ; colour yellowish, polished and some- 
what fascia ted with green or brownish, which dis- 
appear on the anterior margin. 

Length one and one-fifth of an inch. 

Breadth half an inch. 

Inhabits the coast of the United States. 

Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum. 

This species, seems to be most closely allied to 



264 MARINE SHELLS 

M. demissus and exustus ; from the former it is 
distinguished, by not bavins; the angle on the po>te- 
rior side obtusely rounded, and not placed consider- 
ably before the middle ; and the line of the edge be- 
fore this angle, is not convex as in that shell. It 
does not at all correspond with the figures in the 
Encyc. Method, which are quoted for exustus ; but 
it agrees very well, and is probably specifically the 
same, with the species represented on plate 365 of 
Lister's conch, which the author thus defines (i mus- 
cutus parvus, subluteus, leviter striatus." 

2. M. ^lateralis. Shell transversely suboval, 
inflated, subpellucid, with numerous concentric 
wrinkles, anterior and posterior margins, longitudi- 
nally ribbed with alternate large and small lines, 
which crenate the basal margin ; intermediate area 
destitute of longitudinal lines ; most prominent part 
of the shell extending from the beak to the tip of the 
anterior margin, and bounded on its posterior side by 
an indented line ; epidermis pale-brownisb. 

Length three tenths of an inch. 

Breadth eleven-twentieths of an inch. 

Thickness seven- twentieths of an inch. 

Inhabits the southern coast. 

Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum. 

Found imbedded in the large Tethya of our coast. 
This shell is closely allied to Mytillus discors of 
Montague. 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 265 

3. M. *hamatas. Shell very much contracted 
and incurved at the base, which is acute ; valves 
striated on every part of the exterior with longitudi- 
nal, elevated lines, which are bifid and sometimes 
trifid towards the tip ; colour dark fuscous ; within 
dark purpurescent, with a whitish margin. 

Length one and one-fifth of an inch. 

Breadth nearly four- fifths of an inch. 

Inhabits the Gulf of Mexico. 

Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum. 

A common species in the Gulf of Mexico, and is 
frequently carried to market at New Orleans, attach- 
ed to the common oyster. It is remarkably distinct 
from M. demissus by the great incurvature of the 
beaks, by its inferiority in magnitude, aud by having 
the striae extending over every part of the surface of 
the shell. 

I cannot refer it to strialulus, with which it seems 
to have some affinity, as that species is described to 
be nearly diaphanous. It seems to have some af- 
finity with the M. decussatus Lam. but is much 
smaller, and the transverse striae are not very promi- 
nent. 

MODIOLA, Lam. 

Species. 

1. M. Americana. Var. Shell oblong, hinge mar- 
gin elevated in a right line, from the beak to the 

33 



266 MARINE SHELLS 

alated angle, from which it declines also in a right 
line, nearly to an equal distance ; alated projection 
rounded ; anterior margin short and small ; basal 
margin with a dilated but slightly impressed con- 
traction in the middle ; epidermis transversely 
wrinkled, light-brown, the raised oblique portion of 
the shell yellowish -white ; cortex with membranous 
scales and Aliments, and covering all the anterior 
portion of the shell to the beak. 

Modiola i^mericana, Leach Zool. Misc. vol. 2. 
pi. 72- fi£. 1. Var. 

Inhabits the southern coast. 

Length, from the tip of the angle to the middle of 
the base, three-fifths of an inch nearly. 

Breadth one and one-fifth of an inch. 

Thickness half an inch. 

Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum. 

This variety differs from that figured by Dr. 
Leach, in being always destitute of oblique coloured 
radii. 

2. M. *castaneat Shell transversely oblong sub- 
oval ; hinge margin elevated in a right line from the 
beak to the alated angle, from which it declines in a 
line slightly arquated ; alated angle rounded : ante- 
rior margin rounded at the tip ; posterior margin 
rather large ; base with a dilated but slightly im- 
pressed contraction before the middle; epidermis 
concentrically wrinkled, castaneous ; cortex not con- 
tinued behind the middle of the shell ; within bluish. 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 267 

Inhabits the southern coast. 

Length, from the tip of the angle to the middle of 
the base, three-fifths of an inch. 

Breadth one and one-tenth of an inch. 

Thickness nearly half an inch. 

Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum. 

This species, like the preceding, is furnished with 
a membranaceous expansion over a portion of the 
epidermis, giving rise to a number of filamentous pro- 
cesses, by means of which the shell is attached to 
various marine bodies. 

ARC A, Lin. Lam. 

1. A. *ponderosa. Shell somewhat oblique, very 
thick and ponderous, with from twenty-five to twenty- 
eight ribs, each marked by an impressed line ; inter- 
stitial spaces equal to the width of the ribs ; umbones 
very prominent ; apices remote from each other, and 
opposite to the middle of the hinge, spaces between 
them with longitudinal lines as prominent as their 
corresponding teeth ; anterior margin cordate, flat- 
tened, distinguished from the disk by an abrupt an- 
gular ridge ; posterior edge rounded, very short ; 
inferior edge nearly rectilinear, or contracted in the 
middle. 

Leugth two inches and one-eighth. 

Greatest breadth two inches and a half nearly. 

Inhabits the southern coast. 

My cabinet. 

A remarkable species and readily recognised. 



268 MARINE SHELLS 

2. A. *pexata. Shell covered with a hairy epi- 
dermis, transversely subovate, with from thirty-two 
to thirty-six ribs, placed nearer to each other than 
the length of their own diameters ; umbones moder- 
ate ; apices approximate, placed far backward, very 
near the posterior termination of the hinge ; posterior 
edge rounded, destitute of an angle ; anterior edge 
rounded, with an angle at the termination of the 
hinge ; inferior edge regularly rounded. 

Length one inch and seven-tenths. 

Breadth two inches and three-tenths. 

Inhabits the coast of the United States. 

Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum. 

A common species, distinguished by the name of 
the bloody clam. It is covered with a hairy epider- 
mis, and when violently opened, an effusion of a red 
sanies proceeds from the animal. In the young shell, 
an angle is perceptible on the posterior edge, at the 
termination of the hinge margin, but this disappears 
with age. 

3. A. *incongrua. Shell somewhat rhomboidal, 
with from twenty-six to twenty-eight ribs, placed 
nearer to each other than the length of their own 
diameters, and crossed by elevated, obtuse, equal, and 
equidistant lines, which are altogether wanting on 
ten rays of the disk of the left valve : apices opposite 
to the middle of the hinge, distant from each other, 
with a lanceolate space between them, of which the 
breadth is about one-third of its length $ extremities 






OF THE UNITED STATES. 269 

of the hinge margin angulated ; posterior edge round- 
ed : inferior edge rounded, that of the light valve ex- 
tended a little heyond the regular cuvve in the mid- 
dle ; anterior margin cordate, flattened; anterior 
edge nearly rectilinear. 

Length two inches. 

Breadth rather more than two inches. 

Inhabits the estuaries of the United States. 

Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum. 

This species, which is very abundant on our coast, 
strongly resembles A. rhomhea, but, agreeably to the 
figure in the Encyc. Meth., it differs in the width of 
the space on the hinge margin, in the width of the 
spaces between the ribs, and in its more rectilinear 
anterior edge. 

4. A. ^transversa. Shell transversely oblong, 
rhomboidal, with from thirty-two to thirty-five ribs, 
placed at nearly the length of their own diameters 
distant from each other ; apices separated by a long 
narrow space, and situate at the termination of the 
posterior third of the length of the hinge margin ; ex- 
tremities of the hinge margin angulated ; anterior 
edge, superior moiety rectilinear; posterior edge 
rounded ; inferior edge nearly rectilinear, or very 
obtusely rounded ; on the hinge space one or two an- 
gulated lines are drawn from the apex, diverging to 
the hinge edge. 

Length less than seven-twentieths of an inch. 

Breadth one inch and one-fifth. 



270 MARINE SHELLS 

Inhabits the coast of the United States. 

Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum. 

This species, which is abundant in some districts, 
is remarkable by its transverse form, and may be 
known among the foregoing species, by the apex be- 
ing situate opposite to one4hird of the distance from 
the posterior termination of the hinge margin. 

NUCULA, Lam. 
Species. 

N. Xproxima. &/*e^ subtriangular, oblique, con- 
centrically wrinkled, and longitudinally marked with 
numerous, hardly perceptible striae '.posterior margin 
very short and very obtusely rounded, asubmarginal 
impressed line ; anterior margin very oblique, and 
but slightly arquated ; umbo placed far back ; with- 
in perlaceous, polished, edge strongly crenated ; teeth 
of the hinge robust, the posterior series very distinct 
and regular. 

Greatest length, parallel with the posterior margin, 
three-tenths of an inch. 

Breadth less than two-fifths of an inch. 

Inhabits the southern coast. 

Cabinet of the Academy. 

Very much resembles JV. nucleus, but is propor- 
tionally wider, and the posterior series of teeth is 
more regular and distinct. It may possibly prove to 
be only a variety, when numerous specimens are 
carefully examined and compared. 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 27 i 



VENUS, L. Lam. 

1. V. *notata. Shell obtusely rounded before, 
aud with a slight undulation on the anterior margin; 
disk nearly destitute of the elevated concentric striae 
which mark the holders of the shell, and distinguish- 
ed by rufous zigzag transverse lines ; within yel- 
lowish-white. 

Breadth about three inches. 

Inhabits the coast of the United States. 

Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum, and Mr. Wm. Hyde's collection. 

A rare species called the lettered clam. y l ob- 
tained oue specimen at Great Egg Harbour, and 
another on the coast of Georgia. Mr. Hyde received 
his specimen from New England ; it has the rufous 
lines very much dilated, but they still preserve the 
zigzag form. 

2. V. *prceparca. Shell subovate, with numerous, 
elevated, subacute, parallel, concentric lines, which 
subside into mere wrinkles near the suture of the 
ligature slope, interstitial spaces plain ; ligament 
slope flattened, margined by an acute line; anterior 
margin with an obsolete, longitudinal, very obtuse 
undulation, which gives the tip of this margin a slight- 
ly truncated appearance ; areola cordate, elevated at 
the suture ; within white or yellowish ; inferior and 
posterior margins within crenulated, the crenula ex- 
tending along the edge of the areola to the beak ; in 



272 MARINE SHELLS 

advance of the anterior termination of the ligament 
groove of the left valve, is another distinct groove 
which receives the edge of the corresponding margin 
of the other valve. 

Width two inches and one-fourth. 

Inhabits the coast of the United States. 

Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum. 

This species bears considerable resemblance to 
V. Casina, but that shell is regularly arquated on the 
anterior margin in Maton and Rackett's figure (v. 
Trans. Lin. Soc. Lond. 8. pi. 2. fig. 1.) It also ap- 
proaches V. rigida, but is distinct by its cordate 
areola, &c. 

S. *elevata. Shell subcordate, longitudinally sul- 
cated, sulci equal, numerous, dense, on the anterior 
submargin sparse ; concentric elevated, remote, lam- 
melar bands ; anterior margin subangulated at tip ; 
within, margin crenated, crense obsolete on the ante- 
rior margin, and near the hinge on the posterior 
margin. 

Length four-fifths of an inch. 

Breadth nine-tenths of an inch. 

Inhabits the southern coast. 

Cabinet of the Academy. 

I obtained but a single bleached valve of this 
species. It certainly approaches very near to V. 
cancellata, but it is distinguished by being much less 
obtuse before, and by having the longitudinal striae 
more numerous. The concentric lammelar bands 
were eleven in number on this specimen. 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 273 

4. V. *inequalis. Shell subcordate, longitudinal- 
ly sulcated, lines numerous, obsolete on tbe anterior 
margin, behind the middle bifid and alternating with 
smaller single ones ; concentric, distant, lamellar 
bands, but little more elevated than the longitudinal 
lines ; anterior margin subangulated : within, mar- 
gin crenate, crense obsolete on the anterior margin 
and rear ; the hinge on the posterior margin. 

Length one inch. 

Breadth one inch and one-fifth. 

Inhabits the coast of the middle states. 

Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum. 

Very similar in form to the preceding, but it is 
distinguishable by the much less elevated and more 
numerous bands, and by the bifid, unequal and less 
numerous longitudinal lines. I have only found them 
on the coasts of New Jersey and Maryland. 

5. V. *castanea. Shell thick and ponderous, sub- 
orbicular, or subtriangular, with prominent and near- 
ly central beaks ; lunule excavated, lanceolate ; car- 
tilage slope rectilinear, indented ; valves with minute 
concentric wrinkles, and larger waves ; epidermis 
chesnut-brown, with darker or paler zones ; within 
white, the margin very regularly crenulated. 

Length one inch. 
Breadth one inch nearly. 
Inhabits the coast of New Jersey. 
Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum. 

34 



274 MARINE SHELLS 

A very thick shell, not unfrequent on the coast at 
Great Egg Harbour. The surface is often sculptured 
with very slightly elevated, obtuse lines, which are 
sometimes elevated and acute ; it very closely ap- 
proximates to Venus sulcata as figured by Maton and 
Hackett, Trans. Lin. Soc. Lond. vol. 8. pi. 2. 

CYTHEREA, Lam. 

C. ^occulta. Shell suit orbicular, or subtriangular, 
thick, with very numerous approximate, obtuse, 
transverse and longitudinal, elevated lines, which 
are nearer to each other than the length of their 
own diameters, the longitudinal ones not being visible 
to the unassisted eye ; lunule destitute of the longi- 
tudinal lines ; colour yellowish- white with a few 
large brown spots, lunule and ligament slope trans- 
versely spotted with reddish-brown ; margin within 
entire ; anterior cardinal tooth simple. 

Length and breadth half an inch. 

Inhabits the southern shores. 

Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum. 

This shell is very rare, and is not to be mistaken 
for any other shell which I have seen on our coast. 
The aid of a magnifier is necessary to discover the 
longitudinal lines. 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 27$ 

TELLINA, Lin. 
Species. 

1. T. *alternata. Shell compressed, oblong, nar- 
rowed and angulated before, white ; numerous paral- 
lel, equal, equidistant, impressed concentric lines, 
which on the anterior margin are alternately obsolete; 
interstitial spaces flat ; within tinged with yellow, a 
callous line, which is sometimes obsolete, passes 
from behind the hinge to the inner margin of the 
posterior cicatrix, and another from before the hinge 
to the inner margin of the anterior cicatrix ; anterior 
hinge tooth emarginate; posterior lamellar tooth very 
near the cardinal teeth, so as to appear like a primary 
tooth, that of the right valve wanting ; anterior 
lamellar tooth at the extremity of the ligament ; an- 
terior hinge slope declining in a somewhat concave 
line to an obliquely truncated tip. 

Length one inch aud one-fourth. 

Width two inches and one-fifth. 

Thickness two-fifths of an inch. 

Inhabits the coast of Georgia and East Florida. 

Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum. 

Rather a common shell, beautifully and very re- 
gularly striated. When cast upon the beach, one of 
the valves is very commonly perforated near the 
hinge; this operation, it would seem, is most fre- 
quently performed upon the left valve, as, of ten 



£76 MARINE SHELLS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

specimens thus mutilated, I have but two with the 
perforation upon the right valve. It varies in being 
destitute of the yellow colour within. It is probably 
allied to T. punicea, but I have never found it so far 
north as the coast of New Jersey. It is much more 
elongated than the latter, the strise are far more 
distinct, and it is entirely and always destitute of the 
rose-coloured bauds, and lines, such as are repre- 
sented in Horn's figure of that shell. It cannot be 
the T. angulosa of Gmel., as that species is described 
to be suborbicular, and to have the lateral teeth re- 
mote, whereas the alternata has but one of the lateral 
teeth remote. 

2. T. *jpolita. Shell transversely subtriangular, 
minutely wrinkled concentrically, white, immacu- 
late ; anterior margin rather shorter than the poste- 
rior one, the hinge slope declining, in a very slightly 
arquated line, to a subacute termination ; basal mar- 
gin nearly rectilinear from behind the middle to the 
anterior termination ; a lateral tooth behind the 
primary teeth. 

Length two- fifths of an inch. 

Breadth thirteen-twentieths of an inch. 

Inhabits the southern coast. 

Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Ma 
scum. 

Not unfrequent on the beach of South Carolina 
and East Florida. 

[to be continued.] 



ON THE GEOLOGY, &C. OF FRANKLIN. 277 



On the Geology and Mineralogy of Franklin, in 
Sussex County, New Jersey. By Lardner Van- 
uxem and William H. Keating. Head August 
6, 1822. 

In the communications which we have lately had 
the honour of reading to the Academy, we described 
two minerals which we had discovered at Franklin, 
Sussex County, New Jersey, during an interesting 
visit to that spot in the month of August, 1821. Of 
these minerals one was quite new, and to it we as- 
signed the name of Jeffersonite. The other was a 
new variety of the Automalite (Spinelle Zincifere, 
Hatty,) a mineral which had not yet been found on 
this side of the Atlantic. We likewise noticed several 
other minerals, a more particular description of which 
we deferred until a further examination of the spot 
should enable us to present to the Academy a satis- 
factory account of the Geology and Mineralogy of 
that neighbourhood. We have lately accomplished 
this task, and our second visit to Franklin has af- 
forded us objects of equal, if not greater, iuterest, 
than those which we had collected there last year. 

The environs of Franklin appear to us calculated 
to interest equally the mineralogist and the metal- 
lurgist ; to the latter they present the largest deposit 
of ores which is known to exist either in Europe or 
America. These ores, varied in their nature, but 
equal in quality, are accompanied by all that could 
assist in making them valuable. Not only has nature 



278 ON THE GEOLOGY AND 

endowed this spot with a most bountiful supply of 
ore, but she has enriched it with the materials re- 
quired to turn it to the best advantage. She has sup- 
plied it with fluxes, fuel, water-powers, and all that 
could facilitate the working of these mines to any ex- 
tent that might be wished. After a careful and at- 
tentive examination of this spot, and of the metallic 
deposits which it presents, we have no hesitation in 
stating it as our firm conviction, that as soon as these 
ores shall be made the object of operations, conduct- 
ed on improved and scientific principles, they will 
immediately yield to their owners the most ample re- 
muneration. 

To the mineralogist Franklin affords not less in- 
terest. It has already furnished three new minerals, 
which have not as yet been met with elsewhere ; the 
red zinc ore, the Franklinite and the Jeffersonite. 
The sequel of this paper will show that to this num- 
ber one more is to be added, and that the whole num- 
ber of minerals, which are met with here, amounts 
to about thirty, among which eight or ten present 
new varieties. 

The geological features of this country are not less 
interesting, for it will be found from subsequent de- 
tails, that it contains large beds of ore in a rock 
which is seldom very metalliferous ; and that it pre- 
sents us a spot, where formations of different ages 
may be observed in contact, and their mode of super- 
position determined with ease. 

The attentive observer of the Franklin minerals 
will, we think, readily perceive that they present 



MINERALOGY OF FRANKLIN. 279 

characters which are generally considered to be pe- 
culiar to minerals which have been affected by a 
great heat. 

Without pretending to account here for the cause 
of this interesting appearance, we merely state the 
fact, and proceed to lay before the Academy the re- 
sult of our observations, which we shall divide into 
two parts. The first shall include the geological 
description of Franklin and its neighbourhood. The 
second shall contain an account of the minerals 
which are found at that locality. This second part 
we shall subdivide into two chapters. In the first 
we shall make known the new mineral species which 
we have discovered. In the second we shall give 
an account of the new varieties of mineral species 
found there. 

PART FIRST. 

REMARKS ON THE GEOLOGY OF FRANKLIN. 

The Franklin iron works are situate in Sussex 
county, at about seven miles and a half to the north- 
east of Sparta, two miles south-west of Hamburgh, 
and eleven miles east of Newton or Sussex Court 
House. The works are located at the spot where the 
metalliferous ridge, which we propose to make the 
principal object of this description, is intersected by 
the valley, in which run the head -waters of the 
Wallkill, a stream which after swelling to a consi- 
derable size, empties itself into the Hudson, at Co- 
lumbus. 



280 ON THE GEOLOGY AND 

The whole country to a great distance, is com- 
posed of what may be considered as sienite, having 
more analogy to that species of rock, than to any 
other hitherto described ; this is, we think, the latest 
of the well crystallised formations of the primitive 
class ; the only primitive rock of later formation being 
the clayslate. This constitutes the great sienite for- 
mation of our country, and appears to extend, so far as 
we have obtained information, from the Hudson* to 
Virginia. It is in many places covered by transition 
limestone and old red sandstone. 

This sienite is composed of feldspar and amphi- 
bole in grains, which vary much in size, from micros- 
copic particles to crystalline masses of several inches 
in diameter. 

What particularly distinguishes this sienite from 
all others, is the frequency and abundance of quartz 
which is always in the hyaline state, and appears to 
form an essential constituent of this rock — occurring 
like the preceding minerals in various sized grains. 
The quartz is disseminated throughout this rock, 
without aiTccting any particular disposition, such as 
is observed in granite, for which it has often been 
mistaken. The relative proportions of the two first 
mentioned ingredients vary much ; in some places, 

* This formation appears upon the Hudson, at the upper part 
of the Haverstraw sea, and terminates about four miles above 
West Point, presenting- a similar series of subordinate rocks, 
and also containing some of the same minerals, such as Chon- 
drodite, Black Spinelle and Oxidule of Iron. The direction of 
the rock is North 2o° East and its dip East 80°. 



MINERALOGY OF FRANKLIN. 281 

the feldspar, in others the amphibole predominates ; 
so that the rock presents all the shades which occur 
between the well characterized sienite, and the 
equally well characterized diabase or greenstone. 

The sienite of Franklin is found in beds or layers 
of variable thickness, running in a direction parallel 
to that of the ridge, from the north-east to the 
south-west, consequently, parallel to the great Ap- 
palachian chain of mountains, extending from the 
southern part of the state of New York to Georgia. 
The layers or beds incline to the south-east dipping 
under an angle of about 80°. Subordinate to this 
sienite, are found limestone, gneiss and greenstone ; 
this latter being due of course to an accumulation of 
amphibole, and diminution of feldspar, and forming 
partial masses of no very great extent. 

The limestone forms a bed, without any apparent 
parallel seams or divisions, and is peculiarly charac- 
terized by its eminently crystalline structure, consist- 
ing of large straight lamellar masses, confusedly ag- 
gregated, appearing to belong to the eqaiaxe, from 
the circumstance of its breaking into solids, which 
present not only the cleavages of the primitive form, 
but also those of this crystal ; the faces of the latter 
are not, however, so well defined as those of the 
former. It is of a fine white colour, presenting in 
some instances a pearly lustre, slightly chatoyant ; 
in short, a limestone admirably adapted to ornament- 
al purposes, as a marble, for which at some future 
time it will be used, notwithstanding the difficulty of 
obtaining it in layers or plates. 

35 



282 ON THE GEOLOGY AND 

The direction, inclination and dip of this lime- 
stone are the same as those of the aforementioned 
sienite. It has been traced upon a distance of about 
eight miles, with few or no interruptions, to wit : 
from Sparta at the south-west to one mile beyond 
Franklin to the north-east, and even as far as Ham- 
burgh, as we were informed ; although this limestone 
is subordinate to the sienite, still masses of sienite 
are found in it. We shall have occasion to refer to 
these masses when we come to speak of the minerals 
found in that vicinity. 

From the great abundance and importance of the 
metallic deposits which occur in the sienite of Frank- 
lin, we think it proper to connect the description of 
their geological characters, with that of the formation 
in which tbey exist. 

These metallic deposits consist chiefly in oxidule 
of iron or common magnetic iron ore, Franklinite 
and red zinc ore. The oxidule of iron is found in 
large flattened masses, parallel to the divisions in 
the sienite ; it occurs in the sienite only and is al- 
ways inferior to the Franklinite ; it never comes in 
contact with the limestone ; near it, the sienite is 
often of a coarser grain, so as to present masses of 
pure feldspar or hornblende near the ore. The 
oxidule is sometimes considerably intermixed with 
graphite; so much so as to prevent its being worked 
for iron. The Franklinite and red zinc ore form 
a mass which has I een traced upon upwards of five 
miles, and whose breadth or thickness is rarely 
less than ten, and is often thirty or more feet. Its 



MINERALOGY OF FRANKLIN. 283 

depth is unknown, hut it may be inferred to be con- 
siderate, from its rising into hills of upwards of two 
hundred feet in elevation. This mass varies in its 
composition — in some places the red zinc ore, in 
others the Franklin i fee predominates. The red zinc 
ore abounds at Sterling, where these variations in 
the nature of the mass can be well observed ; at 
Franklin, the Franklinite constitutes by far the 
greater part of the metallic mass ; we perceived in it 
no signs of internal stratification ; resting upon this 
bed of Franklinite and red zinc ore, is a bed or lay- 
er of carbonate of lime and sienite. This is the sub- 
ordinate bed of limestone which we have already 
described ; it is irregularly mixed with the sienite, 
and imbeds masses of it ; it is principally in the cavi- 
ties or druses of this sienite, that many of the miner- 
als hereafter to be noticed are found ; these minerals 
appear in many instances to be of contemporaneous 
origin with the sienite, but the cavities are filled up 
with carbonate of lime, which is probably of posterior 
formation. Upon this bed the sienite is again found 
without any remarkable character attending it, ex- 
cept the presence of quartz masses ; in this sienite 
no other mineral has as yet been observed. All the 
rocks which we have described are in parallel super- 
position and are presumed to be of almost contempo- 
raneous origin. The case is however different with 
those which we are about to describe. Next to the 
sienite, but evidently of a later formation, is found 
a mass of grauwacke of no great thickness. This 



284 ON THE GEOLOGY AND 

grauwacke is generally fine grained, of a ligh gray 
colour ; the fragments, as well as the cement which 
connects them, appear to belong to quartz ; it is found 
on the north side of the ridge, in thin beds or layers, 
directed from the north-east to the south-west, and 
dipping to the north-west ; this grauwacke is evi- 
dently of posterior formation to the sienite, and must 
have been formed, after the surface of this rock had 
undergone those changes which we at present ob- 
serve in it ; for instead of presenting a parallel strati- 
fication, it is found inclining in a diametrically oppo- 
site direction, and covering the edges or crest* of the 
layers of sienite, as is observed in fig. 2. plate. 
The grauwacke and its mode of superposition can 
be w r ell observed on the road from Franklin to Dr. 
Fowler's, (the owner of the spot) at about a quarter 
of a mile below the furnace ; it is covered by a blue 
limestone, which rests upon it in parallel superposi- 
tion ; this limestone is found in layers or beds of va- 
riable thickness ; its colour is a pale gray, sometimes 
of a deeper gray, passing into blue ; its texture is 
compact or subsaccaroidal ; near the grauwacke it 
is slaty ; it contains as well as the grauwacke, fluate 
of lime, of a pale violet colour, which is found in 
small cavities in the limestone, and appears to have 
been formed by infiltrations into it, and the rocks 
under it ; it cannot, therefore, serve to connect these 
rocks with the sienite, in the limestone of which, it 

* Outgoings of Jameson. 



MINERALOGY OF FRANKLIN. 285 

has also been found, or to prove them to be of con- 
temporaneous origin, as has been supposed by some 
geologists ; but this hypothesis is in direct opposi- 
tion to the fact, which we have previously mentioned 
of its being found resting upon the edges of the lay- 
ers of sienite ; this mistake may have originated from 
observing the blue limestone on the south side of the 
ridge, dipping to the south-east, and in apparently 
parallel stratification with the sienite ; but there can 
remain no doubt on the subject, when we connect this 
limestone with that found upon the grauwacke half 
a mile below ; we then find that their stratification is 
quite independent of that of the sienite, but that it 
depends upon the irregularities of the surface of the 
sienite at the time of their formation, and that this 
limestone covers the sienite in a real mantle formed 
superposition. It has been said, that this limestone 
contained impressions of organic remains, we have 
searched for them with particular care, but have met 
with none ; we think it not unlikely, that had there 
been any in the rock, we could not well have missed 
them, especially as our examination was particularly 
directed towards the spot where we were told that 
they had been found. 

It is, however, extremely probable that this lime- 
stone was deposited with the remains of marine ani- 
mals ; which were subsequently dissolved, as well as 
that part of the rock which had received their im- 
pression; this opinion is not entirely hypothetical, but 
derives support from what appears to have been ir- 
regular but small cavities, now occupied by calcspar 



286 ON THE GEOLOGY AND 

or lamellar carbonate of lime, similar to what we ob- 
serve in many of the transition and older secondary 
limestone, where cavities are observed exhibiting 
the external impression of marine organic bodies, 
filled with the same kind of crystalline carbonate of 
lime ; it may, also, be necessary to add, that similar 
appearances are never presented by primitive lime- 
stone ; it is not at all improbable that the occurrence 
of lamellar carbonate of lime, in the manner just men- 
tioned, may have induced a belief that it contained 
fossil shells. The limestone found at Franklin upon 
the grauwacke, appears to be contemporaneous with 
that of the valley, north of Schooley's mountain, also 
with that of Easton and north of Reading in Penn- 
sylvania, and in fact with all the limestone occurring 
east of our great chain of mountains : excepting al- 
ways, however, our primitive limestone, and that 
which accompanies the old red sand stone formation; 
with it is likewise found, the same blue flint or 
siliceous slate and occasionally hyaline quartz in 
crystals. 

In order that the geology of the country which we 
have attempted to describe, may be so intelligible as 
to be understood by those who are not even couversant 
with the subject, we have thought proper to annex 
the two following diagrams, (vide plate) the first 
showing the geographical or superficial disposition 
of the rocks we have described, and the second one, 
their geological position or arrangement ; this latter 
section is the result of our observations made on the 
road, which lies on the north side of the mill-pond at 



fillNERALOGY OF FRANKLIN. 287 

Franklin, commencing and terminating with the blue 
limestone, that being the rock which forms the lateral 
boundary or breadth of our range. 

The following is a list of the minerals which we 
have found in the vicinity of Franklin ; a minute 
description of many of them will be given shortly. 

1. Dysluite,* a new mineral. 

2. Jeffersonite. 

3. Franklinite. 

4. Red zinc ore. 

5. Carbonate of zinc. 

6. Silicious oxide of zinc. 

7. Corundum. 

8. An torn alite 

9. Spinelle. 

10. Zircon. 

11. Feldspar. 

12. Scapolite. 

13. Pyroxene. 

14. Amphibole. 
tS. Garnet. 

16. Mica. 

17. Vesuvian. 

18. Chondrodite. 

19. Carbonate of lime. 

* The Dysluite is a new mineral, which crystallizes in regu- 
lar octohedrons. Its specific gravity is from 4. 35—4. 60. It is 
infusible before the blowpipe : a full account of this mineral 
may be expected in a subsequent number. 



288 ON THE GEOLOGY, &C. OF FRANKLIN. 

20. Quartz. 

21. Tourmaline. 

22. Silico-calcareous oxide of Titanium. 

23. Graphite. 

24. Oxidule of Iron. 

25. Iron Pyrites. 

26. Arsenical Pyrites. 

27. Epidote. 

28. Blue carbonate of Copper. 

29. Green carbonate of Copper 

In addition to which we will add, on the authori- 
ty of Mr. Jessup : 

Diallage at Sparta. 



5c/*w^ 



OBSERVATIONS UPON THE CADMIA, &C. 289 

Observations upon the Cadmia found at the Jlncram 
iron works in Columbia County, J\'eiv York, er- 
roneously supposed to be a new mineral. 
By Wm. H. Keating. Head Sept. 10th ? 1822. 

In the second number of the first volume of the 
New York Medical and Physical Journal, Dr. Tor- 
rey has published a description and analysis of a sub- 
stance, which he considered as a new mineral and for 
which he proposed the name of green oxide of zinc: 
a specimen of this substance having been handed 
to me last spring, I immediately recognised it to 
be similar in its nature and appearance, to a product 
of the iron furnaces of Belgium, which has been 
described by Mr. Bouesnel in the "Journal des 
Mines," (Vol. 29. p. 35,) under the name of cad- 
mia. Having had an opportunity of collecting on 
the spot* the most satisfactory proofs in support 
of my opinion, 1 beg leave to offer to the Acade- 
my, the following account of this substance : It 
was first noticed at Ancram in the year 1812, 
when it was found in pulling down a stone wall 
connected with the iron furnace, which belongs to 
general Livingston, and is now under the direction 
of Walter Patterson, Esq. It excited some interest 
among the mineralogists of New York, but no public 
notice of it was taken uutil lately. Mr. Bouesnel's 

* These observations were made during a short visit to An- 
cram, in company with Mr. Vanuxem, who likewise, at the first 
inspection, recognized this substance to be cadmia. 

36 



-. ; 



* , 



290 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE CADMIA 

observations on this subject are very full ; these and 
a few short notes by Messrs. Collet Descotils, Heron 
de Villefosse and Berthier in the " Journal and 
Annales des Mines/' are the only notices of it 1 have 
ever met with ; I have sought in vain for a mention 
of it hi English works. The cadmia of Belgium is a 
new and rare metallurgical product, which is formed 
in iron furnaces about five or six feet below their ori- 
fice, and immediately under the charge ; it there 
forms an annular disk or ring, which increases con- 
tinually in thickness, and which, if not removed, 
would choke the furnace ; it forms in the Belgian 
furnaces, according to Mr. Bouesuel, " a ring of 
about sixteen inches in height, offering in the profile 
or vertical section, a curvilineal triangle, the base of 
which rests upon the sides of the furnace ; and the 
apex, which corresponds with its greatest breadth, 
is but little distant from the lower part of the rins;. 
so that the triangle appears in some cases almost 
rectangular." I have seen a piece found at Ancram, 
which presented tolerably well the above described 
characters, and corresponded exactly with Mr.Boues- 
nel 9 s description ; like the European, it was found 
in tabular masses, presenting in many cases a distinct 
slaty structure. The substance has often a striped 
aspect; its colour is grayish, inclining to yellow, 
green or black. The specific gravity of the European 
is 5. 25, of the American 4. 1)2 ; this difference is not 
very great, and may in part be accounted for, by the 
fact that the former contains a small quantity of lead* 
Which varies from 2. 4 to 6. per 100. 0. 



OF THE ANCRAM IRON WORKS. 291 

The chemical analysis of this substance made in 
New York, has rendered it unnecessary for me to un- 
dertake that which I proposed making. 1 shall 
merely add a comparative view of the results of the 
analyses, made upon the European and American. 

Bouesnel. Drappier. Berthier. Torrey. 

Oxide of Zinc 90. 1 94. 87. 93. 5 

Lead 6. 2. 4 4. 9 

Iron 1.6 2. 6 3. 6 3. 5 

Carbon 1. .5 .6 1.0 

Silex, earths, sand, Sec. 1. 8 3. 4 



100. 5 99. 5 99. 5 98. 

These analyses present a remarkable coincidence, 
except in the presence of lead in the European, and 
its absence in the American cadmia; but this differ- 
ence is of no importance ; in Belgium Mr. Bouesnel 
tells us that the iron ore is visibly intermixed with 
lead ore, and this accounts for its existence in the cad- 
mia; we are also told that lead is found there in the 
furnaces below the metallic iron. It is not difficult to 
account for the presence of zinc with the iron ore, 
for in examining the ore bed at Salisbury, (14 miles 
east of the furnace) we ascertained that the hematite 
was found in the side of a hill, incumbent upon the 
shist and, as it were, incased in the decomposed part 
of it, and that the adjoining shist was very much 
broken up and altered ; it does not appear that the 
hematite is the result of infiltration alone, for masses 
of micaceous iron ore are found connected with it, 
which appear to indicate that it results in part, at least. 



292 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE C ADM I A 

from the decomposition of oxidule or oligist iron ore. 
We know that this shist contains blende or sulphuret 
of zinc, in some places at least, as at the Ancram lead 
works, and this may account for the presence of zinc. 

Mr. Eouesnel has endeavoured to explain the 
formation of these cadmia, in a manner which does 
not appear to me to be satisfactory ; 1 would rather 
admit that it results from a reduction of the oxide or 
carbonate of zinc, which is intermixed in small quan- 
tities with the iron ore; that this reduction takes place 
in the furnace ; that the zinc sublimes and oxydates 
as it rises, and settles in the form of a ring at the in- 
ferior part of the charge, where the temperature of 
the furnace is considerably lowered by the successive 
additions of cold ore, charcoal, &c. 

This substance is not, it is true, found at present 
forming in the Ancram furnace ; but this may in a 
great measure be owing to a better roasting of the ore, 
previous to its introduction into the furnace. It may 
also be occasioned by the circumstance that all the 
ore destined for Ancram is picked with great care, 
at the ore bed. 1 must not, however, omit to state 
that I found in the flue erected above the orifice of 
the furnace, for the protection of the workmen, a red 
pulverulent substance, to which the workmen have 
given the name of sulphur, a name which, as the 
editor of the Emporium has well observed, has been 
most unfortunately given by furnace and forge men, 
to every product which puzzles them, and without 
any regard to its real composition : this powder I 
supposed to be a mixture of ashes and fine ore, blown 



OF THE ANCHAM IltOX WORKS. 293 

out of tlic furnace by the rapid current of air ; I con- 
ceived that if there was any zinc with the ore, it 
would be likely to be detected in this substance, ac- 
cordingly I found by analysis, about 8 per cent, of 
oxide of zinc, a quantity much greater than I expect- 
ed. It would require a more accurate study of the 
progress of the furnace than I could make in two 
days, and a better knowledge of the methods for- 
merly in use, to determine why cadmia are not 
formed there at present, as they were formerly. 
Dr. Torrey has, 1 believe, never visited Ancram, 
and the information which he received on the sub- 
ject may have led him into error. For instance, 
he was misinformed (I think) when he stated, that 
" it was found when taking down one of the old 
walls of the furnace, erected in the year 1744." We 
were told by Mr. Patterson, that it had never been 
found but in taking down a wall connected with the 
furnace, and which having been built after the fur- 
nace, may have contained materials which had been 
extracted from it at different times. This observation 
is of more importance than it at first appears ; for if, 
as Mr. Patterson told us, the Ancram furnace was 
the first erected in the colonies of North America, or 
at least, the first in the province of New York, and 
if, accordiug to Dr. Torrey, the cadmia had been 
found in the wall of the first furnace erected, the 
substance must have pre-existed to any furnace 
known to have been erected there, which we think 
is not the case. 

But, in addition to all the above mentioned proofs. 



294 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE GABMIA 

and to those which might be drawn from the circum- 
stance of its being found in the vicinity of a furnace, 
I have been able to obtain the evidence of men to the 
fact of its having been formed in it. Having been 
informed that ore from the same bed was used at 
the works belonging to Messrs. Eolley and C offing, 
near Salisbury, I repaired there with a hope of find- 
ing the cadmia near that furnace also. After a short 
search, I found it in its immediate vicinity, and was 
informed by Mr. Holley, that he had himself taken 
it out of his furnace about twelve years ago, when 
they renewed the stack. He was positive that it was 
the same ; that it had been found about six feet below 
the orifice of the furnace, and that if not occasionally 
removed, it would have eventually choked it. I even 
understood him or his partner to say, that this sub- 
stance was even at present occasionally formed in 
the furnace in pieces of almost one-eighth of an inch 
in thickness. One of the reasons why it is still form- 
ed at Salisbury, and not at Ancram, is probably 
owing to the ore used at Ancram being picked, and 
the other not. Mr. Patterson thinks his ore is also 
better roasted. 

According to Mr. Heron de Villefosse, a similar 
substance is formed in the copper and lead furnaces 
of Julius, Sophia, and Ocker, near Goslar, in the 
Hartz. At Goslar, as well as at Jemmapes in Bel- 
gium, this cadmia is considered as the best material 
that could be used in the manufacture of brass ; as it is 
purer than the roasted calamine, it is preferred to it, 
as well as to all other zinciferous substances. It had 



OF THE ANCRAM IRON WORKS. 295 

not, I believe, been used in Belgium before Mr.Boucs- 
nel described it. Should it be found in any quantity 
at our furnaces, it would no doubt be equally advan- 
tageous to work it with copper for brass. 

This substance has not yet been observed in many 
places. 1 believe the only spot where it has been 
noticed, in addition to the above mentioned, is at 
Verrieres. in France, where I discovered it in the 
year 1819.* I am inclined to think that if more 
care were taken by our iron masters, in observing 
the progress of their furnaces, and the products 
which they yield, it might be found in many other 
places ; certainly it must have been formed in the 
old Franklin furnace, in Sussex county, New Jer- 
sey, where so many fruitless attempts were made to 
work the Franklinite. 

* As no account of the cadmia of Verrieres has as yet beei\ 
published, I shall here add the note which I made on the sub- 
ject in my journal. — " July 6, 1819. I visited the furnace of Verr 
rieres, in the department de la Vienne, in France. The director 
mentioned that his ore was good, and that the iron it produce^ 
was likewise good. He complained, however, of a substance 
which formed in the furnace, five feet below its orifice ; it was 
in the form of a ring. It would, he said, have choked the fur- 
nace, if not removed, which at times was a difficult undertaking. 
I mentioned to him that it appeared to be analagous to the cad- 
mia of Belgium. The specimens which I took with me were 
heavy, compact, and of a dark colour." — 1 have not had an op- 
portunity of analyzing them since ; but my suspicions on this 
subject were confirmed, when, on returning to Paris in the au- 
tumn of 1820, I was informed that the Engineer of mines De 
Cressac had discovered calamine in that vicinity the year be- 
fore. 



£96 ON THE ONYKIA ANGULATA. 

Before T conclude these remarks, I must observe, 
that it does not appear that the presence of zinc af- 
fects the properties of iron. In Belgium the iron 
is of good quality ; and it is an interesting fact, that 
the bar-iron of An cram is in great demand at 8120 
per ton, a higher price than is at present paid for 
any imported iron. The castings from the Ancram 
furnace are in such repute, that no other pigs are 
used at the West Point foundry for the heavy guns 
(32 and 42 pounders) now casting for the United 
States' navy. 

The Ancram furnace equals, in beauty of work- 
manship, and economy of meaus, any that we have 
seen : and we entertain no doubt, that all works car- 
ried on with such admirable perfection, must and 
will always prove equally honourable and profitable 
to their owners and directors. 



On the Onykia Angulata, By C. A. Lesueur. 
Read Sept. 10, 1822. 

Shortly after I had published descriptions of seve- 
ral new species belonging to the family of the Loli- 
goes, Br. Hays favoured me with several animals, 
collected by Dr. Hodge, during his voyage from the 
East Indies to the United States. Among these was 
a very small individual of the genus Kxocetus, and a 
specimen of the genus Salmo. This latter offered 
very peculiar characters in the form of its teeth, 
which are hooked and armed with a small interior 



ON THE ONYKIA ANGULATA. 29/ 

process, as in the books, and also in the long and 
broad pectoral and ventral fins. Likewise, a beauti- 
ful individual of the genus Onykia, which appeared 
to me to be of the same species as that which we 
observed in the Atlantic ocean, and of which I have 
given a figure, accompanied with a note, vol. ii. p. 
99, of this work, under the name P. angulata. The 
figure was engraved from a design made by Mr, 
Petit, on board the Geographe, in the voyage from 
Teneriffe to the Isle of France. 

The form of its body and of its tentaculse, having 
a strong resemblance to those represented in that 
figure of 0. angulata, leave me no room to doubt 
that it is to the same species that this animal be- 
longs. 

I much regret the circumstance of my not seeing 
this specimen sooner, so as to have described it with 
the preceding species ; and I profit by this occasion 
to testify my acknowledgments to Dr. Hays, for 
having communicated it to me as soon as it was at 
his disposal, thus enabling me to add a more com- 
plete description to the indication given in the first 
part of this volume. This specimen serves, moreover, 
to confirm the characters that I assigned to this ge- 
nus, and also induces me to propose the following 
generic divisions, viz. 

* Long arms, armed with hooks, accompanied by 
suckers. 

0. carribcea belongs to this division. 

** Long arms, furnished with hooks, without 
suckers at their lateral base. 

m 



298 ON THE ONYKIA ANGULATA. 

O. angulata. 

Two long arms, subcarinated, armed at their ex- 
tremity by two ranges of hooks, of which the exte- 
rior ones are larger ; a small disk composed of suck- 
ers at the lower part of the hand, and several others 
at the extremity. 

Description. — Body cylindrical superiorly, at- 
tenuated posteriorly, and terminated in a point, 
which is enveloped by a subrhomboidal fin, longer 
than the anterior portion of the body ; its length is 
two inches and four lines ; its angles are less acute 
than in the figure before published, which is but a 
slight variation ; there are eight unequal tentaculae, 
the superior ones are short, subtriangular, and desti- 
tute of longitudinal membranes, the two lateral pairs 
and the inferior ones are furnished with a lateral and 
exterior membrane, opposed to the suckers; this 
membrane is less obvious on the superior lateral 
tentaculae ; these eight tentaculae are furnished with 
suckers, placed on two ranges alternately towards 
the base of the tentaculae, and forming but a single 
range at their extremities ; these suckers are semi- 
spheric, pedunculated, very small, and protected by 
a slight border on each side of the tentaculae. 

The two long arms are four inches in length, with- 
out comprising the uuguiculated extremities ; they 
are subcylindric and subcarinated, with a slight ap- 
pearance of articulation at the base of the enlarged 
extremity which supports the hooks; this extremity 
is one inch in length, and furnished with two ranges 
of hooks, about ten in each range ; these are at first 



ON THE ONYKIA ANGULATA. 299 

small, becoming larger near the extremity of the 
range, particularly the exterior ones, of which the 
longest are nearly two lines ; the interior range are 
smaller, and placed at the base of the larger ones, 
in order to replace them when they are destroyed ; 
these hooks are moveable, straight, and compressed 
at their base, and terminated by a curved point ; they 
are covered by a whitish contractile membrane, open 
at the extremity to admit the passage of the hook. 
It appeared to me also, that this membrane was di- 
vided at its base. Is this division for the purpose of 
permitting a free pressure upon the dilated and per- 
forated part at the base of the hooks, where is per- 
haps hidden a venomous vescicle ? Besides, we re- 
mark upon the sides of the hooks, where they are 
naked, grooves, which are continued to the curve of 
the hook ; this small opening may probably serve to 
give a greater extent for muscular attachment. 

The interior bone is of a transparent bistre colour ; 
its substance is horny diaphanous ; it is lightly ar- 
quated, and of the form of a small elongated boat ; 
its carina or ridge being stronger and darker, the 
transverse section of its middle was in the form 
of an open V, and was much closed towards the 
posterior part of the bone, which terminated by a 
small, elongated cup or hollow cone. 

The colour is very beautiful, as in all the species 
of this genus, and occasioned by the numerous small 
points, which cover all the body, the tentaculse, and 
the arms. 

The figure is of the natural size 5 see plate. 



300 DESCRIPTION OF SOME CRYSTALS 



Description of some Crystals of Sulphate of Stron- 
tian,from Lake Erie. By Dr. G. Tkoost. Read 
August 6th, 1822, 

The south-western part of Moss island, in Lake 
Erie, has furnished the miueralogical cabinets of our 
country with some ornamental specimens of sulphate 
of strontian, equal, if not superior in beauty, to any 
collected at former known localities. It was not un- 
til some time after its first discovery, that any well 
determined forms of this mineral came under my ob- 
servation, so as to enable me to determine to what 
variety it belonged ; lately the zealous mineralogist 
Mr. Jessup, furnished me with two crystals from his 
collection, having most of their faces and angles pre- 
served sufficiently perfect to enable me to submit 
them to measurement. 

The description given by Cleaveland, in the se- 
cond edition of his valuable treatise on mineralogy, 
is rather vague, being applicable as well to the 
varieties of sulphate of barytes, as to those of the sul- 
phate of strontian, the same forms existing in both 
minerals, and as is justly remarked by the Abbe 
Haiiy in his Tableau de Mineralogie, " crystalliza- 
tion has co-operated to approximate two substances, 
already so nearly related by their other properties, 
by assigning to them forms, which seem to have been 
cast in the same moulds ; the goniometer alone, is 
here the compass which can guide the observer." I 



OF SULPHATE OF STRONTIAN. 



301 



beg leave therefore, to offer to the Academy a more 
accurate description of these crystals. 

Fig. 3. 



Fig. 1. 



E 



/ 


p 


/ 




A 

M 


M 


/ 




/ 




Fig. 2. 




Primitive Form. A straight prism, with rhom- 
boidal base, of which the angles are 104° 48' and 
75° 12' fig. 1. 

Sulphate of Strontian, trapezienne , p 

^g. 2. the inclination upon the faces are of o upon P 
128° 31' ; of o upon o 77° 2'; of o upon the return- 
ing face 102° 58' ; of d upon d 101° 32'. 

Sulphate of Strontian, epointee »• , p 

fig. 3. The former variety having the solid angles 
deeply truncated, forming faces parallel to the sides 
of the primitive rhomboidal prism. The inclination 
of M upon M is 104° 48' ; that of the other faces co- 
incides with the incli nations of the trapezienne. 



302 MARINE SHELLS 

The crystals are translucent in a great degree, ap- 
proaching to transparent, and of a bluish- white co- 
lour. The size of the crystals is large. 1 have seen 
fragments belonging to crystals, which must have 
been from four to five inches, belonging to the subva- 
riety trapezienne elargie. 

The surface of the faces o o are usually dull, of a 
more opaque milky-white than the remainder of the 
faces, which have a remarkably fine lustre ; the faces 
corresponding with those of the primitive rhomboidal 
prism, as P and M display a fine iridescent colour. 



An account of some of the marine shells of the United 
States. By Thomas Say. 

[continued from page 276.] 

3. T. *Iris. Shell very thin and fragile, pellucid, 
compressed, transversely oblong-suboval, iridescent, 
white, with generally a rosaceous disk and one or 
two anterior rays, with numerous minute concentric 
wrinkles, and minute, oblique, acutely impressed, 
equidistant striae crossing them; strise abbreviated 
before and not attaining the anterior margin, which is 
narrowed and subacute ; basal edge rectilinear oppo- 
site to the beaks. 

Length more than three-tenths of an inch. 

Breadth more than eleven-twentieths of an inch. 

Inhabits the southern shores. 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 303 

Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum. 

A beautiful little species, very remarkable by the 
oblique course of the striae. It is rather common. 

4. T. *flexuosa. Shell suborbicular, white ; an- 
terior margin longer than the posterior one, and less 
obtusely rounded ; beak placed behind the middle, 
not prominent ; surface obliquely sculptured with 
very regular, parallel, impressed lines, which, on 
the anterior margin, are four or five times refracted 
and infracted alternately ; longitudinal striae none ; 
transverse wrinkles minute. 

Length nine-twentieths of an inch. 

Breadth rather more. 

Thickness one-fourth of an inch. 

Inhabits the southern coast. 

Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum. 

The fold on the anterior margin is very slight, but 
perceptible, and is rendered remarkable by the zig- 
zag course of the oblique striae over it. 

5. T. *tenera. Shell very thin arid fragile, 
pellucid, compressed, transversely oblong- suboval, 
whitish, iridescent, concentrically wrinkled ; basal 
edge arquated, not rectilinear opposite to the beaks ; 
hinge teeth two, larger one emarginate ; posterior 
tooth but little elevated ; anterior tooth obsolete ; 
heak placed behind the middle. 

Length three-tenths of an inch nearly. 



304 MARINE SHELLS 

Breadth half an inch. 

Inhabits the coast of New Jersey. 

Cabinet of the Academy. 

Very much resembles T. iris, but is destitute of the 
oblique striae which are so ornamental to that species, 
from which it also differs in being arquated on the 
whole length of the basal edge. It was discovered 
by my brother Mr. Benjamin Say, near Great Egg 
Harbour. 

PSAMMOBIA? Lam. 

Species. 

P. Husoria. Shell trans versely, oblong-suboval, 
bluish- white, with minute transverse wrinkles ; apex 
rather nearer the anterior end ; anterior margin nar- 
rowed, inclining to the left at the end and gaping; 
cartilage slope rectilinear, with an obtuse, obsolete, 
convex line on the left valve. 

Length three -fifths of an inch. 

Breadth one inch. 

Inhabits the southern states. 

Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum. 

This shell does not appear to be very common. It 
seems to vary in having often two teeth on each valve, 
as in Sanguinolaria. 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 305 

DONAX, Lin. 

Species. 

1. D. ^variabilis. Shell triangular; anterior mar- 
gin obliquely truncated, cordate, suture a little con- 
vex ; posterior hinge margin nearly rectilinear, su- 
ture indented ; base a little prominent, beyond a re- 
gular curve, near the middle ; valves longitudinally 
striated with numerous, equal, parallel, regular, im- 
pressed lines, hardly visible to the unassisted eye, 
and obsolete on the posterior margin ; basal edge 
within crenate. 

Length half an inch. 

Width nine-tenths of an inch. 

Thickness seven-twentieths of an inch. 

Inhabits the coasts of Georgia and East Florida. 

Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum. 

Varies very much in colour and is a very pretty 
shell. Its usual varieties are red, white, yellow, or 
elegantly radiated with dilated reddish -brown lines, 
upon a white or yellow ground ; lines are purpures- 
cent within the shell. A very common shell; I found 
it more particularly numerous on the beach of Cum- 
berland island, where, in favourable situations, at the 
recess of the tide, it may be taken up in handfuls, 
without any intermixture of sand. It is very distinct 
from .D. rugosa, but approaches much nearer to 
D. trunculus, from which it is distinguished by being 

38 



306 MARINE SHELLS 

more abruptly truncated before, smaller, and the 
longitudinal lines are more indented. I have no 
doubt but this species has been regarded, by authors, 
as the same with trunculus, if so, judging by an in- 
dividual of that species in the collection of the Aca- 
demy, at least two distinct species have been con- 
founded together under that common name. 

2. D. *fossor. Shell subtriangular ; anterior margin 
short and rounded ; posterior hinge slope rectilinear ; 
base very slightly prominent beyond a regular curve 
at the middle ; valves longitudinally striated with 
numerous, equal, parallel, regular impressed lines, 
not visible to the unassisted eye, and obsolete on the 
posterior margin; basal edge within crenate ; colour 
pale-livid, with two longitudinal whitish rays before 
the middle, both within and without. 

Var. a. Whitish. Var. b. Yellowish. 

Breadth from half an inch to three-fifths. 

Inhabits the coasts of New Jersey and Maryland. 

Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum. 

Very numerous under the surface of the sand, 
which is exposed at the recess of the tide. A wave 
by removing the surface of the sand, exposes a great 
many individuals to view, at its refluence, these im- 
mediately penetrate the sand, and before the recur- 
rence of the surge they are concealed. 

They are preyed upou by several shore birds and 
fish ; the drum (Scisena chromis) and sheep's-head, 
4 Spams ovicephalus) are sometimes caught in the 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 307 

surf in considerable numbers, whilst in pursuit of 
them. 

AMPHIDESMA, Lam. 

Species. 

1. A. *orbiculata. Shell orbicular, somewhat com- 
pressed ; beak nearly central, aud a little prominent ; 
posterior slope a little concave near the beak ; lunule 
small ; valves slightly wrinkled transversely ; an- 
terior submargin with an obsolete very obtuse undu- 
lation, and with a few longitudinal obsolete lines ; 
colour dirty white ; hinge with two lamellar teeth, 
the posterior one placed near to the primary tooth, 
and shorter than the anterior one ; interior ligament 
cavity profound, fusiform, parallel with the anterior 
slope, originating at the extreme tip of the beak, and 
terminating nearly opposite to the middle of the an- 
terior lamellar tooth. 

Length one inch and one-tenth. 

Breadth one inch and one-tenth. 

Inhabits the coast of Georgia. 

Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum. 

Appears to be a rare species ; the largest I have 
seen is one inch and two-fifths in breadth. 

2. A. *cequalis. Shell orbicular, slightly oblique, 
polished, white, with very minute and numerous con- 
centric wrinkles near the margin, which are obsolete 



308 MARINE SHELLS 

on the disk and umbo ; lateral teeth none ; primary 
teeth two in the left valve and one in the other; in- 
terior ligament cavity subfusiforni, as long as the ex- 
terior ligament. 

Length two-fifths of an inch. 

Inhabits the southern coast. 

Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum. 

A small species, not very commonly found. 

3. A. ^punctata. Shell orbicular, white, with 
very minute, numerous, concentric wrinkles, and very 
minute, numerous punctures; lateral teeth none; 
primary teeth two in each valve, of which one has a 
deep groove, which gives it a bifid appearance : 
groove of the interior cartilage not very distinct: 
within a small projecting rim or elevated line near 
the edge, extends from the hinge to the basal margin. 

Length about seven-twentieths of an inch. 

Breadth much the same. 

Inhabits the southern shores. 

Cabinet of the Academy. 

This shell bears a strong resemblance to the pre- 
ceding, on an exterior and transient view of its valves ; 
but on examination it will be perceived to be more 
orbicular and less oblique, and that the surface is less 
polished. By the aid of a magnifier, the surface 
will be observed to exhibit a remarkable punctured 
appearance. 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 309 

MACTRA, Lam. 
Species. 

1. M. *similis. Shell subtrigonate, smooth, or 
very slightly wrinkled, white on the disk or upon 
the umbones, and dirty light brownish colour on the 
margin ; umbones nearly central ; lateral teeth strong- 
ly and regularly crenated on the side next the reci- 
pient cavity. 

Length one inch and three-twentieths, nearly. 

Width one inch and two-fifths. 

Inhabits the coast of the United States. 

Cabinet of the Academy. 

The specimens which 1 obtained from the coast of 
New Jersey seem closely allied to Var. a. of M. 
solida as presented on pi. 258, fis;. 1. of the Encyc. 
Method., the proportions of the different parts of the 
shell nearly corresponding with those of that figure. 
But upon comparing it with several specimens of 
M. solida sent to the Academy by Mr. O'Kelly of 
Ireland, I find its proportions to be altogether dif- 
ferent, being longer and not so wide. 

2. M. ^lateralis. Shell triangular, very convex, 
of a smooth appearance, but with very minute, trans- 
verse wrinkles ; lateral margins flattened, cordate, 
with a rectilinear, sometimes concave profile, one 
margin rounded at the tip, the other longer and less 
obtuse 5 umbo nearly central, prominent. 



310 MARINE SHELLS 

Length half an inch. 

Breadth thirteen-twentieths of an inch. 

Thickness seven-twentieths of an inch. 

Inhabits the coast of the United States. 

Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum. 

A very common shell on almost all parts of our 
coast. 

V 

3. M. *oblonga. Shell transverse, oblong-oval ; 
very slightly wrinkled, excepting upon the margin ; 
umbo hardly prominent ; two strong distant lines or 
folds drawn from the apex to the anterior extremity 
of the shell ; colour dull whitish, hardly polished, 
umbo slightly tinged with ferruginous, within white, 
highly polished. 

Length nine-twentieths of an inch. 

Breadth one inch and nine-tenths. 

Inhabits the coast of Georgia. 

Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum. 

Of this species I found but three valves, on one of 
the sea islands of Georgia. 

LUTKAHIA, Lam. 

Species, 

1. L. Hineata. Shell transversely suboval, thin, 
white, tinged with ferruginous ; posterior hiatus pa- 
tulous, anterior one linear and commencing below 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 811 

the hinge slope ; hinge slope with a rectilinear profile, 
and flattened, oblong-subcordate surface ; valves un- 
equally wrinkled; posterior margin rounded, short, 
with a reflected edge, and subniarginal carinated line ; 
within undulated, anterior margin glabrous, and with 
an indented submarginal line corresponding with the 
exterior carinated one. 

Length one inch and nine-tenths. 

Width two inches and seven-tenths. 

Thickness one inch and one-tweutieth. 

Inhabits the coasts of Georgia and East Florida. 

Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum. 

Not uncommon on the southern coast, and may be 
readily distinguished by the carinated line on the 
posterior sub margin. 

2. L. *canaliculata. Shell transversely oval- or- 
bicular, very thin and fragile, white, inflated ; valves 
equally, concentrically, and regularly grooved, with 
very feint parallel lines within the grooves ; posterior 
margin short, subcuneiform, compressed; a marginal, 
longitudinal, irregular, subimpressed line, between 
which and the edge, the grooves become mere 
wrinkles ; posterior slope subrectilinear, hiatus con- 
siderable ; anterijr margin regularly curved, the 
slope convex ; within grooved as without, anterior 
angle glabrous. 

Greatest length two inches and one-twentieth. 

Breadth two inches and a half. 

Thickness one inch and one-fourth. 



312 MARINE SHELLS 

Occurs on the coast of Maryland and as far south 
as East Florida. 

Inhabits the coast of the United States. 

Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum. 

Very distinct from the preceding species, and 
probably approaches L. crassiplica of Lamarck. 

CORBULA, Brug. 

Species. 

1. C. *contracta. Shell transversely subovate; 
valves subequal, regularly and profoundly striated 
transversely; beaks not prominent, nearly central, 
one side rounded and the other subacute ; basal mar- 
gin contracted near the middle, and one half of the 
length of the edge of one valve concealing one half 
of the edge of the opposite valve. 

Length one-fourth of an inch. 

Breadth two-fifths of an inch. 

Thickness one-fifth of an inch, nearly. 

Inhabits the coasts of Georgia and East Florida. 

Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum. 

I found only two specimens of this shell. The 
striae are precisely similar to those of the larger valve 
of Mija inceqaivalvis of Montague (C. nucleus of 
Lam.) 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 313 

MYA, Lam. 
Species. 

1. M. *acuta. Shell oblong-subovate, narrowed 
behind, rather strongly wrinkled ; posterior hinge 
margin and posterior hasal margin subequally ar- 
quated ; tip of the posterior margin equidistant from 
the apex and middle of the base ; tooth moderate, 
with a small, not prominent, tooth on its posterior 
side. 

Length one inch and a half. 

Breadth two inches and four-fifths. 

Inhabits the southern coast. 

Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum. 

I have but two valves, which are old and bleached. 
It resembles M. arenaria, but is much smaller at the 
posterior termination than the corresponding part of 
that shell, as figured by Bruguiere. One of the valves 
alluded to, is more than four inches in breadth ; it 
corresponds very well in the outline with Pennant's 
fig. of Arenaria. My decorticated specimens have 
an obsoletely radiated appearance. 

2. M. *mercenaria. Shell subovate, convex, some- 
what unequal, transversely wrinkled ; posterior hinge 
margin curving abruptly downward to the tip of the 
posterior margin, which is much nearer to the mid- 
dle of the base than to the apex ; tooth robust, promi- 

39 



314 MARINE SHELLS 

nent, very convex within, and with a small tooth oh 
its posterior side ; within white. 

Length one and three-tenths of an inch. 

Breadth two inches. 

Inhabits the coast of the United States. 

Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum. 

This species, as well as the preceding, is known 
by the name of the Maninose or Piss clam, from the 
circumstance of its occasionally ejecting a sudden jet 
of water, to a considerable height above the surface 
of the sand, during the refluence of the tide. This 
jet may be commanded, by stamping upon the saud 
with the foot, near the entrance of their dwelling : it 
is sometimes brought to our markets, and is by many 
persons highly esteemed as food, it is said by some to 
be preferable to the common clam ; ( Venus mercena- 
ria.) 

ANATINA, Lam. 

Species. 

A. *papyratia. Shell turgid, very thin and 
fragile, transversely ovate, one valve very convex, 
and at the basal margin projecting a little beyond the 
edge of the other; beaks not prominent, placed near 
one end ; surface of the valves very slightly wrinkled, 
white ; shorter margin a little gaping, and with a lon- 
gitudinal wave ; tooth very oblique. 

Inhabits the southern coast. 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 315 

Length two-fifths of an inch. 

Width thirteen twentieths of an inch. 

Thickness one-fourth of an inch. 

Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum. 

This species does not appear to be very common. 
SOLEN, Lam. 
Species. 

1. S. *costatus. Shell transversely elongate- oval, 
concentrically wrinkled, very much compressed, ve- 
ry thin and fragile, rounded at each end ; hinge 
nearly equidistant from the posterior termination of 
the shell, and the middle of the hinge margin; teeth 
two, sometimes none, in each valve, the posterior one 
upright, the other inclining forward ; a strong, broad, 
elevated line within, passes from the hinge towards 
the base and becomes obsolete near that part; colour 
pale violaceous, with about three whitish rays. 

Breadth one inch and a half. 

Inhabits Great Egg Harbour, New Jersey. 

Cabinet of the Academy. 

Rather rare, I have obtained but few and incom- 
plete specimens. The internal costa is somewhat 
similar to that of S. legumen, but it is much more 
elongated, and does not incline obliquely forward, 
as in that shell ; it probably approaches nearest to 
jS». minimus of Tranquebar. 



816 MARINE SHELLS 

2. S. * centralis. Shell transversely oblong-oval, 
slightly wrinkled concentrically, compressed, fragile, 
rounded at each end ; hinge central, teeth two in the 
left valve and one in the right ; epidermis pale yel- 
io wish-brown ; a broad obsoletely elevated line 
within, passes from the hinge towards the base, and 
terminates beyond the middle. 

Length half an inch. 

Breadth one inch and three-tenths. 

Inhabits the southern shores. 

Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum. 

Somewhat rare. It has very much the appearance, 
at fivst sight, of the young of S. carabceus, but it can- 
not be mistaken for it, as the teeth of the hinge are 
invariably central, whilst those of that species are 
anterior to the centre, and the interior of the shell of 
that species has never the slightest appearance of a 
costa. 

3. S. *viridis. Shell fragile, elongated, com- 
pressed, a little narrowed before, slightly wrinkled 
concentrically, the wrinkles regularly rounded to- 
wards the extremity ; hinge margin nearly recti- 
linear ; basal margin a little arquated ; anterior tip 
rounded ; posterior tip obliquely truncated, a little 
reflected, and rounded near the base ; hinge terminal; 
teeth one in each valve, each having a flattened ver- 
tical surface, which turns upon that of the opposite 
tooth ; epidermis pale green. 

Length nine- twentieths of an inch, nearly. 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 317 

Breadth two and three-twentieths of an inch. 

Inhabits (he southern coast. 

Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum. 

A common shell. The hinge is formed upon the 
same plan with that of the S. vagina and truncatus, 
but it differs from those species, in being much more 
rounded at each extremity, and in being narrowed at 
the anterior tip. I think it probable, however, that 
this species has been regarded as a variety of S. 
truncatus. 

SOLEMYA, Lam. 

Species. 

S. *velum. Shell remarkably thin and fragile, 
transversely-oblong, rather longer at the posterior 
end ; hinge edentulous, placed near the anterior end, 
with a slightly prominent cartilage, and an interior 
elevated callus, which is fornicated beneath ; valves 
radiated with about fifteen double lines, which are 
sparse towards the middle of the valves ; epidermis 
pale yellowish-brown, extending much beyond the 
basal and lateral edges of the valves, and at the 
hinge margin, connecting them together nearly the 
whole length of the shell ; within bluish-white ; um- 
bo destitute of the slightest elevation ; anterior and 
posterior margins rounded ; superior and inferior 
margins rectilinear, parallel. 

Length seven-twentieths of an inch. 



318 IMMUNE SHELLS 

Preadth nineteen-twentieths of an inch. 
Inhabits the southern coast. 
Cabinet of the Academy. 

Occurs sometimes, cast on shore generally in frag- 
ments, but is by no means a common shell. 

SAXICAVA, Bellevue. 

Species. 

S. *disforta. Shell thick, inequal, rugged, trans- 
versely oblong-subovate ; epidermis pale-brownish, 
much wrinkled ; umbo prominent, placed very far 
back ; posterior margin rounded, generally very 
short ; anterior margin often truncated, with a promi- 
nent ridge passing from its inferior angle to the beak. 

Length about three-fifths of an inch. 

Width about one inch. 

Inhabits the southern coast. 

Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum. 

When young, it is generally more or less contract- 
ed near the middle of the basal margin, but this 
character decreases as the shell increases iu size, un- 
til it disappears entirely in the adult state. It is in 
other respects variable in form and proportion, the 
beaks are rarely placed so far back as to be parallel 
with the tip of the posterior margin ; it much resem- 
bles Mytillus rugosus of Liu. but appears to be a 
much thicker shell. It is generally imbedded in our 
large Tliethya, Lam. and not unfrequently intervenes 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 319 

between the substance of the thethya and the sides 
of a large ascidia, which also attaches itself to that 
animal. It is also sometimes found in a species of 
spougia. Pinnotheres byssomia of this Journal, in- 
habits this shell. The young shell is furnished with 
a prominent iucrassated hinge tooth, which closes 
into a corresponding depression in the opposite valve; 
but this tooth disappears with age. 

It is referiible to the genus Pholeobia of Leach. 

PETRICOLA, Lam. 

Species. 

P. *fornicata. Shell transversely elongated, pos- 
terior side very short ; anterior side a little gaping 5 
hinge aud basal margins subparallel; valves longitu- 
dinally radiated with elevated lines, which, anterior 
to that which terminates at the middle of the base, 
are alternately more or less prominent, filiform, and 
all posterior to that line are fornicated costa ; con- 
centric wrinkles numerous, more remarkable on the 
anterior margin; lunule ovate-acute, simply sculp- 
tured with the concentric wrinkles ; within radiated 
with strongly indented lines, which, on the anterior 
margin, are obsolete ; teeth two, rarely three, on 
each valve, one of which is bifid at tip or grooved 
on the inner side, and the other usually not promi- 
nent above the margin. 

Length three fifths of an inch. 

Width one inch and seven-tenths. 



320 MARINE SHELLS 

Thickness eleven- twentieths of an inch. 

Inhabits the coast of North America. 

Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum. 

This shell, which has very much the aspect of a 
Pholas, is not uncommon, but is more abundant on 
the southern coast. It approaches P. pholadiformis 
of Lamarck, but differs in not being " subglabrous 
before." 

PHOLAS, Lin. Lam. 
Species. 

1. P. ^oblongata. Shell thin, white, transversely 
much elongated ; basal and hinge margins nearly 
parallel ; anterior and posterior margins rounded ; 
valves transversely and longitudinally striated, the 
strise muricated and elevated upon the anterior side 
into costse, which are more prominently and densely 
muricated ; hinge callous polished, minutely striated 
transversely and longitudinally, and with about 
twelve cells, anterior to which is a recurved margin 
of the shell, forming a cavity ; dentiform process di- 
lated, incurved, spoon-shaped, emarginate on the 
posterior side, and irregularly truncated at tip. 

Greatest length, one inch and one-fifth. 

Breadth, four inches and two-fifths. 

Inhabits Georgia, Carolina, and East Florida. 



/]-ltf1r*wC+* lift 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 321 

Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum. 

Very common on the southern coast, penetrating 
compact mud or i lay. Small clods of th:s clay are 
often rolled ashore by the waves, either containing 
this species, or exhibiting proofs of having be^n its 
habitation, by the numerous perforations with which 
they are distinguished. In many places, where a bed 
of this mud is bared by the refluent tide, these shells 
may be seen in considerable numbers, with a por- 
tion of the smaller side appearing above the surface. 
It is proportionally broader than the shell figured 
by Lister, plate 4£3, and it seems to be allied to P. 
campechensis. 

2. P. truncata. — Shell white, transversely ob- 
long, sub-pentangular ; anterior margin rostrated, 
obtusely cuneiform in the middle; posterior margin 
broadly truncated at tip} valves transversely wrinkled 
and longitudinally striated, muricated, particularly 
on the anterior side, with small erect scales, which 
are not arched beneath ; posterior margin, from a 
line extending from the beak to the inferior angle of 
the truncature, destitute of the striae and mutic; 
hinge callous, foimed of the duplicature of the hinge 
margin, and destitute of cells, a small tooth upon the 
inner margin, projecting backward ; dentiform pro- 
cess curved, prominent, slender, flat. 

Length, three-fourths of an inch. 

Breadth, one inch and seven-tenths. 

Inhabits the southern coast. 
40 



I i 



322 MARINE SHELLS 

Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum. 

A common shell. Pennant, in his observations up- 
on P. parva says, " I have a piece (of wood) filled 
with them, which was found near Pensacola, in 
West Florida." May not this have been the young 
of our truncata ; or have we in reality the parva to 
add to our catalogue? Pennant's figure (volume iv. 
British Zool. pi. 40, fig. 13,) of that species does 
not represent a truncature at the posterior side of the 
shell ; otherwise ours might be supposed to be a va- 
riety of it, although it attains to a much larger size. 

3. P. *cuneiformis. — Shell subcuneiform ; ante- 
rior margin nearly closed, transversely truncated 
from the hinge; the surface transversely striated in 
an undulated manner, with elevated, minutely cre- 
nate lines ; the interstitial lines smooth ; these lines 
partially interrupt a profoundly impressed longitudi- 
nal sulcus, which passes from the beak to near the 
middle of the base ; the inferior portion of this mar- 
gin is destitute of striae. ; posterior margin attenuated 
by nearly rectilinear edges, to a rounded tip ; sur- 
face transversely wrinkled : hinge callous, composed 
of the reflected margin, which forms a cavity before, 
and is destitute of cells ; dentiform process incurved, 
slender, filiform ; hinge plate ovate-triangular, with 
a short projecting angle on the anterior middle, and 
subacute behind ; within, disk slightly contracted by 
an elevated line corresponding with the external 
sulcus. 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 323 

Length nine-twentieths of an inch. 

"Width four-fifths of an inch. 

Inhabits the southern coast. 

Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum. 

Is often cast ashore in old wood, which it pene- 
trates. It hears some resemblance in form to the 
shell represented in the Encyc. Method, t. 170, fig. 
5, &c. Its longitudinal sulcus is very similar to that 
of P. crispata, but in many other respects it is close- 
ly allied to P. pusillus, and like that species, it is 
distinguished by two elongated lamellar plates, 
which cover the sutures of the posterior junctions of 
the valves. 

Type and Class, 

ANNULOSA CIRRIPEDES. 

Family BALANLDEA. 

*CONOPEA. 

GENERIC CHARACTER. 

Shell sessile, fixed, composed of two cones joined 
by their bases, the lines of junction carinate each 
side ; inferior cone entire, attached by its anterior 
side and tip to marine bodies ; superior cone formed 
of six united pieces, with an aperture at the summit, 
closed by a quadrivalved operculum. 



324 MARINE SHELLS 

Species. 

C. *elongata. Shell elongated before and behind 
into compressed processes; posterior valves of the 
operculum, more prominent and truncated at tip. 

Inhabits the southern coasts on Gorgonia virgu- 
lata. Lam. 

Cabinet of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum. 

Anterior and posterior processes very much com- 
pressed, acutely edged above and beneath, and usual- 
ly as long as the body of the shell ; shell generally 
covered with a dirty brown epidermis, beneath which 
it is white, with rufous clouds and lines; posterior 
valves of the operculum larger, more prominent, 
truncated or widely emarginate at tip. 

Balanus galeatus an inhabitant of the Asiatic 
ocean, a species long known, a* d described by va- 
rious authors, is congeneric with the species here 
described. The peculiar characters of these shells, 
their general appearance and their habitat, will not 
admit of their being referred to the genus Balanus in 
a perfectly natural arrangement. I have therefore 
thought it necessary to frame the present genus for 
their reception. 

The anterior pro > the elongata is generally 
acuminated and lo> - than the posterior one, which 
is more compressed, and is generally more or less 
elevated from the branch of the Gorgonia ; upon 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 325 

which the anterior process and the basal cone are 
firmly attached. 

Bruguiere in forms us that the galea is obtained 
from great depths in the ocean only ; but I have 
found the elongata in considerable numbers in inlets 
of the bay of Charleston, on Gorgonia, which at the 
recess of the tide was visible on the surface ol the 
water. 

This species, like the galea, is often found coated 
over with the conical envelope of the Gorgonia, and 
the animal destroyed, probably by its encroachment. 

CGRONULA, Lam. 

Species. 

C. *dentulata. Shell depressed-conic ; base oval; 
height equal to about one-third of the base ; valves 
and interstices smooth, the anterior valve largest, 
and the posterior one smallest ; operculum trans- 
versely striated, the posterior pair of valves with a 
submarginal impressed line, from which to the edge, 
are drawn three or four other impressed lines. 

Found on the Clypeus of Limulus Polyphemus. 

Collection of the Academy and Philadelphia Mu- 
seum. 

The posterior margins of the posterior valves of 
the operculum, are divided by the impressed lines, 
into three or four broad, flat, dentiform divisions, 
which, however, but simply crenate the edge. 



326 GEOLOGIGAL SKETCHES Of 

Geological Sketches of the Mississippi Valley, by 
Edwin James. Read Oct. 8, 1822. 

We offer a hasty sketch of the Geology of the Mis- 
sissippi Valley, in anticipation of a more detailed ac- 
count, which will be given in the Journal of the Ex- 
ploring Expedition, about to be published in this city. 
In the accompanying sections, delineated by Major 
Long, it will be perceived little attention has been 
paid to the horizontal scale. Wishing to exhibit, in 
a small compass, the outline of our idea of the struc- 
ture of different groups of mountains, some wide aud 
uninteresting plains as that between 5° and 12° W. 
in the northern, and that between 11° and 13° in 
the southern section, have been omitted. Particular 
attention has been bestowed in adaptiug the delinea- 
tions to the scale of elevation, according to such es- 
timates as we have had the means of making. 

The inclination indicated by the lines between the 
formations is not to be considered applicable to all 
the strata constituting those formations ; as, in the in- 
stance of the coal in the southern section of the Alle- 
ghanies, the strata of sandstone and bituminous slate 
are nearly horizontal, but they occupy the several 
stages of elevation indicated by the inclined line in 
the section. The lines, therefore, should be consi- 
dered as indicating the position of formations rather 
than the inclination of strata. 

In the southern section of the Ozark mountains, 
the inclination of the strata is usually towards the 
south or south-east, but more irregular in direction 
than in the Alleghanies. 



THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY. 327 

It is proper to remark, that tlie coal strata in that 
part of the Alteghanies represented in our northern 
section, are extensive and rise nearer to the summit of 
the mountains than in the southern, though, in the de- 
lineation, this and some other circumstances of minor 
importance have heen omitted for the sake of simpli- 
city. 

NORTHERN SECTION. 

The argillaceous sandstone, and the hlue horizon- 
tal limestone, extend westward from the summit of 
the Alleghany mountains to the Mississippi. These 
are in immediate connexion, sometimes alternating 
with each other, and often containing extensive heds 
of coal accompanied hy strata of hituminous clay- 
slate. They are the two most important mem- 
bers of the great coal series of the valley of the 
Mississippi. The sandstone is most frequent, and oc- 
curs usually below the limestone ; towards the east it 
passes into the inclined sandstone and wacke of the 
Alleghany mountains. 

Near the Mississippi in longitude 13° W. from 
Washington, is a remarkable stratum of yellowish 
white or light gray sparry limestone, rather indistinct- 
ly stratified, but disposed horizontally and containing 
numerous organic relics. It is connected with the 
carhoniferous sandstones, and sometimes passes into 
the common compact blue lime stone. Associated 
with it is an extensive stratum of an homogeneous si- 
liceous rock resembling the petrosilex of some mi- 
neralogists, and these two in the parallel of our north- 



328 GEOLOGICAL SKETCHES OF 

ern section, form the basis of a peculiar, metalliferous, 
and in some parts, elevated range called the Ozark 
mountains. 

West of these mountains, in about longitude 19° 
W. is the commencement of the Great Desert, a re- 
gion of granitic sands, consisting of the detritus of the 
Rocky mountains, and exteuding westward to the base 
of that range. 

In longitude 28° W. a narrow crest of argilla- 
ceous and ferruginous sandstone, the latter of an in- 
tense red colour, emerges from beneath the deep and 
loose sands of the Platte, reposing in a highly in- 
clined position against the granite of the Rocky moun- 
tains. 

In this latitude, the Rocky mountains, on their east- 
ern side, are almost exclusively of granite, in which 
a reddish yellow feldspar is predominant and hi rn- 
blend supplies the place of mica. About the lower 
parts of the mountains, mica occurs in small quantity, 
and is usually of a very dark colour. 

SOUTHERN SECTION. 

The eastern declivity of this range of mountains 
in latitude 33° N. the parallel of :he southern section 
is covered by extensive formation of porphyrliic 
and amygdaloidal greenstone and other rocks c Hed 
Floetz trap by some geologists. Here, as in Eng- 
land, Germany and many parts of Europe, these roi ks 
are in immediate association with the < «> >1 strata, on 
which they are sometimes superimposed in iuiu*euae 



THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY. 329 

mountain masses. Their absolute elevation within 
the region under consideration, has not been ascer- 
tained, but is probably in some points little less than 
8000 feet above the Atlantic ocean. 

The space between 25° and 21° W. is occupied by 
a red muriatiferous sand stone, containing gypsum, 
and in many respects closely resembling the sand 
stone of various rock-salt formations. Rock-salt has 
not as yet been discovered here, but large masses of 
chrystallized salt are frequent. 

An arm of the sandy desert extends between this 
sandstone and the coal strata along the western side 
of the Ozark mountains in longitude 18° W. 

The secondary deposites about the sides and sum- 
mits of the Ozark mountains, embrace several exten- 
sive strata not common to other parts of the basin of 
the Mississippi. These repose on an inclined sand- 
stone like that of the Alleghany mountains. Between 
the ro>: k last mentioned and the granite is interposed 
a stratum of clay-slate, highly inclined, and resem- 
bling the primitive clay-slate of Sew England. The 
granite of thi^ interesting range of hills is, as yet, but 
little known. It breaks through the superincumbent 
strata in a valley called the Cove, about fifteen miles 
south east of the Hot Springs of Washita. 

The western slope of the Alleghany mountains is 
believed to be nearly similar in character, at the two 
points contemplated in the sections, except that in 
the southern the primitive rocks rise to a great eleva- 
tion, but do not appear in the other. 
41 



330 ON A QUADRUPED. 

On a Quadruped, belonging to the order Ttodentia, 
by Thomas S.\y. Road Nov. 5, 1832. 

In the valuable collection of the Philadelphia mu- 
seum, there is the prepared skin of a mammiferous 
quadruped, exhibiting at first view the appearance of 
a gigantic rat, somewhat larger than a rabbit, and 
known in that institution by the name of long-tailed 
Cavy ; a designation founded upon the belief of its 
being either the Ghloromys acuchi, or an undescribed 
analogous species. 

It was brought to the museum more than twenty 
years ago, either from South America or one of the 
West Indian islands, and from that period to the pre- 
sent it has been open to the inspection of the curious. 

More recently a living specimen of the same ani- 
mal was presented to the museum, which afforded the 
proprietors an opportunity of becoming acquainted 
with the habits of the species in a state of domesti- 
cation. 

According to the observations of Mr. F. Peale, it 
was lively and active, and would climb trees with 
much agility. Almost any kind of vegetable food 
appeared to be grateful to its palate, but meat was al- 
ways promptly rejected. Inoffensive in its ordinary 
demeanour, and evincing no disposition to escape, its 
boundaries were only limited by the walls of the mu- 
seum, and it was permitted to rove freely through, 
the apartments. It retreated from the too near ap- 
proach of strangers, but at the same time evinced a 
degree of gratitude towards the hand from which it 



ON A QUADRUPED. 331 

received its regular food : and when the door keeper, 
Mr. Wilson, was observed by the animal to be eat- 
ing any vegetable food, it would leap upon his lap 
and partake with him ; on these occasions and when 
food was laid upon the floor, it displayed its prowess 
by appropriating it to itself to the exclusion of a large 
Cavy (Cavia magellanica,* Turton. C. })ataclwnica 9 
Shaw) whose freedom was commensurate with its 
own. 

When eating it sat erect, and couveyed food to its 
mouth like a squirrel, or other animal whose organi- 
zation is distinguished by clavicles : and when close- 
ly observed was sometimes seen to devour its own al- 
vine secretions, recently excluded, even when furnish- 
ed with a superabundance of food. 

I shall in the first place state the characters of a 
new genus, which I have constructed for this animal, 
and afterwards note its difference from and corres- 
pondence with other genera to which it seems to be 
allied. 



*Genus. Dolichotis of Desmarest. This animal had the sin- 
gular habit of resenting the obtrusive caresses of strangers, by 
rearing upon its hind legs, and discharging a sudden and co- 
pious j^t of urine upon them ; females and children were more 
generally the objects of this disagreeable salutation. 

This specimen does not at all agree with either of the Ca- 
vy's mentioned by Buffon, Gmelin, D'Azzara or Cuvier, but 
it agrees tolerably well with the description of the Patagonian 
Cavy, by Pennant. 



332 ON A QUADRUPED. 

ORDER RODENTIA. 
Genus* ISODON. 

ARTIFICIAL CHARACTER. 

Clavicles perfect ; molares sixteen, prismatic, not 
divided into radicles ; toes divided. 

NATURAL CHARACTER. 

Clavicles robust, perfect ; incisores not narrowed 
at tip, but very obtusely rounded ; their transverse 
section preseuts a triangular figure, of which the an- 
gles are rounded ; molares sixteen, the two series in 
each jaw converge a little towards the front, and con- 
sist of four teeth in each series, prismatic, not divided 
at base into radicles ; their crowns flat, and traversed 
equally from the base to the summit by lamina, which 
on the summit and base of the tooth terminate pre- 
cisely alike, in zigzag lines, and are the effect of 
the sides of the tooth being folded deeply inwards 
transversely and with but little obliquity : the inner 
angles of the folds attain or surpass the centre of the 
width of the grinding disk, and do not oppose, but 
pass between the angles of the opposite folds ; each 
molar of the superior jaw has two folds on the exte- 
rior and one on the interior side, and of the inferior 
jaw there are two folds on the interior side and only 
one on the exterior ; the interstices are filled near the 
summit with a cortical substance, but at the base they 
are void 5 the form of the grinding surface of the mo- 



ON A QUADRUPED. 333 

lares is quadrate, that of the two intermediate ones 
of each series particularly; the anterior molares are a 
little oblong, those of the inferior jaw terminate be- 
fore in an angle ; the posterior tooth of each series is 
somewhat rounded behind ; fore feet 4-toeri, with a 
small tubercle instead of a thumb; hindfppt 5-toed ; 
the toes are all divided, and rest equally on the soil 
in walking. 

SPECIES. 

I. pilorides, colour black, intermixed with testa- 
ceous on the top of the head, back, sides, posteriors 
and outsides of the legs ; the hair of these parts being 
pale cinereous at base, then deep black, then testa- 
ceous, the tip black ; on the sides, particularly in the 
region of the shoulders, are a few remote hairs, which 
are white and somewhat thicker than the others ; 
front, sides and inferior portion of the head and of the 
neck, breast and line down the abdomen, gray : ears 
rather small, obtusely rounded at the tip; v/brissse 
long, black, gray at the base ; a few black bristles 
above the eyes ; eyes moderate ; anterior foot with 
the intermediate toes longest, equal, exterior tue short- 
est but nearly equal to the inner one ; thumb tubercle 
small ; posterior feet with the three intermediate toes 
subequal, the exterior aud interior are rather shorter 
and the latter shortest ; mails robust, black ; tail 
thick at base, gradually tapering to the tip, imbrica- 
ted with scales, hair short, sparse, rigid. 



334 ON A QUADRUPED. 

Length from the tip of the nose to the base 

of the tail 194 inches. 

Length of the tail 8| 

Length of the ears - - - t$ 

Dimensions of the cranium. 

Length from the anterior edge of the alve- 
oles of the incisores to the tip of the 
occipital condyles - 3? 

Length from the anterior angles of the alve- 
oles of the incisores to the tip of the 
occipital crest - 3£ 

Distance between the most remote points of 

the zygomatic arcs 11£ 

Shortest distance between the orbits 1 

Between the tips of the orbital spines i\ 

Length of a series of teeth - y nearly. 

Width of the largest tooth •§- 

Length from the anterior edge of the alve- 
oles of the incisores to the foramen 
magnum Si 

Longitudinal diameter of the foramen mag- 
num, rather more than - f 

Transverse diameter of the foramen mag- 
num across the middle, rather less 
than - - - - - 1 

Vertical diameter of the large foramen be- 
fore the eye - f 

Vertical diameter of the entrance to the 

large foramen - - tV 

Transverse diameter of the orbit - I 



ON A QUADRTJPf'D 335 

Greatest vertical width of the zygoma- 
arch behind the orbit - i of an inch. 

Observations. The occipital crest is but little ele- 
vated on the sides, and not at all on its vertex, at 
which point it is the most promineut backward in the 
form of a very obtuse angle : it is not undulated on 
the sides. The zygomatic arches, in consequence 
of their breadth, have their inferior edge nearly in a 
line with the crowns of the two series of upper mo- 
lares, and terminate in a prominent angle pointing 
backwards. 

Lower jaw. 

Length from the inner edge of the alveoles 
of the incisores to the tip of the spi- 
nous process - - - finches. 

Length from the latter to the summit of the 
condyle, nearly - 1 

Length between the centres of the articula- 
ting surfaces of the condyles 1| 

Greatest basal width 1? 

Coronoid process - - - y 



Bones of the extremities. 

Length of the clavicle - - - 1& 

Length of the humerus, nearly - 2\ 

ulna 21 

radius - - - 2to 

femur 3i% 

tibia ... si 



336 ON A QUADRUPED. 

As this animal exhibits the character of flat crown- 
ed teeth, altogether destitute of radicles, combined 
with robust and absolutely perfect clavicles, it is by 
the latter character at once excluded from Cuviers 
second division of the Rodeniia, which comprehends 
Lepus, Lagomys and Histrix, together with the se- 
veral genera formed on the demolition of the Lin- 
nsean genus Cayia. 

Of the two divisions, therefore, into which the Tlo- 
dentia have been separated, from the consideration 
of the presence or absence of perfect clavicles, the 
new genus Isodon unquestionably belongs to the 
first and may be grouped with Arvicola, Fiber.* and 
Georyehus. It corresponds with the former, in the 
entire and prismatic form of the teeth But in these 
genera each jaw is furnished but with six teeth, which 
is a smaller number by two than exists in our ani- 
mal ; and as this numerical character is undoubtedly 
essential, we are justified in regarding it as distinct 



*Illiger enumerates four molares to each series in the jaw 
of Fib< r ; but, after ample examination, I agree with Dauben- 
ton and Ctivier in asseiting that but three exist ; of these the 
grinding surface of the anterior one in the lower jaw is as long 
as the 'wo others laken together, and is divided into nine trian- 
gular prisms, of which the anterior and posterior ones extend 
the whole width of the to<;th, whilst the seven other prisms are 
smaller and alternate ; in neither of the other molares of either 
jaw does the number of prisms exceed five. Each of these mo- 
lares is certainly divided into two parts at base, though it is 
true these roots are not solid. 



ON A QUADRUPED. 337 

from either. In numerical dentition, however, Iso- 
don agrees with Castor, Bathyergus and Helamys ; 
but without resorting to a detail of other discrepan- 
cies, the manner in which the folds of enamel are ar- 
ranged in its teeth, very sufficiently distinguishes it 
from either. 

Having thus stated the characters by which Isodon 
is distinguishable as a genus from the various genera 
of the Rodentia, amongst which it claims a situation 
from the circumstance of its possessing clavicles, I 
shall, for a moment, dispense with the consideration 
of these important appendages, for the purpose of 
comparing it with that section of the order, in which 
the clavicles are rudimental both in their form and 
functions. 

In this section, after passing over Hystrix, Lepus 
and Lagomys, as claiming only a remote and ordinate 
alliance, we shall discover some points of resem- 
blance in oue of the several genera into which the Lin- 
nsean Cavys have been judiciously distributed. 

Of these Hydrochoerus, Anoema, and Chloromys 
of Erxleben and F. Cuvier, are in common distin- 
guished by the number of toes, of which there are 
four on the anterior foot and but three on the hind 
foot; in the first and second of these genera the mo- 
lar teeth are very remarkable and peculiar. In Chlo- 
romys the folds of enamel in the molares seem chief- 
ly confined to the superior portion of the tooth, and 
proceed inward and downward into its substance, so 
that when, in consequence of the attrition of masti- 

42 



338 ON A QUADRUPED. 

cation, the tooth becomes much worn, the folds of 
enamel are insulated from the sides of the looth, and 
represent elongate- oval figures on the disk, that gra- 
dually diminish in size with the advancing age of the 
animal. The corresponding teeth of Ccelogenus, 
equally participate in this property. The attrition 
of mastication, on the contrary, produces no visible 
effect whatever, in modifying the configuration of the 
folds in the teeth of the animal under consideration, 
for these are precisely similar at the end of the tooth 
which rests upon the bottom of the alveole, as at the 
grinding surface : and in this respect, agreeably to 
preceding observations, corresponding with Arvicola, 
and, I may also add, with Pseudostoma.* 

But Ccelogenus f differs from all other LinnaeanCa- 
vys, and agrees with Isodon in the number of its toes, 
though this coincidence is not extended to the pro- 
portions of these members to each other, their inner 
toes being small and weak, and those of the poste- 
rior feet being raised a little from the earth, aid but 
little, if at all, in supporting the body ; whereas those 
of the subject of this essay, all press firmly and ef- 
fectually upon the soil in walking. 

These traits of resemblance, however, are either 



* Long's expedition to the Rocky mountains, Vol. I. 

t A cranium of C.fulvus of F. Cuvier, in the Philadelphia 
museum, corresponds, in its remarkably eroded appearance, 
with that of the French museum, as described by that author. 



ON A QUADRUPED. 339 

too remote or too general to assure us of any direct 
affinity, and we are to seek in the configuration of 
the cranium of this animal chiefly for a similarity with 
the Cavys that really exists ; 1 refer particularly 
to the enormously dilated foramen, before the or- 
bit of the eye, the unusual width of the zygoma- 
tic arch, combined with the width of the frontal 
bones, which are almost undiminished by the orbital 
cavities, and the form and curvature of the inferior 
jaw. This dilatation of the anterior foramen may 
be recognised, though in a less degree, in the common 
Gui iea pig as it is improperly called, (Ancema, F. 
Cuvier.) But were all the characters arrayed in the 
above comparison, far more strikingly coincident than 
they really are, we should, nevertheless, regard them 
as insufficient to establish a generic identity ; for '< it 
is impossible," says Cuvier, u to find any common 
and positive character of those animals which Linnae- 
us and Pallas have united together under the name of 
Cavia, excepting that of their imperfect clavicles." I 
would, therefore, conclude, as the consequence of 
this comparison, that Isodon forms a more intimate 
medium of connexion than we have hitherto possess- 
ed, between the old genera and of Mus and Cavia. 

I have been led to. make the foregoing comparisons 
with genera already established, in order to show that 
a reference of this animal to either of them would be 
unnatural and injudicious in the present state of zo- 
ological knowledge, and to convince myself and 
ethers that if it has been assigned to any place in the 



340 ON 7 A QUADRUPED. 

system of which Ouvier has exhibited a condensed 
view in his Regne Jlnimale, such a disposition must 
have been made without a proper investigation of cha- 
racter, and made in error. 

From the circumstance of several specimens of the 
Isodon having been, at different periods, presented 
to the Philadelphia museum, we are led to believe 
that it is by no means rare in its native country, and 
that, consequently, it has not escaped the observation 
of the naturalists of Europe. 

In consequence of the existence of this probability, 
I have carefully examined all the accessible descrip- 
tions of the Rodentia ; but I found myself unable to 
identify this animal with any one of them with a de- 
gree of certainty, and without conceding too much 
latitude to the signification of descriptive language. 

There is, however, one animal of those mentioned 
by zoologists, and I think only one, which can be 
regarded as equivocal in this enquiry ; I mean the 
Mus pilorides of authors, which is so imperfectly 
known, that Cuvier was unable to assign it a dis- 
tinct place in his Regne Aniraale, and we are in- 
formed by Desmarest that Erxleben supposed it to 
belong to the Linnsean genus Cavia. 

This species was described by Pallas and Brissou 
as being white, with a somewhat long, cylindrical, 
naked, scaly, truncate tail, and its native country 
was stated to be India. The animal, however, to 
which I have more particular refereuce, as possibly 
specifically identical with Isodon, was placed by 



ON A QUADKUl'ED. 341 

(jJmelin as a variety of the pilorides. It was obscure- 
ly mentioned or described under the several names 
of musk rat of the Antilles, wood rat, musk cavy, 
pilosi and castor, by Du Tertre, Brown, Bufion, Pen- 
nant and others, who inform us that it is of a black or 
tan colour above, and white beneath, and that it dif- 
fuses a strong odour of musk ; the former author states 
that their form is similar to that of the European rats, 
and that the weight of four rats is not equal to one 
of these. The pilorides is also described as having 
large naked ears, the anterior feet 4 toed with a tu- 
bercle instead of a thumb, posterior feet 5-toed, tail 
4 inches long, and as being in size equal to a rabbit. 
These concise and insufficient characters agree 
tolerably well with the specimen under consideration, 
excepting the attributes of large ears and short tail. 
But another author,* quoted by Buffon, assures us 
that the form of the pilorides is very unlike that of 
"large rats of other countries;" an observation ap- 
parently at variance with the above mentioned re- 
mark respecting their form by Du Tertre. 

In this state of uncertainty, and in order to avoid 
the danger of accumulating still more the already re- 
dundant synonyma, I have thought proper to apply 
the name of pilorides to the " Long-tailed Cavy," of 
the Philadelphia museum. 



* Histoire Naturelle des Antilles, Rotterdam, 1658, p. 124. 



342 ON A QUADRUPED. 

Dr Richard Harlan who examined the internal 
structure of the Isodon, has furnished the following 
observations : "On dissection, the most remarkable 
appearance observed in the interior organization of 
this animal, was the liver, which seemed to differ 
widely from that of any other animal, more espe- 
cially of the order e;lires. 1st. It is divided into four 
lobes, two right and two left, the former the largest ; 
the gall bladder occupying the usual situation. 
Throughout the whole surface this organ presented 
an innumerable crowd of lobules, generally of an ir- 
regular quadrangular figure on the surface, formed by 
grooves or fissures of from three-tenths to seven- 
twentieths of an inch in depth. 

" This appearance could not have been either the 
effect of disease or malconformation, as the perito- 
neal or lining membrane of the liver, dips down into 
the fissures, similar to the piamater iu the convolu- 
tions of the brain. 

" On reference toCuvier, we find the greatest num- 
ber of lobes or lobules in the order glires does not 
exceed seven, and nothing similar to this anomalous 
structure, except, indeed, in a portion of the liver of 
the hornless ruminants ; in which family we find in 
the middle of the base of the liver, a very distinct 
lobe resembling the lobulus spigelius of man." " All 
the inferior surface of this vicera, says Cuvier, (Lee. 
de Comp. Anat. vol 4, p. 13) is divided by deep 
grooves, running in various directions, forming a 
crowd of lobules." 



DESCRIPTION OF A SQUALUS. 343 

I am indebted to Mr. Titian Peale for a very ac- 
curate drawing of this animal, with its accompanying 
details, which are exhibited on the annexed plate. 

fig. 1. Isodon pilorides. 

fig. 2. Liver — a. Gall bladder, b. Portion of the 
diaphragm. 

fig. 3. Cranium. 

fig. 4. A row of teeth. 

fig. 5. Tooth of the superior jaw. a. Exterior view. 
b. Interior view. c. Anterior side. 



Description of a Squalus,ofa very large size, which 
icas taken on the coast of New -Jersey. By C. A. 
Lesueur. Read J\Tov. 5, 1S£2. 

During the two or three last weeks, an enormous 
cartilaginous fish of the family of the Squali has been 
publicly exhibited in this city, under the deceptive 
name of u Leviathian or Wonderful Sea Serpent ;" 
and in order the more effectually to attract the atten- 
tion of the multitude, the long appendices which ge- 
nerally distinguish the male, and which accompany 
the ventral fins, were declared to be, feet. This in- 
dividual is analogous to several others of its proper 
genus, which, on the 2lst of November, 1810, were 
enclosed by some fishermen's nets on the coast of 
Normandy, and which were afterwards taken to 
Dieppe for sale. The largest of these, which mea- 
sured 29 feet 4 inches in length, and 16 feet in cir- 



344 DESCRIPTION OF A SQUALUS. 

cumference at the base of the dorsal fin, was trans- 
ported entire to Paris, where it was carefully examin- 
ed by Mr. Blainville, who published a detailed ac- 
count of it in the Annales du Museum to. 18, p. 88, 
pi. 6, fig. 1. 

The individual now exhibiting, having appeared 
on the coast of New- Jersey nearly at the same sea- 
son that the reputed " Sea Serpent" was introduced 
to the attention of the public, the preceding year, it 
was believed to be no other than the same animal. 

The anticipation of a lucrative exhibition of this 
animal, animated the courage of many of the inhabi- 
tants of the coast, and determined them to attempt its 
capture. Armed with muskets and harpoons, they 
attacked the animal at 7 o'clock in the evening, and 
continued their efforts to subdue it until the follow- 
ing morning, when, having received numerous balls 
and harpoon wounds, it finally grounded upon the 
shore of Brown's point, when it became evident that 
they had been contending, not with an enormous ser- 
pent, but with a gigantic shark. 

The liver yielded four barrels of oil, of about 32 
gallons each. The skin, already injured by the nu- 
merous wounds,* was still further mutilated in seve- 
ral parts in separating it from the body ; it was, how- 
ever, at length, extended upon a frame, which imi- 
tated the form of the animal, though the attitude is 
forced, the branchial openings too widely extended, 
the head too much elevated, and the mouth so much 
expanded as to admit a man in a sitting posture. 



DESCRIPTION OF A SQUALUS. 345 

Notwithstanding these inaccuracies however, much 
credit is due to the individual who prepared this 
skin, as it presents a good idea of the form and mag- 
nitude of this elephant shark. 

The following description and remarks were made 
of the animal in the state above described : 

Body fusciform, more elongated towards the tail 
than the 8. Peregrinus, described by Mr. Blainville, 
Ann. du Mus. d'Hist. Nat. torn. 18, p. 88, tab. 6, 
fig. 1. 

Total length, when recent 32 feet 10 inches, cir- 
cumference 18 feet — of the dried skin 22 feet, and 9 
feet 7 inches and 4 lines in circumference. 

Skin rude to the touch, particularly on passing 
the hand forward, being covered with numerous 
small, horny, somewhat curved points, of the length 
of about one-third of a line. These small points are 
assembled in groups so as to form numerous undulated 
abbreviated bands, united at their extremities and 
again dividing; their breadth, on the middle of the 
body, is about two lines, and they give to the whole 
surface the appearance of being wrinkled ; these 
bands or wrinkles are transverse on the whole body 
from the termination of the branchial openings to the 
posterior extremity of the candal carina, where they 
disappear; on the head, throat, and behind the spi- 
racle they are longitudinal, upon the branchial lami- 
na and above the pectoral fins they become oblique, 
on the latter their direction complies with the move- 
ment of the articulation of the fins ; all the fine are 

43 



346 DESCRIPTION OF A SQUALUS. 

destitute of wrinkles, the appendices which accom- 
pany the ventral fins are rugose and transversely 
wrinkled on their superior part, and longitudinally 
wrinkled on the middle; these wrinkles are more pro- 
found than those of the skin of the hody. Head very 
small ; rostrum very short, obtuse, glabrous, covered 
with mucous pores of different sizes, the largest ci- 
liated at their interior circumference and placed be- 
fore the eyes, the middle sized ones irregularly dis- 
posed, covering the upper part and sides of the ros- 
trum, the small ones are arranged on a line which 
passes above the eyes and is prolonged in front of the 
rostrum; eyes, these being replaced by a hollow 
hemisphere of glass filled with plaister, with a round 
black spot in the middle, I was unable to ascertain 
their true form and dimensions ; they are at the dis- 
tance of about 6| inches from the tip of the rostrum, 
and very near to the margin of the superior lip ; nos- 
trils placed before the eyes and beneath the rostrum, 
but having been distended with cylinders of wood, 
their form cannot be determined ; spiracles very 
small, placed above and a little behind the angle 
of the jaw, each corresponding with a long interior 
opening in the mouth betweeu the superior jaw and 
the first branchial opening; branchial apertures, five 
on each side, the anterior ones the largest, extending 
from the superior part of the neck to the under part 
of the breast, where they appear confluent with those 
of the opposite side, the posterior opening smallest; 
the space between the first pair on the upper part of 



DESCRIPTION OF A SQJJALUS. 317 

the neck is 3 inches and -t lines, that between the 
fifth pair is about 2 feet 18 lines; mouth very large, 
1 foot 7 inches between the angles, and 2 feet 10 
inches from the tip of the inferior jaw to a central 
point between the nostrils ; the jaws armed with 
teeth of different forms, those of the superior jaw oc- 
cupying, on each side, a space of 1 foot and 6 inches 
in length by more than one inch in width, and the 
armed space of the inferior jaw on each side is 1 foot 
8| inches long by 1 inch wide; teeth generally curv- 
ed and turned inwards towards the throat, their sides 
slightly edged, without any appearance of distinct 
and regular serratures ; some small rugosities, only, 
are perceptible on the edge ; on the superior jaw they 
are subconic at the anterior extremity and at the an- 
gle of the mouth, both of which are smaller by one- 
third than those which occupy the intermediate space, 
and have but a single point to each, which in the 
greatest number is flattened and truncated ; the four 
or five last ranges at the angles of the mouth are flat- 
tened, subtriangular, and recline upon each other to 
the number of four or five ranges ; the intermediate 
teeth are larger, of the length of about 4 lines, by 3 
lines in width at their bases, they are subtriangular, 
with one or two grooves on their exterior face, which 
indicate the union of three points of which they ap- 
pear to be composed, two of these points are united, 
and the other is often detached, and very distinct, 
presenting a bifid appearance, some of the teeth exhi- 
bit three points, but these are rare $ on the inferior 



348 DESCRIPTION OF A SQUALUS. 

jaw the teeth are rather larger than those of the su- 
perior jaw; towards tiie anterior extremity and near 
the angle of the jaw they are a little elongated and 
lanceolate, less conic but somewhat more compressed; 
the intermediate ones are bifid and substrifid, those 
of the anterior extremity are sensibly emarginate ; 
these teeth are not implanted deeply in the skin, 
and are disposed in 7 or 8 distinct ranges in the mid- 
dle, the younger ones being on the interior range ; 
fins eight ; first dorsal triangular, a little emarginated, 
extended to a point, detached posteriorly, and placed 
equidistant. Between the base of the caudal fin and 
the tip of the rostrum, its height is 2 feet 8 or 10 
inches, length 2 feet 10 inches, including the poste- 
rior pointed lobe which is 8^ inches long ; second 
dorsal very small, snbtriangular, witli a posterior 
lobe detached at tip, its height is 8| inches and total 
length 17 inches, it is placed before the line of the 
anal fiu, and at the distance of 3 feet 3± inches from 
the base of the caudal ; pectorals large, placed im- 
mediately behind the fifth branchial aperture, at the 
inferior part of the body, their extremity surpassing a 
little the base of the first dorsal, they are strong an- 
teriorly, and flexible posteriorly, of the length of 4 
feet 1 inch, and 2 feet 1 inch and 8 lines in width; 
ventrals subtriangular, nearly intermediate between 
the first and second dorsals, anteriorly flexible, and 
of the length of 1 foot 5 or 6 inches, by 2 feet and 2 
inches in width ; the two organs, or large, subcylin- 
dric appendages which are attached to them are pro- 



DESCRIPTION OF A SQUALUG. 349 

foundly striated, on their superior por ion these striae 
are transverse and very rugose, on their middle por- 
tion they are oblique, and towards the extremity they 
have a longitudinal direction and are rugose; these 
appendices are at present of the length of 2 feet 8 
inches, but having been detached from the animal, 
and in order to skin and prepare them, and again ad- 
justed in their proper situation, their form seems to 
have been entirely lost, a large groove, however, and 
two small appendices are still recognisable ; anal 
subtriangular, with a detached pointed lobe behind, 
placed behind the second dorsal, its length is 1 footS 
or 4 inches, and height 7 inches 6 liues ; tail 3 feet 
3 inches long from the base of the second dorsal to 
the base of the caudal fin, at which latter point 1 did 
not perceive any indentation like those which exist in 
the Squalus peregrinus of Blainville (Ann. du Mus.) 
and in many other species, as well as in some that we 
observed on the coast of New Holland ; possibly this 
character may have existed in the animal under con- 
sideration, and their absence may be attributable to 
dessication ; caudal fin large, straight, elevated, fal- 
ciform, of the length of 5 feet from the extremity of 
one lobe to that of the other ; superior lobe 4 feet 3 
inches and 6 lines long, inclusive of the small trian- 
gular lobe at its extremity of 8 inches 6 lines ; infe- 
rior lobe short and wide ; on each side of the tail is 
a carina of about 1 foot 6 inches or 2 feet long, which 
crosses the base of the caudal fin. 
From this description of the dried skin of this gi- 



350 DESCRIPTION OF A SQUALUS. 

gantic species, it is easy to perceive the relations of 
its form to other species which attain to an equal 
magnitude, such as the S. Gunnerianus, S. Houiian- 
us and 8. Peregrinus. But it is with the latter and 
particularly with the individual captured on the coast 
of Normandy that our species is most closely allied. 
It resembles it in the form and number of the fins and 
the vast openings of the branchia ; but the form of 
its teeth are totally different, those of the S. Pelegri- 
nus being conic, whilst those of our species are more 
compressed than conic. I, therefore, propose to dis- 
tinguish it by the following name and characters : 

SQUALUS *ELEPHAS. 

Teeth very small, numerous, curved, bicanaliculate, 
bifid, in the middle of the series compressed, at the 
extremities of the series subconic, pointed ; spiracles 
very small; branchial openings very large, the ante- 
rior one originating on the upper part of the neck ; 
body very large, lead colour, darker on the back and 
paler on the belly ; second dorsal filmost equal in size 
to the anal, and placed anterior to it 5 tail long, with 
a carina on each side. 



DESCRIPTION OF A SQUALUS. 351 

Note. In confirmation of the statement relative to 
the indentation or notch on the tail, I here add de- 
scriptions of two species which seem to be new. 

Squalus *Spallanzani. — Peron and Lesueur. 

Spiracles none ; a black spot at the extremity of 
the pectorals, another at the summit of the second 
dorsal and a third at the end of the inferior lobe of 
the tail; caudal fin undulated above; pectorals fal- 
ciform, very narrow, situate under the two last 
branchial openings ; head very much depressed ; a 
lunulated emargiuation above and another beneath 
the tail. 

Inhabits terre de Witt, New Holland. 

Squalus *Cuvier. — Peron and Lesueur. 

Head and body very thick ; dorsal moderately 
emarginate ; irregular blackish spots upon the body 
from the summit of the head to the caudal fin, which, 
on its superior portion, is also spotted ; the spots are 
disposed in three ranges, which are rather irregular 
on the anterior part ; a lunulated emargination above 
the tail, and another beneath it at the base of the fin. 

Inhabits the N. W. coast of New Holland. 

This lunulated emargination, which exists upon 
the base of the tail of the Squali here described, are 
also observable on a species of the genus Garanx, 
that Peron and myself examined at the port of King 



352 DESCRIPTION OF A SQUALUS. 

George in la terre dp J\iuyts, and to which Peron ap- 
plied the name of the celebrated professor and dean 
of the school of medicine at Paris, Mr. Le Koux. 
This species of Caranx is of a very large size, cover- 
ed with moderately elongated scales ; dorsal fins two, 
the anterior small and consisting of five spinous rays; 
the second low, very long, elevated anteriorly, and 
composed of twenty-three much divided rays, of 
which the first is robust, osseous and shorter than 
the second ray ; pectorals with twenty undivided 
rays ; thoracics with seven rays, the three anterior 
ones osseous, simple; anal entire shorter than the 
second dorsal, elevated anteriorly, lower on the pos- 
terior portion and supported by sixteen rays, of which 
the first and second are very strong and bony, the 
others branched ; caudal emarginate, of twenty 
branched rays, the four or five anterior ones on each 
side are spinous ; a carina on each side of the tail 
and a lunulated emargination on its superior part : 
jaws equal. 



^Cces***Ctr I *Z A 



ox a s r i:c i i:s of ggstiu/s. 33$ 

On a South American species of (Estrus which in- 
hah) Is the human body. Read November 26, 1822. 
By Thomas Say, 

Many of the objects of natural history described by 
Linne, arc at present, entirely unknown, notwith- 
standing the laborious and ardent researches that 
have been made, by a multitude of observers, since 
the time of the great reformer. This may be in part 
attributed to the great rarity of some of those objects, 
but it may be supposed to be more particularly due 
to his habitual manner of attempting to concentrate 
all the characters of a being, in the comprehensive 
significancy of a few words. This excessive con- 
ciseness, appears to have been intended to check or 
discountenance a continuation of the habit of volu- 
minous description, so freely used by his predecessors; 
but with due deference to his vast and deserved re- 
putation, be it said, that, in the attempt to introduce 
a necessary reformation in this respect, that great 
naturalist passed to the opposite extreme. 

In common with the greater number of naturalists 
of tne present day, I have very often felt the incon- 
venience of this imaginaryjimprovement and real de- 
triment in zoology, and heartily wish that brevity may 
be sacrificed to accuracy, as I am convinced that 
however desirable every describer may, and, indeed, 
ought to be, to represent the object before him in as 
few words as posssible, he should, nevertheless, not 
hesitate to avail himself of as many expletives as 
will in all probability obviously distinguish his object 

44? 



»*«\ 



354 ON A SOUTH AMERICAN 

from others, regardless of the number of words that 
may be required for this purpose. 

It is to be regretted that some very distinguished 
zoologists, perceiving as they must this grand impedi- 
ment to the determination of species, still, by theii 
example, perpetuate and increase this grievance, con- 
sidering it sufficient for them to add to a very laconic 
description, a reference to a cabinet in which the spe- 
cimen may be inspected, by the comparatively few 
persons who have the opportunity. 

Now, although a reference to a cabinet specimen 
ought to be considered as the duty of the describer of 
every animal, plant or mineral, whenever such refe- 
rence is at all possible, yet it nevertheless seems also 
indispensable, that a detailed description, including 
many characters, should at the same time be given for 
the information of the distant naturalist or traveller, 
in order that its utility may not be limited exclusive- 
ly to our compatriots. 

Amongst a multitude of short and insufficient des- 
criptions, or rather indications, we find in Turton's 
edition of the Systema Naturae, the following notice, 
translated from Gmelin, of the existence of a very re- 
markable insect. 

"GEstkus hominis. Body entirely brown. In- 
habits South America. Linne ap. Pall, nord Beytr. 
p. 157. Deposits its eggs under the skin, on thebellies 
of the natives ; the larva, if it be disturbed, pene- 
trates deeper and produces an ulcer which frequent- 
ly becomes fatal." 

This insect, for the identifying of which we have 



Sl'EGfES'OF CESTRUS. 355 

manifestly to depend almost entirely on the habitat, 
tloes not appear to have been observed by any suc- 
ceeding writer since it was mentioned by its discover- 
er. Humboldt, however, when occupied with his 
highly interesting travels in South America, was 
struck with certain tumours that he sometimes ob- 
served to exist on the bodies of the natives of that coun- 
try? and which he attributed to the concealed opera- 
tion of the larva of an oestrus ; but as he had no oppor- 
tunity of verifying this conjecture by satisfactory ex- 
amination, he relied upon the form and appearance 
of the tumours, with a recollection, probably, of the 
description above quoted. 

Clarke, the best writer on this genus of insects, ob- 
serves that the hominis is probably a spurious spe- 
cies, and he further states that it " is, perhaps, mere- 
ly an accidental deposit of ce. bovis, in the human 
body, of which there are numerous instances."* 

So perfectly satisfied was Fabricius of the non-ex- 
istence of the hominis as a distinct species, that in his 
Systema Antliatorum he has taken no notice what- 
ever of this name and description. 

The most eminent of living entomologists, Mr. Lat- 
teille, observes! thai neither of the authors who have 
mentioned this insect, saw it in its perfect state ; he 
therefore thinks it probable, that the larvae to which 
they had reference, were those of the Musca car- 



* Rees' Cyclopaedia, article Bots. 

t Nouveau, did. d'Hist. Nat. article CEstre, 



&56 ON A SOUTH AMERICAN 

naria of Linnaeus or some other analogous spe- 
cies ; for, he adds, all the larvae of oestrus known, 
live on quadrupeds of the orders Herbivora and llo- 
dentia. 

Now, although I have not seen the perfect insect in 
question, yet my object in this paper is to show, by the 
aid I think of sufficient data, that there is an oestrus 
of South America which must be added to the cata- 
logue of the foes of our kind, fully capable of a nota- 
ble agency in augmenting the afflictions of humanity, 
and to prove that this species is altogether distinct 
from bovis, to which the ingenious Clark was dis- 
posed to refer it. 

A few days since, Dr. Harlan presented to me for 
examination, a small animal preserved in alcohol, that 
resembled, at first view, a parasitic worm, but, on a 
slight inspection, it became evident that it was no 
other than the larva of a species of oestrus ; he in- 
formed me that he had received it from Dr. Brick, 
who had extracted it from his own leg, during a jour- 
ney in South America. 

Description. The form of this larva is clavate, 
the posterior moiety of the whole length being dilated 
and somewhat depressed ; the segments of this por- 
tion are armed with transverse series of small, black, 
horny tubercles, dilated at their bases, near their tips 
rather suddenly diminishing to a filiform curved hook, 
pointing forwards and with an acute termination; 
these series are six in number on the back and sides, 
placed in pairs, and three in number on the abdo- 
men j near the posterior termination of the body are 



6PECIMS OF (ESTRU& 357 

numerous minute tubercles of the same character with 
the o'iu'is, excepting that they conform to no regular 
series; the anterior moiety of the body is entirely 
glabrous, cylindrical, or rather elongate conic, of a 
much smaller diameter than the posterior portion, and 
truncate at the tip ; the lips at the posterior termina- 
tion of the body are short, and the intervening fissure 
of but little width. 

Total length eleven-twentieths; greatest width 
more than three-twentieths of an inch. 

Cabinet of the Academy. 

Observations. From this description we may- 
gather the facts, that the larva in question corres- 
ponds with that of (E. bovis in being destitute of 
hooks or holders at the mouth, but it widely differs 
in general form, as the larva of bovis is oblong-oval, 
hardly more narrowed at one end than at the other. 
The appearance of the series of minute hooks which 
subserve the functions of feet, in the latter species also 
are very different from that of the corresponding arma- 
ture of this larva, the superior line of each double 
series being narrow and seemingly composed of but 
a single row of hooks, whilst the inferior line is much 
more dilated and the hooks far more numerous than 
in the superior line ; indeed, the series of hooks of the 
South American larva are more like those of the lar- 
vse of (E. equi and haemovrhoidalis, than those of the 
imperfect bovis or ovis. But independently of those 
considerations, the single character of the much at- 
tenuated form of the anterior part of the body of this 
larva, at ouce and eminently distinguishes it from any 



$0$ ON' A SOUTH AMERICAN 

other yet known in this family; while at the same tiinc*. 
the above description., taken in conjunction with its 
habitat forbid the supposition of its belonging to any 
other group, and will, I think, justify the restoration 
to its place in the system of the Linnaean oestrus ho- 
minis. To which of Latreille's recently established 
genera it belongs, is at present impossible to deter- 
mine, though, for the present, it may, perhaps, be not 
unsafe to refer it to the Cutebra* of Clark. 

Since the above was read to the academy, Dr. Har- 
lan has furnished me with the following interesting 
extract of a letter, which he received from the gentle- 
man from whose leg this larva was extracted : 

" After a very sultry day's march, and being very 
much fatigued, I went to bathe in the Chama, a small 
stream emptying in the lagoon of Maracaibo. Not 
long after coming out of the water, I received a sting 
from some insect, in the left leg, over the upper and 
fore part of the tibia ; it was several days attended 
with a considerable degree of itching, but without any 
pain, and I continued on my journey some few days 
longer without experiencing much inconvenience, ex- 
cept during several periods of perhaps two or three 
minutes continuance, when an acute pain came on 
suddenly, and was severe whilst it continued, and 
then as suddenly subsided. On my arrival and du- 
ring my continuance at II. Rosario de Cucuta, I walk- 



* Weidemann in a letter states to me his preference of the 
v^rm Tryfioderma for this genus. 



SPECIES OF CESTRUS. 859 

ed with difficulty ; there was a considerable tumefac- 
tion over the tibia, which had the appearance of an 
ordinary bile (Phlegmon,) in the centre there was a 
small black speck ; the usual applications were used 
without any success, and the tumour became more 
irritated and inflamed, and thus it remained for some 
days, attended at times with a most acute pain, which 
for a few minutes was almost intolerable. 

" In returning to Maracaibo, I had to descend the 
Cottatumba in an open boat, without any shelter, and 
being wet to the skin by the cold rains which fell 
every night, I suffered much, and was almost con- 
stantly tormented by the tumour, which became more 
painful at those particular periods than usual; du- 
ring this passage, which lasted for twelve days, I 
was induced to scarify it, and had recourse to the 
usual topical applications, but without success. At 
times 1 imagined that I felt something moving, and 
suspected that there was something alive beneath the 
skin. 

" After my return to Maracaibo I became scarcely 
able to walk, and was in a manner confined to my 
quarters. In this situation I continued two weeks 
longer, the tumour having began to discharge, and 
without any diminution of the painful periods. 

"Being now nearly worried out, it occurred to me to 
try a poultice of tobacco, which was used for several 
nights, having previously scarified the tumour ; du- 
ring the day, I frequently dusted it with ashes of se- 
gars : as an ingredient I used rum instead of water 



360 ON A SPECIES OF CESTBLS. 

in making the poultice. On the fourth morning after 
this remedy, I felt considerable relief, and on the fifth, 
with a forceps, I drew out the worm which you hav« 
now in your possession, and which was then dead. 
u In a few days the sore assumed a healthy look, 
and in ten days was perfectly healed up — although, 
at times, I yet experience a heavy pain in the part 
from whence the worm has been taken. It had tra- 
velled on the periosteum along the tibia for at least 
two inches. The severe pain which I experienced 
for those periods, I attribute to the irritation of some 
of the branches of the nerves distributed to the parts 
by the worm in its progress. Respecting this worm 
there are different opinions among the Spaniards 
and Creoles. Ouche is the name it is called by some, 
who say it is produced by a worm which crawls on 
the body, from the ground, and penetrating the skin, 
increases in size. Others maintain that they are pro- 
duced from the sting of a winged insect which they 
call Zancudo,* others again call the insect Husano ; 
for my part I am rather inclined to think that they 
are produced from the sting of a winged insect which 
deposits its egg. 

" N. B, Should it even be proven that the form ot 
the anterior part of this larva is owing to the vio- 
lence used in extracting it, of which there is no ap- 
pearance, still it will stand as distinct from other 
known species." 



* The word Zancudo is used by the South American Spa- 
njards to denote several species of Culex. S. 



ON TWO REMARKABLE HEPATIC MOSSES. 36l 

On two remark-able Hepatic Mosses found in North 
Carolina, by L. D. Schweinitz. Read November 
26, 1822. 

In my specimen of North American Cryptoga- 
lnous plants, published at Raleigh, N. C. last year, 
1 have noticed two Hepatics, which appear to de- 
serve further investigation. One is the Sphaerocar- 
pus terrestris of Micheli, heretofore found exclusive- 
ly in Italy and England, greatly differing from others 
of the family, by its remarkable thallus and fructifi- 
cation, and still very imperfectly known. The other, 
altogether new, and no less distinguished, was ar- 
ranged by me, in the little work just cited, as a se- 
cond species of Targionia, and named T. orbicularis. 

These two Hepatics, figured in the annexed draw- 
ing, I shall now endeavour to illustrate, by such ob- 
servations and descriptions, as an attentive study, un- 
der the compound microscope, has suggested. 

1. Sphaerocarpus. 

Synonym. Micheli. Gen. t. 3. Billen. t. 78. 
Schmeidel Icon. t. 28. f. 2. Dicks. Fasc. 1. p. 8. 
Schwaegrichen Prod. p. 35. Web. Hist. Hep. p. 109. 
L. D. S. Specim. Fl. Crypt. Jim. p. 24. 

Generic Description, 

Calycibus multis magnis, in fronde minuta fascicu- 
lato-aggregatis, globoso-turbinatis, reticulars, sub- 
diaphanis, apice perforatis, capsulam includentibus 

45 



3f>2 ON TWO REMARKABLE 

Capsula in funilo calycis sessili, sphaerica, quadru- 
plo-minori,emembranatenuissimadiapl!anaconfecta. 
continenti Sporangia numerosa e globoso-lenticu- 
laria, inter se libera, quasi quadricocca, superiicie 
grannlata (a sporis globosis inclusis) ac muricato-ex- 
asperata. Fronde reticulata, subdiaphana, substan- 
tia calycis, etiamque viridissima. 

Observations. The Frons or Thallus of this he- 
patic is very small in proportion to the large calyces 
with which it is so entirely overgrown, in densely ag- 
gregated clusters, that it can only be distinguished 
with difficulty. The whole plant, therefore, appears 
to the naked eye as an aggregate of longitudinally con- 
fluent clusters of small green turbinately globular bo- 
dies, occupyiug sometimes patches of nearly an 
hand's breadth on the earth. On close examination, 
however, the frons is found to consist of some small 
thickish, variously lobed leaves, with a few of an 
ovate, acuminate shape and uniform consistence 
throughout. The structure of this frons, exactly the 
same with that of the calyces, consists of a beautiful 
and curiously wrought network, mostgeuerally form- 
ing irregular pentagons. The intermediate space be- 
tween the green pellucid veins, is, to appearance, 
closed by a thin, slightly concave membrane, which 
appears only semi-transparent. From the central 
part of each separate frons, numerous very delicate 
radicles proceed, forming a dense tuft, very short, 
however, by which it adheres almost inextricably to 
the subjacent earth. At all seasons in which 1 have 
observed this hepatic — that is to say, from the mid 






HEPATIC MOSSES. 363 

tile of November until the summer beat caused it to 
disappear iu May, I have uniformly found the frons 
thus covered by calyces. 

The Calyx, if such be the proper term, for the pro- 
minently conspicuous part of this hepatic, is a most re- 
markable globosely turbinate expansion of the frons, 
of precisely the same consistence, enclosing, as it were, 
in a capacious hollow space, the capsule, which rests 
on the inner base or short contracted neck. This 
expansion, when in full vigour, always assumes a 
handsome turbinate form, and is open at top by a 
small round aperture. It is perfectly inane (except- 
ing the capsule at the bottom) and therefore suscepti- 
ble of being pressed into various shapes by the 
touch. In colour it agrees with the frons as well as 
in structure. When the capsule ripens and assumes 
its dark brown colour, it becomes visible through the 
semi-transparent calyx, the hollow of which is, how- 
ever, four times greater than the capsule. 

The Capsule appears to me to consist of a very 
thin perfectly transparent membrane, closely filled 
by an aggregation of rounded sporangia or seed ves- 
sels, which are unconnected among themselves, and 
only held together by this transparent membrane in 
asphaerical shape. It is so entirely transparent, that 
I conceived the sporangia to be nakedly aggregated, 
until I attempted to separate them by the lancet. In 
an iucipient stage, the colour of the capsule is appa- 
rently dark green, which, however, is only owing to 
that colour of the sporangia at that time ; for as these 
ripen and become brown, the capsule assumes the 



364 ON TWO REMARKABLE 

same colour. Whether the capsule is really sessile. 
or whether it rests on a short and thick pedicell, as 
would appear fig. 1. at e, I have been unable to as- 
certain with certainty. I suspect the apparent pedi- 
cell is but the base of the calyx, considerably thick- 
ened in substance, as it is altogether of the same con- 
sistence. 

The Sporangia, or seed vessels, as I am obliged 
to consider the rounded grains contained in the cap- 
sule, when separately submitted to the most power- 
ful lens, present a very remarkable formation. la 
general they have a roundish lenticular shape, cu- 
riously, however, four times impressed above, as if 
they consisted of four loculae. The sporangium may. 
on this account, be not improperly termed quadricoc- 
cum, a term applied by Weber to the capsule, possi- 
bly only by want of accuracy in his expression. But 
these apparent four divisions appear to me only su- 
perficial. The superficies of each sporangium ap- 
pears granulated by an infinity of small, spbaericah 
yellow, semitransparent grains, which seem to fill the 
sporangium, and are considered by me as the real 
sporae ; besides it is muricately exasperated by a kind 
of hairy protuberance. Though the sporae just men- 
tioned are far too minute to admit of a separate sub- 
jection to the microscope, I have no doubt that they 
are merely aggregated in the membrane, which forms 
the sporangium, without any essential connexion by 
a thread, fyc. among themselves. 

When I first found and began to study this hepa- 
tic, in December, the calyces were fully formed and 



HEPATIC MOSSES. o6fl 

nearly as large as afterwards, but contained no trace 
of a capsule. Being carefully opened with a lancet, 
I plainly perceived on the inner base, which after- 
wards bore the capsules, a number of small organs, 
of a purple colour, pear shaped below and protracted 
into a small cylinder, bearing great resemblance to 
the inflorescence of Mosses. I did not, however, suc- 
ceed in obtaining a correct representation, and when 
again an opportunity of examination was offered to 
me, the capsules had already begun to appear. The 
moss continued in vigour and the capsule grew, until 
the parching sun destroyed its vegetation. The ca- 
lyx and frons then assumed a brownish colour, and 
were much broken and lacerated, as if by exterior ac- 
tion upon them. The sporangia were scattered about 
and could be easily distinguished among the parti- 
cles of clay on which the hepatic grew. 

I first observed this plant in great quantities on the 
naked soil of a clayey cornfield, spreading through a 
great extent between the hills of corn. Since I have 
met with it ou the grassy margins of clayey bogs, but 
not in such considerable quantity. 

In figure 1, 

a. Represents a particle of clay, with a cluster of 
Sphaerocarpus, showing the natural size of the 
calyces. They may be easily mistaken for young 
plants of Gymnostomum. 

b. Represents a small cluster about double the natu- 
ral size. 

c. An entire frons with its aggregated calyces, 



366 ON TWO REMARKABLE 

through which the ripe capsules appear greatly 
magnified. 

d. One calyx with its included capsule, still more 
magnified. 

e. A ripe capsule with its aggregated sporangia. 

f. A young green capsule. 

g. Fart of a calyx under the most powerful lens, 
showing the formation and texture thereof, and 
of the frons. 

h. Represents a single sporangium, with its granu 
lar and muricate appearance, and the sporae in- 
cluded. 

i. The internal base of a calyx in its flowering state 
as imperfectly observed. 

In no state did I perceive any thing like a calyp- 
tra. 

S. terrestris. The only species known. 

2. CARPOBOLUS mill 

Targionia orbicularis. Specim. Fl. Crypt p. 28. 

After 1 had found the Targionia hypophylla in 
North Carolina in perfect fructification, which was 
not until after my little pamphlet had gone to press, 
I subjected that to a very rigid examination and com- 
parison with good European specimens from the vi- 
cinity of Dresden and from professor Sprengel of 
Halle. The absolute identity of the American he- 
patic with these, was thus established ; but at the 
same time I became convinced that, besides the en- 



HEPATIC MOSSES. 367 

lire dissimilarity of the frons between it and the he- 
patic I had arranged as a second species of Targio- 
nia, there was so great a difference in their fructifi- 
cation, that they could not possibly be considered 
congeners. As little, however, can the one in ques- 
tion be referred to any other established genus ; L am, 
therefore, under the necessity of proposing it as a 
new genus, to which I have given the name Carpo- 
bolus, from the circumstance, that the capsule is pro- 
truded from the calyx when ripe. 

Generic Description. 

Capsula oblongo-sphaeroidea compressa desilien- 
ti, apice rima notata (an dehiscenti?) sporis minutis 
globosis repleta, inter se liberis. Calyce majusculo, 
bin" do, erecto aut inclinato, capsula ejecta, inani, per- 
sistenti. Fronde oblongo-orbiculari, in ambitu va- 
rie lobato-plicata ; plicis omnibus in centrum conver- 
gentibus, marginibus elevatis, crenatis, substantia 
Anthoceri. Plures frondes confluunt, nunquam au- 
tern sese invicem superincumbunt. 

Observations. The frons of this interesting hepa- 
tic, is of the consistence and texture of that of Antho- 
ceros, or perhaps still more like that of a Collema. 
When wet, it becomes subtremellose, and dries stiff- 
ly and brittle, shrinking to a considerable degree. 
The colour is in general brown, excepting in the 
outer lobes, which are greenish, and sometimes whole 
specimens, especially the larger ones, assume the bot- 
tle green of Anthoceros. Its internal structure is 



368 ON TWO KEMAUKABLU 

quite analogous to Anthoceros. The form is gene 
rally speaking orbicular, very variously lobed around, 
like a Collema, with the plicated lobes all tending 
towards a common centre. The margin of these 
lobes is, in most instances, turned up and crenate. 
From the plicae or folds, arise the Calyces in every 
direction; sometimes a few only on a single frons 
scattered about; sometimes a great number of them 
singly, or in clusters. The under side of the frons is 
thickly clothed with very fine radicles, by which it 
inseparably adheres to the earth. The lobed cir- 
cumference, however, is free, but flatly impressed. 
A single perfect frons is rarely an inch in diameter, 
generally scarcely half an inch ; but a great number 
are often confluent, so that patches of six or seven 
inches jointly cover a considerable space. In no in- 
stance did I meet with superincumbent frondes ; but, 
as is usual with this family, blades of grass or fron- 
dose mosses not unfrequently grow through the mass. 

The Calyx is a short cylindrical protrusion of the 
frons, divided into two lobes or divisions, commonly 
somewhat irregularly lacerated in the margin, and 
closely pressing around the capsule, farther convex- 
ly bent down at top, so as finally to propel the cap- 
sule, which appears loose in the calyx. After this 
falls out, a hollow calyx remains. In a young state, 
the two divisions of the calyx almost entirely cover 
the capsule, which, however, always appears at the 
top, and at length bursts forth in the manner just 
mentioned. 

The Capsule is a very regularly oblong sphaeroid, 



HEPATIC MOSSES. 869 

somewhat compressed and marked on the summit by 
an indenture or seam longitudinally (probably its 
final opening, although I never found it open) which 
is perceptible nearly half down. This capsule con- 
sists of a membranaceous rather thick skin, not at all 
transparent, but of a light brown or yellow colour, 
and a little reticulate. It is completely filled by in- 
numerable seeds, which are perfectly unconnected 
among themselves. They are globular, golden yel- 
low and semitransparent. After protrusion from the 
calyx, the capsules are strewed about and probably 
discharge their seed by the opeuing of the seam at 
top. 

This hepatic, covered with its capsules, was found 
several successive years in the months of December 
and January on the beds of my bottom garden and 
the neighbouring ones at Salem, N. C. but no where 
else. Before the capsules appear, it would most pro- 
bably be taken for an incipient Collema, or Anthoce- 
ros. When dry and shrunk, the capsules remain 
very visible, for they are proportion ably large, and 
distinct by their yellow colour. 

In figure 2. 

a. Represents a whole frons with its capsules in na- 
tural size. 

b. A small fragment of a lobe with capsules, some- 
what magnified. 

c. A lobe with ditto considerably magnified. 

d. A protruded capsule •» greatly 

e. Au empty calyx J magnified. 

f. A calyx with the capsule still within it. 

46 



370 UNIVALVE SHELLS 

g. A magnifiedlobe with the capsule in a younger 

state, 
h. A broken capsule, with the seeds scattered 

about. 
N. B. These are free, and the apparent thread* 
only fragments of the capsule. 
i. The underside of a lobe, 
j. A few sporae or seeds greatly magnified, 
k. An obsolete hollow calyx. 
1. A calyx almost including the young capsule, 
C. orbicularis. The only species. 



Description of univalve terrestrial and fluviatih 
Shells of the United States. By Thomas Say. 
Read December 25, 1822. 

The shells described in the following pages, have 
been discovered since the publication of my last es- 
say on land and fresh water shells. 

GENUS HELIX, Lin. Lam. Ferrussac. 

H. Hrrorata. Shell imperforate, depressed- sub- 
globular, pale reddish brown, with very numerous 
white small spots, and about four deeper brown ob- 
solete bands ; whorls rounded, nearly five in number, 
wrinkles obsolete on the body whorl, more distinct 
on the spire; spire depressed, convex; suture decli- 
ning much near the mouth ; aperture on the side of 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 371 

ihe labium, within somewhat livid ; labrum reflected 
but not flattened, and not abruptly contracting the 
aperture, white before and yellowish behind, near 
the junction with the columella is a callus which 
does not rise into an angle. 

Length from the apex to the base of the columella, 
three-fifths of au inch, nearly. 

Greatest breadth one inch and one-tenth. 

Inhabits Northumberland county, Pennsylvania. 
Cabinet of Mr. William Hyde. 

This species may be compared with the H. lactea, 
Muller and Ferrussac ; the spire is rather more pro- 
minent, the white spots or rather abbreviated lines 
are similar in form, size, and number, but its labrum 
preserves the same colour with the exterior of the 
shell, and the livid tint of the inner portion of the bo- 
dy whorl is very pale, the posterior face of the re- 
flected labrum is immaculate, and its callus base is 
not angulated ; the aperture is much less wide 
than that of lactea ; and, in Mr. Hyde's specimen, 
a small fissure remains near the umbilicus. It still 
more closely resembles a variety of a shell which in- 
habits the island of Candia, but that species has al- 
ways a white base, being immaculate beneath the in- 
ferior band. 

2. H. *inornata. Shell snbglobose, pale yellowish- 
horn colour, polished; whorls five, rounded, wrinkled; 
spire convex ; suture not deeply impressed ; umbili- 
cus small, profound ; aperture wide, at the junction 
of the labia with the penultimate whorl shorter than 
the width of the mouth : labrum simple. 



372 UNIVALVE SHELLS 

Inhabits Pennsylvania. 

Greatest width less than seven-tenths of an inch. 

This species has a strong resemblance to H. ligera, 
but in addition to its superior magnitude, its aperture 
is proportionally wider, a character which, of course, 
gives the whorls a greater breadth ; the whorls are 
also fewer in number, and the distance between the 
terminations of the lips is very perceptibly less than 
the width of the aperture, the reverse of which ob- 
tains in the ligera. 

$. H. *indentata. Shell depressed, pellucid, high- 
ly polished ; whorls four, with regular, distant, ^ub- 
equidistant, impressed lines across, of which the ire 
about twenty-eight to the body whorl, all extending 
to the base; suture not deeply indented ; aperture 
rather large ; labrum simple, terminating at its infe- 
rior extremity at the centre of the base of the shell ; 
umbilicus none, but the umbilical region is deeply in- 
dented. 

Greatest breadth one-fifth of an inch. 

Animal. Blued-black, immaculate. 

My Cabinet, and that of Mr. William Hyde. Se- 
veral specimens occurred at Harrigate, the country 
residence of my friend Mr. Jacob Gilliams, adhering 
to stones and logs in moist places. Mr. Hyde ob- 
tained many individuals in New Jersey. It may be 
readily mistaken for H. arbor ea, but it is destitute of 
the umbilicus, instead of which there is an indented 
centre to the base, in which the labrum terminates. 
The spire is very much depressed, and the surface 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 373 

prettily radiated by distant impressed lines, the in- 
terstices being perfectly smooth. 

4. H. *lhieata, (vol. 1. p. 18.) On examination of 
several individuals of this species, I have ascertained 
that a character exists in this species, that was alto- 
gether wanting in the specimen from which I drew 
out the description published in the first volume of 
this work. As the shell is somewhat translucent, 
two pairs of white teeth, remote from each other, may 
be observed through the body whorl of the shell. 
One pair of these teeth is placed in the throat so near 
to the labrum as readily to be seen by looking in at 
the aperture. These teeth are nearly equidistant 
from each other and from the extremities of the la- 
brum. The other pair is placed so far within the 
shell as not to be seen at all from the aperture. 

I found several specimens in a humid situation at 
Harrisate. 



*3 V 



BULIMUS. Brug. Lam. 

B. *multilatus. Shell turriculated, pale reddish- 
brown ; whorls four, longitudinally striated with ir- 
regular elevated lines or wrinkles, which are a little 
more prominent near the. sutures ; suture not deeply 
indented; apex widely truncated; labrum whitish, 
destitute of calcareous deposit ; body whorl more than 
double the width of the truncated apex ; spire one 
and a half times longer than the aper'ure. Length 
less than one inch; width less than half an inch} 
length of the aperture two-fifths of an inch. 



374 UNIVALVE SHELLS 

Inhabits South Carolina, about Charleston. 

This curious shell is the first and only species of 
the genus Bulimus, native of the United States, that 
I have yet seen. I am indebted for it to the resean •li- 
es of Mr. Stephen Elliott, of Charleston, who in- 
forms me that it is there found in gardens. In the trun- 
cated form of the apex of the spire, this species re- 
sembles the decollata, consolidata,t7*uncata&n(\¥\jrA 
torticollis, §*c. but it is sufficiently distinct from the 
former, to which it is more closely allied than to the 
others, by its less cylindrical and more conic form, 
being much more robust in its figure and less elonga- 
ted ; the aperture is consequently wider, and forms 
a greater proportion of the total length. It does not 
change to an opaque white after the death of the ani- 
mal, as the decollata generally does. 

PUPA. Lam. 

1. P. *contracta. Shell dextral, short, subovate, 
white; apex obtuse ; whorls five ; umbilicus distinct ; 
aperture irregularly orbicular, complete, the lamina 
of the labium being elevated above the surface of the 
preceding whirl and joining the extremities of the la- 
bia; labium with a large, elongated, prominent tooth, 
which is concave on the side towards the labrum : 
labrum bidentate ; a large tooth or fold far within the 
throat, caused by the fold of the umbilicus : throat 
much contracted by the large tooth of the labrum inte 
the form of a horse shoe. 

Total length less than one- tenth of an inch. 



OF TIIH UNITED STATES. 375 

Inhabits Virginia. 

This is ji short, wide species, sufficiently distinct 
from others, and readily distinguished hy the lamina 
of the labrum being much elevated, and by the mag- 
nitude of the tooth of the labium. I obtained two 
specimens at Occoquan under a pile of bricks and 
rubbish. This species probably belongs to the genus 
Carychium. 

2. P. *exigua. Shell dextral, tapering, oblong, 
with minute grooved lines; apex obtuse ; whorls five ; 
suture deeply impressed ; labium bidentate, superior 
tooth situate rather beneath the middle of the lip, in- 
ferior tooth small, placed on the columella ; labrum 
mutic, reflected, but not flattened ; umbilicus distinct. 

Length more than one-twentieth of an inch. 

This is the smallest species that I have seen. Nu- 
merous specimens of it were found near this city by 
Mr. William Hyde, and 1 have obtained many at 
Harrigate. Its aperture resembles that of Pupa (Ca- 
rychium) corticaria, but the superior tooth of the la- 
bium of that shell is situate much nearer to the supe* 
rior termination of the labrum than the correspond- 
ing tooth of this diminutive species. It is probably 
a Carychium. 

Genus, VERTIGO Muller and Ferrussac. 

P. *ovata. Shell dextral, subovate, brown ; apex 
obtuse ; whorls five, glabrous ; suture not very 
deeply impressed; body whorl indented near and 
upon the labrum ; aperture semioval ; labium five- 



376 UNIVALVE SHELLS 

toothed, of which three are situate on the transverse 
portion of the lip, parallel to each other, equidistant, 
the superior and inferior ones being small, the latter 
sometimes obsolete, the intermediate one lamelliform, 
prominent, and the two others situate on the columel- 
la, approximate, extending at right angles to the three 
preceding ones, the superior one oblique and smaller: 
labrum reflected but not flattened, bidentate, teeth 
lamelliform, prominent ; umbilicus distinct. 

Length less than one-tenth of an inch. 

Breadth nearly one-twentieth of an inch. 

Animal. Tentacula two, rather long and thick, 
cylindrical-obconic, retractile, with a rounded occuli- 
ferous extremity ; foot white ; head and neck, as far 
as the mantle, black. 

Inhabits Pennsylvania. 

Numerous specimens were discovered by Mr. 
William Hyde in the vicinity of this city, and 1 ob- 
tained others at Harrigate. 

The smallest teeth of the labium are sometimes 
obsolete. 

V. *pentodon. Shell dextral, subovate, whitish 
horn-colour; ajpex obtuse; whorls ^ve f glabrous, 
convex ; suture not very deeply impressed ; aperture 
semioval; labium two-toothed, of which a single 
very prominent one is on the middle of the transverse 
portion or true labium, and the other is remote, much 
smaller, and placed in the basal angle of the colu- 
mella ; labrum regularly arquated, tridentate, tooth 
nearest the base very small and placed near the 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 877 

smaller tooth of the columella, the two others larger, 
suhequal ; umbilicus distinct. 

Length less than one-tenih of an inch. 

Animal. Tentacufa two, rather long and thick, 
cylindrical-obconic, retractile, with a rounded ocu- 
liferous extremity; two hardly elevated truncated tu- 
bercles instead of the anterior tentacula ; foot white ; 
head and neck, as far as the mantle, black. 

Inhabits Pennsylvania. 

The lower tooth of the labrum is sometimes obso^ 
lete. 

MELAMPUS. Montf. 

M. *obliquus. Obconic, reddish-brown, rather thick; 
spire very little elevated ; whorls eight or nine, wrin- 
kled across ; labium with two very distinct teeth, and 
an intermediate and equidistant slight obtuse promi- 
nence ; inferior tooth very oblique, terminating at the* 
base ; labrum with about eight teeth or striae, which 
terminate on the margin ; base of the aperture a little 
contracted by the basal tooth. 

Length more than seven-twentieths of an inch. 
I am indebted to Mr. Stephen Elliott for this spe- 
cies, who obtained it on the coast of South Carolina. 
It is closely allied to Bulimus monile, Brug. but it 
has no appearance of bands, which distinguish that 
shell. In the collection of the academy are speci- 
mens from the West Indies. 



47 



378 UNIVALVE SHELLS 



LYMNEUS. Lam. 



L. *hnmilis. Shell ovate-conic, thin, translucent, 
with slight wrinkles ; volutions nearly six, convex, 
terminal one very minute; suture well indented; 
aperture about equal in length to the spire; labium 
with an obvious plate of calcareous deposit ; a distinct 
and rather open umbilical aperture; colour pale red- 
dish-white or yellowish- white. 

Total length seven-twentieths. 

Inhabits South Carolina. 

Of a dozen specimens sent me by Mr. Elliott, none 
exceeded the limit here assigned to the species. It 
differs much from any other species I have seen : a 
variety of it, sometimes quite black, was found by Dr. 
M'Euen at Oswego, on the Susquehannah. 

It may be useful here to remark that, in conse- 
quence of a typographical error in the first part of 
the second volume of this work, the species above 
described may be confounded with the desidiosus. 
The length of that shell is erroneously stated to be 
seven-twentieths of an inch, instead of seven-tenths, 



its true length. 



PALUBINA. Lam. 



P. *grana. Shell conic-ovate ; whorls not percepti- 
bly wrinkled, convex; suture deeply impressed ; 
aperture orbicular, hardly angulated above ; labium 
with the superior edge appressed to the surface of the 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 379 

penultimate volution ; umbilicus rather small, pro- 
found. 

Longth less than one-tenth of an inch. 

Inhabits Pennsylvania. 

This very small species is found in plenty in the 
fish ponds at Harrowgate, crawling on the dead leaves 
which have fallen to the bottom of the water. It re- 
sembles P. lustrica, but is a smaller, less elongated 
shell, and the superior portion of the labium is not an 
unaltered continuation of the lips as in that shell, but 
is appressed to the surface of the penultimate whorl 
in the usual manner of calcareous deposition upon 
that part. 

MELANIA. 

1. M. *catenaria. Shell conic, blackish ; whorls 
seven or eight, slightly undulated transversely, and 
with eight or nine revolving, elevated lines, the four 
or five superior ones of which are almost interrupted 
between the undulations. 

Length less than half an inch. 

Inhabits South Carolina. 

The essential specific character resides in the cate- 
nated appearance of the superior revolving lines of the 
whorls, resulting from their being more prominent on 
the undulations which they cross, than between them, 
where they are often obsolete. This species was 
sent to me by Mr. Stephen Elliott, who obtained it 
in limestone springs, St. John's, Berkley. 



o80 UNIVALVE SHELLS 

2. M. * multiline ata. Shell gradually tapering; apex 
generally much eroded ; whorls about seven, a little 
convex, with numerous, filiform, elevated, subequal 
lines, which are from ten to twenty in number on the 
body whorl. 

Length nineteen- twentieths ; greatest width two- 
fifths of an inch. 

Inhabits tributaries to the Delaware. 

1 found several specimens of this shell in Frank - 
ford creek ; and professor Vanuxem presented me. 
with others which he obtained from a creek in New 
Jersey. The M. elevata (p. 176 of this work) from 
its attributed specific characters, might be supposed 
to be nearly related to this shell, but it differs in be- 
ing of a more accurate conic form, the whorls being 
flattened, and not convex as in this species, its raised 
lines are also few in number. 

CYCLAS. Lam. 

1. C. *rhomboida. Shell transversely orbicular- 
rhombiform, subequilateral, pale, with elevated some- 
w hat regular transverse lines ; umbo not prominent. 

Breadth more than one-fourth of an inch. 

Inhabits lake Champlain. 

It is probable that this species attains to a somewhat 
larger size than the two specimens from which the 
above description was taken, and which were found 
by Mv. Augustus Jessup. It is distinguishable from 
C similisby its more rhomboidal form. 

2. C. *partumeia. Shell thin and fragile, trans- 



OF THE UNITED STATES. 881 

versely-suborbicular, with small, irregular, inequi- 
distant. concentric wrinkles, and larger adventitious 
undulations: base rounded; anterior and posterior 
edges regularly, equally and very obtusely curved ; 
beak nearly central ; hinge teeth prominent and dis- 
tinct ; lateral teeth prominent, white; within im- 
pressed by the exterior undulations, and bluish- 
white on the margin and submargin. 

Length nine-twentieths ; breadth eleven-twenti- 
eths of an inch. 

This species was found by Mr. William Hyde, 
in a pond near Germantown, in plenty. In compari- 
son with C. similis, it is thinner, more transparent, 
not flattened at base, more obtusely rounded each 
side, and instead of grooves of some degree of regu- 
larity as in that shell, it is sculptured with irregular 
wrinkles and waves. Mr. Hyde took fifty young 
ones out of a single specimen. 

N. B. The genus Cyclas was inserted into this 
essay inadvertently ; the species, however, are new. 



382 



The following continuation of the catalogue of 
books, belonging to the library of the Academy, will 
be found to comprise a large number received from 
their president, Mr. Maclure. In addition to these, 
and to the list already published in the last volume, 
the Academy have received from the same munificent 
patron of science, upwards of two thousand volumes 
on miscellaneous subjects. 



383 



CATALOGUE 



THE LIBRARY 



ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

{Continued from vol. 2. part 1.) 

421. Accum (F.) A Practical Essay on the Analysis of Mine- 

rals, 8cc. Philadelphia, 1809, 12mo. 

422. Audouin (J. V.) Recherches sur les rapports naturels qui 

existent entre les Trilobites et les animaux articules, 
Bruxelles, 1821, 8vo. 

423. Berger (J. F.) Essai physiologique sur la cause de l'A- 

sphyxie par submersion.' Paris, 1805, 4to. 

424. Bellevue (Fleuriau de) Observations geologiques, sur les 

cotes de la Charente Inferieure et de la Vendee, Paris, 
1814, 4to. 

425. Bruce (I.) Voyage aux sources du Nil, en Nubie, et en 

Abyssinie, pendant les annees 1768 a 1772. Londres, 
1790, 12 tomes, 8vo. 

426. Barthelemy (L'abbe) Voyage en Italie. Paris, 1801, 8vo. 

427. Brantz (L.) Meteorological observations made in the vici- 

nity of Baltimore during the years 1817, 1818, 1819. 
Baltimore, 3 vols. 4to. 

428. Bergman (Sir T.) Physical and Chemical essays, Lon- 

don, vol. 2d, 1784, 8vo. 

429. Blasius (G.) Observata anatomico-practica in Homine 

brutisque variis, Lugdini Balavorum, 1674, 12mo. 



384 CATALOGUE. 

430. Brongniart (Adolphe) Sur la classification et la distribu- 

tion des vegetaux fossiles, Paris, 1822, 4to. 

431. — .— — (Alexandre) Description geologique des envi- 

rons de Paris, par G. Cuvier et A. Brongniart, nou- 

velle edition, Paris, 1822, 4to. 
432. Notice sur des vegetaux fpssiles 

traversant les couches du terrain houiller, Paris, 1821, 

4to. 
433. Sur les caracteres zoologiques des 

formations &c. Paris, 1822, 4to. 

434. — » Notice sur la Magnesite du bassin 

de Paris, Paris, 1822, 8vo. 

435. Carter (C.) Dissertatio de Diabete mellito, Paris, 1811, 

4to. 

436. Cloquet (I.) Memoire sur la membrane pupillaire et sur 

la formation du petit cercle arteriel de l'lris, Paris, 
1818, 4to. 

437. Clarke (E. D.) Voyages en Russie, en Tartarie, et en 

Turquie, Paris, 1813, 3 tomes, 8vo. 

438. Craven (Lady) Voyage a Cons^tinople par la Crimee 

en 1786, Paris, 1789, 8vo. 

439. Colla (L.) Memoria sul genere Musa e monografia del 

medesimo, Turin, fol. 

440. Capelli (C) Catalogus Stirpium quae aluntur in regio 

horto botanico Taurinensi, Augstse Taurinorum, 1 82 1 , 
8vo. 

441. Cuvier (G.) Compte rendu des travaux de la classe des 

sciences mathematiques et physiques de l'lnstitut 
Royal. Partie physique, Paris, 4to. 

442. Cathrall (I.) Memoir on the Analysis of the Black Vomit, 

ejected in the last stage of the Yellow Fever, Phila- 
delphia, 1800, 8vo. 

443. Carena (H.) Monographic du genre Hifudo, Turin, 4to. 

444. Depons (F.) Voyage a la partie orientate de la Terre 

Ferme dans i'Amerique meridionale fait pendant les 
annees, 1801 a 1804, Paris 1807, 3 tomes, 8vo. 

445. De la Roche (E. E.) Experiences sur les effets qu'une 



CATALOGUE. 385 

forte chaleur produit dans l'economie animale, Paris, 
18G6, 4to. 

446. Dudanjon (C. I.) Dissertation sur un nouveau mode de 

pansement, 8cc. des plaies d'armesa feu. Paris, 1803, 
4to. 

447. Drake (D.) An Inaugural Discourse on Medical Educa- 

tion, Cincinnati (Ohio) 1820, 12mo. 

448. De la Sablonniere (B.) Dissertation sur l'Asphalte oU ci- 

ment naturel, See. Paris, 1721, 12mo. 

449. De Saussure (H. B.) Voyages dans les Alpes, See. tomes 

5 a 8, Neufchatel, 1796, 4 tomes, 8vo. 

450. Dambourney (M. L. A.) Recueil de procedes et d'expe- 

riences sur les teintures solides, &c. Paris, 1786, 8vo. 

451. Doussin-Dubreuil (I. L.) Do la nature et des causes d 

la Gonorrhee benigne et des Fleurs blanches, Paris, 
1804, 8vo. 

452. Draparnaud (J. P.R.) Histoire Naturelle des molusques 

terrestres et fluviatiles de la France, Paris, 1806, 4to. 

453. Evans (O.) Manuel de l'ingenieur mechanicien, construe- 

teur de machines a vapcur, traduit de l'Anglais par I. 
Doolittle, Paris, 1821, 8vo. 

454. Fowler (T.) Medical Reports of the Effects of Arsenic in 

the cure of Agues, Remitting Fevers and Periodic 
Headaches, London, 1786, 8vo. 

455. Flourens ( ) Analyse de la Philosophic Anatomique, Pa- 

ris, 1819. 8vo. 

456. French (I.) The Art of Distillation, See. London, 1667, 

4to. 

457. Ferussac (Baron de) Tableau systematique des animaux 

Molusques Classes en families naturelles, Paris et 
Londres, 4to. 

458. Gummere (I.) An Elementary Treatise on Astronomy, 

Philadelphia, '.822, 8vo. 

459. Gravelot et Cochin, Iconologie par figures, ou traite 

complet des Allegories, Emblemes, &c. Paris, 4 
tomes, 8vo. 

43 



3&6 CATALOGUE. 

460. Galpine (I.) A Synoptical Compend of British Botany. 

Salisbury, 1806, 12mo. 

461. Ives (A. W.) An Experimental Enquiry into the proxi- 

mate cause of death from suspended respiration, in 
drowning, New York, 1814, 8vo. 

462. Keating (W. H.) Considerations upon the art of mining, 

&c„ Philadelphia, 1821, 8\o. 

463. Keill (I.) An Introduction to Natural Philosophy or Phi- 

losophical Lectures, London, 1/26, 8vo. 

464. Kircher (A.) La Chine illustree, Ecc. Amsterdam, 1670, 

folio. 

465. Legouais (A. P. F.) Reflexions et Observations sur 

l'emploi des saignees et des purgatifs dans le traite- 
ment de la Peritonite puerperale, Paris, 1820, 4to. 

466. Le Vaillant (F.) Histoire Naturelle des Perroquets, Paris, 

1804, 2 tomes, folio. 
467". Linne (C.) System a Naturae, 8cc. Lipsiae, 1788, cura I. 
T. Gmelin, 2 vols. 8vo. 

468. Le Roy ( ) Precis des recherches faites en France de- 

puis l'annee 1730, pour la determination des longitudes 
en mer, par la mesure artificielle du terns, Amster- 
dam, 1773, 4to. 

469. Lawrence (W.) An Introduction to Comparative Anato- 

my and Physiology, London, 1816, 8vo. 

470. Lectures on Physiology and Zoology, and 

the Natural History of Man, London, 1819, 8vo. 

471. Lippi (C.) Fu il fuoco o l'acqua che sotterno Pompei ed 

Ercolano, &c. Napoli, 1816, 8vo. 

472. ; Principi practici de Mecanica applicata all, 
utilitapubblica, Napoli, 1811, 8vo. 

473. — — ■ Promotion des sciences utiles et de l'indus- 

trie, Paris, 1806, 12mo. 
474. Corso di Scienze, Napoli, 1816, 8vo. 

475. Lesteyrie, (C. P.) Del Guado e di altri vegetabili da cui si 

puo estrarre un color turchino, Sec. Roma, 1811, 8vo. 

476. Lavoisien (I. F.) Dictionaire portatif de M6decine, &c. 

Paris, 1771, 12mo. 



CATALOGUE. 387 

477. Locke (I.) An Essay concerning Human Understanding, 

Boston, 1803, 3 vols. 8vo. 

478. M'Neven (W. I.) Chemical Examination of the Mineral 

Water of Schooley's Mountain, New York, 1815, 4to. 
479. Exposition of the Atomic Theory of Che- 
mistry, Sec. New York, >819, 8vo. 

480. Meade (W.) An Experimental Enquiry into the Chemical 

and Medicinal qualities of the Principal Waters of 
Ballstown and Saratoga, &c. Philadelphia, 1817, 8vo, 

481. Marechal (S.) Costumes civilsactuels de tousles peuples 

connus, dessines d'apres nature, graves et colories, &c. 
Paris, 1788, 4 tomes, 4to. 

482. Michaux (A. F.) The North American Sylva, or a De- 

scription of the Forest Trees of the United States, 
Nova Scotia. &c. translated from the French, Paris, 
1819, 7 vols. 8vo. 

483. Olafsen and Povelson. Voyage en Islande, Sec. traduit 

du Danois par G. de Lapeyronie, Paris, 1802, 5 tomes, 
8vo. 

484. Priestley (I.) Experiments and observations on different 

kinds of air, Sec. Birmingham, 1790, 3 vols. 8vo. 

485. Parkinson (I.) Outlines of Oryctology. An introduction to 

the study of fossil organic remains, &c. London, 1822, 
8vo. 

486. Patrin (E. M. L.) Recherches sur les volcans, d'apres 

les principes de la chimie pneumatique, 1800, 4to. 

487. Pontedera (I.) Anthologia, sive de floris natura libri tres, 

Sec. Pativii, 1720, 4to. 

488. Pernetty ( ) Histoire d'un voyage aux Isles Malou. 

ines fait en 1763 — 4, Sec. Paris, 1770, 3 tomes, 8vo. 
489- Parkes (S.) Descriptive account of the several processes 

which are usually pursued in the manufacture of the 

article known in commerce by the name of Tin plate. 

London, 1818, 8vo. 
490. Picard ( ) Historische Beschryving ser Reisen of ni- 

lurve en volkome verzameling zee en landtogter 



388 CATALOGUE. 

(translated into Dutch by J Vanderschey 2 1st and last 
volume) Amsterdam, 1767, 4to. 

491. Rucco (I.) A Dissertation on the General Principles of 

Anatomy and Comparative Physiology, Sec. Philadel- 
phia, 1811, 8vo. 

492. Reichard (H.) Itineraire de poche de l'Allemagne et de 

la Suisse avec les routes de Paris et de Petersbourg, 
Frankfort sur Maine, 1809, l2mo. 

49 3. Der passagier auf der Reise in Deutschland, 

Sec. Weimar, 1801, 8vo. 

494. Risso (I. A.) Essai sur l'Histoire Naturelle des Orangers 

Bigaradiers, Limettiers, Sec. Paris, 1813, 4to. 

495. ■— Histoire Naturelle des Crustacees des envi- 

rons de Nice, Paris, 18.6, 8vo. 
496. Ichthyologie de Nice, Paris, 1810, 8vo. 

497. Reeve (H.) An Essay on the Torpidity of Animals, Lon- 

don, 1809, 8vo. 

498. Rafinesque (C. S.) Prodrome d'une monographic des 

Rosicrs de rAmerique septentrionale, Sec. 

Sur le Genre Houstonia, Sec. 

Prodrome d'une monographic de Tubinolies, Sec. Bru- 

xelles, 1820, 8vo. 
499. Sur les genres Tridynia, Lysimachia. 

Sec. Bruxelles, 1820, 8vo. 
500. ^—Monographic des coquilles bivales et flu- 

viatiles de la riviere Ohio, Sec. Bruxelles, 1820, 8vo. 
, 50 1 . Sur les animaux Polistomes et Porostomes 

Bruxelles, 1820, 8vo. 
502. Sur quelques animaux hybrides. 

Nomenclature synandrique ou descriptiondes differens 

modes d' union parmi les etamines, Bruxelles, 1820, 

8vo. 

503. Roland ( ) Memoire au Roi Louis XVI. Sec. Londres, 

1784, 8vo. 

504. Schweinitz (L. D. de) Specimen Florae Americae septen- 

trionalis Cryptogamicae, Sec. Raleigh, N. C. 1821, 8vo. 

505. Synopsis Fungoi urn Carolina Su- 



CATALOGUE. 889 

perioris, &c. e commentariis Societatis Nature Curio- 
sorum Lipsiensis excerptae,4to. 

566 Sternberg (Gaspare! Comte de) Essai d'un expose geo- 
gnostico-Botanique de la flore du Monde primitif, 
Leipsic et Prague, 18:0, folio. 

5.07. Spaflbrd (H. G.) Some cursory observations on the ordi- 
nary construction of wheel carriages. Albany, 1815, 
8vo. 

508. Sementini (L.) Memoria sui metalli della Potasa e della 

Soda e sul gas idrogeno potassiato, Napoli, 1810, 8vo. 

509. Smi'h (A.) An Enquiry into the Nature and Causes of 

the Wealth of Nations, Basil, 1701, 4 vols. 8vo. 
510 Tavernier (J. B.) Les six voyages en Turquie, en Perse 
et aux Indes, &c Paris, 1776, 4 tomes, 4to. 

511. Tenore (M.) Catalogus Plantarum horti regii Neapoli- 

tan!, Neapoli, 1813, 4to. 

512. Taylor (T.) An Account of a New Mineral Substance 

discovered at Killeney in the vicinity of Dublin, 4to. 

513. Van Hoorbecke (C. J.) Memoire sur les Orobanches, 

&c. Oand, 18,8, 8vo. 

514. Volney (C. T.) Tableau du climat et du sol des Etats 

Unis d'Amerique, &.c. Paris, 1803, 4 tomes, 8vo. 

515. Von Moll(C.E. F ) Annalender Berg und Huttenkunde, 

Salzburg, 1802, 12mo. 

516. Webster (J. W.) A Description of the Island of St. Mi- 

chael, &c. Boston, 1821, 8vo. 

517. White (I.) Voyage a la nouvelle Galles du sud, a Botany 

Bay, au Port Jackson en 1787—88 — 89, Paris 1795, 
8vo. 

518. The Philosophical Magazine and Journal, from No. 175 

to 272, inclusive, edited by A. Tilloch, London, 8vo. 

519. Introduction aux observations sur la Physique, sur THis- 

toire Naturelle et sur les Arts, Paris, 1777, 2 tomes, 4to. 

520. Observations sur la Physique, sur l'Histoire Naturelle et 

sur les Arts, Paris, 1784 a 1821, 92 tomes 4to. (vol. 80, 
and June No. vol. 82, October vol. 83, August vol. 
85, deficient.) 



390 CATALOGUE. 

521. Annates du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris. 

1802-1821,20 tomes, 4to. 

522. Revue Encyclopedique, ou analyse raisonnee des pro- 

ductions les plus remarquables dans la litterature, les 
sciences et les arts, Paris, 18 9 — 1822, 13 tomes, 8vo. 
(Nos. 27, 30, 31 deficient.) 

523. American Journal of Sciences and Arts, by Benjamin 

Silliman, vol. 5, 1822, 8vo. 

524. Journal of the Royal Institution of Great Britain, vol. I. 

London, 1802, 8vo. 

525. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society held 

at Philadelphia for promoting useful knowledge, Phi- 
ladelphia, 1789-1809, 6 vols. 4to. 

526. The Journal of Science and the Arts, edited at the Royal 

Institution of Great Britain, New York, 1 8 17- i 8 19, 
5 vols. 8vo. 

527. Transactions of the Geological Society, vol. 1. 1811, 4to. 

528. Journal de Physiologie experimentale, par F. Majendie, 

Nos. 2, 3 et 4, Tom. 1, Paris, 1821, 8vo. 

529. Rapport sur la situation de l'ecole Polytechnique, &.c. 

Paris, 1803, 4to. 

530. The Western Quarterly Reporter of Medical, Surgical 

and Natural Science, &c edited by J. D. Godman, 
M. D. Cincinnati, 1812, 3 Nos. 8vo. 

53 1. Journal complementaire du Dictionaire des Sciences Me- 

dicates, C. L. F. Pankoucke editeur, Paris, 1811, ler. 
No. 8vo. 

532. Compte rendu et presente au corps legislatif par ITnsti- 

tut National des sciences et arts, annees iv. v. vi. vii. 
Paris, 4 tomes, 8vo. 

533. Descrizione dell Imp. e Reale Museo di Fisica e storia 

naturale di Firenze, Firenze, 1819, 8vo. 

534. Fifth Annual Report of the Committee of the Society for 

the Promotion of Permanent and Universal Peace, for 
1821, London, 8vo. 

535. Epitome entomologiae Fabricianae, sive nomenclator en- 

tomologicus emendatus, &c. Lipsiae, 1787. 8vo. 



CATALOGUE. 391 

536. Habillemcns deplusieurs nations, represents au naturel, 

Leide, 4to 

537. Book of Post Roads in Germany, &c. 4to. 

538. Address and Regulations of the Astronomical Society of 

London, London, 1821, 8vo. 
•339; Rapport fait al'Athenee des arts par Messieurs !e Blond, 
de Trouville, de Saintot et J. Dubuisson surl'ouvrage 
de M. Dubois Foucou, ayant pour titre. "Expose 
de nouveaux procedes pour la confection des dents 
dites de composition," Paris, 1 809, 8vo. 

540. Instruction sur Tetabhssement des nitrieres et sur la 

fabrication du Salpetre, Paris, 1803, 8vo. 

541. Memorie della Reale Accademia della Scienze di Torino, 

Tomi24, 25, Torino 1820, 2 Tomi, 4to. 

542. Bulletin de la Societe d 'Encouragement pour Tindustrie 

nationale, Paris, 1821, 4to. 



LIST OF DONORS 



LIBRARY 



ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES 

OF 

PHILADELPHIA, 

With reference to the numbers affixed in the foregoing cata- 
logue to the books presented by them respectively. 

Royal Academy of Sciences of Turin, 541. 

William Maclure, 423, 424, 425, 426, 435, 437, 438, 440, 441, 
444,445,446,448,449, 450, 451, 455, 459, 466, 467, 
468, 475, 476, 481, 483, 486, 487, 492, 493, 503, 509, 
510, 514, 517, 519,520, 521,522,525, 528, 529, 531, 
532, 536, 537, 539, 540, 542. 

Z.Collins, 452, 511. 535. 

Alexander Brongniart, Paris, 431, 432, 433, 434, 

Adolph Brongniart, do. 430. 

Samuel Parkes, London, 489, 534, 538. 

Baron de Ferussac Paris, 457. 

Comte de Sternberg, 506. 

W. Lawrence, London, 469, 470. 

L- D. de Schweinitz, Bethlehem, 504, 505. 

Mrs. B. S. Barton, 478, 507. 

C. J. Van Hoorebeke, 513. 



LIST or DONORS. 393 



J. A. Risso, Nice, 494, 495. 

L. Colla, Turin, 429. 

Professor H. Carena, do. 443, 

J. Cloquet, M. D. Paris, 436. 

C.Lippi, Naples, 471,472, 473, 474. 

J. Rucco, M. D.491. 

J. D.Godman, M. D. 530. 

Mrs. Cathrall, 442. 

L. Brantz, Baltimore, 427. 

J. V. Audouin, Paris, 422. 

Benjamin Silliman, New Haven, 523. 

W. J. M'Nevin, New York, 479. 

J. Doolittle, Paris, 453. 

J. W. Webster, Boston, 516. 

D. Drake, M. D. Cincinnati, 447. 

A. P. T. Legouais, 465. 

W. H. Keating, 462. 

W. Meade, M. D. 527. 

J. Gummere, 458. 

R. Haines, 461. 

C. F. Rafinesque, 498, 499, 500, 501, 502. 

R. E. Griffith, M. D. 429, 460, 464, 496, 535. 

J. Lea, 421, 497,512. 

J. Pearce, 484. 

C. C. Biddle, 526. 



49 



394 



LIST OF DONATIONS 



TO THE 



MUSEUM 



ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES. 

From December 1818 to January 1823. 

1819. 



Articles presented. 

Scorpion, Sec. 



Donors. 



When presented. 



Mr. Shoemaker. January. 



Sulphate of Lime, from near ? y y u 
Paris. 3 



Shells, three species. 
Sulphate of Lead, Perkiomen. 
Fossil Shells, Mullica Hill, N. J. 
Fossils, Ohio. 
Strombus, one species. 
Shells, five species. 
Fragments seed genus Cucur 
bitina, from Alluvial Depo 



Professor Cooper. 
J. P. Wetherill. 
A Jessup. 
T. Blight. 
J. Pearce. 
I. Lea. 



Nautilus Pompilius, &c. 

Fossils, N. J. 

Shells. 

Collection of Seeds. 

Shells, forty-three species, &c. 



:}„. 



Haines, N.J. 



February 



March 



E. Tilghman. 
J. P. Wetherill. 
J. Bow en. 

J. Palmer, Calcutta. 
Dr. Gregory, 



Head of the* Barbarossa, Rep-? n _ f • Uo ,„ otf 
tilia, fee. Sec. S Captam HeWC 



April 



LIST OF DONATIONS. 



395 



Articles presented. 
Herbarium, British Plants, 
vols. 

Head of a Porpoise. 
Clay from Java. 
Minerals, Sec. 
Seeds, eighty species. 

Minerals and Fossils, Huntsville, 
Alabama. 



Donors. 

Dr. E. Barton. 



When presented. 



Fossils, 



do. 



Serpent from Java. 
Graphic Granite, Germantown. 
Shells, Minerals, &c. 
Minerals. 
Laumonite. 

Four Boxes of Insects, East In 
dies. 



Captain . 

Captain Voorhees. 

Capt. Hewitt. 

J. Palmer, Calcutta. 

> N. Ware. May. 

S. Hazard. 

J. Warder. 

J. Bowen. June. 

A. Stewart. July. 

J. Sowerby, London. 

Dr. Hays. 

> Captain Warnick. 



Dr. Hays. 



I S. P. Wetherill. 



Calculus from stomach of a horse. R. Thomas. 

Minerals from Monte Video. Dr. Baldwin. 

Collection of Fossils from New 
York and Pennsylvania. 

Stomach of a Wild Duck, con- 
taining a snake. 

Minerals, London Grove. W. Jackson. 

Beryl. J. Ferris. 

Fossils from Hudson River. Dr. S. Brown. 

Specimens Fish and Crustacea. Captain T. Hamilton. 

Native Sulphur, Geneva, New"*) 
York. (t h 

Brismuth, Huntingdon, Connec- f 



August. 
September. 



Dulles. 



ticut. 



Fossil, Falls of Niagara. 



Dr. Coates. 



1820. 



Minerals, Kentucky. A. Jessup. 

Iridescent Schuylkill Coal. C. Carmalt 

Jasper, Delaware County. Z. Collins. 



January 



396 LIST OF DONATIONS. 

Articles presented. Donors. When presented. 

A Living Buck (Cervus Virgi- > Q C ist,WiIkesbarre. Feb'ry. 

niiinus.) 3 

Minerals. T. M'Euen. April. 

Dress, &cc. South Sea Islanders. J. Shane. 
Salmo Epulanus, Rariton. Dr. Mease. 

Exocetus, Sepia. R. Randolph. May. 

Living Field Mouse, (Arvicola.) Mr. Bishop. 
Minerals, three specimens, China. J. Read. June. 

Shells, Gorgonia, Sec. St. Helens, ? xr tt 

.1 n l" r -W • -Tientz. 
South Carolina. 3 

Minerals, Shawneetown, Illinois. A. Jessup. 

Twelve Chinese drawings of Fish. J. P. Wetherill. 

Fossils, two species. Z. Collins. 

Bitumen, St. Thomas. D. S. Mitchell. September. 

Fossils, 8cc. Dr. S.Brown. 

Iron Ore, N. J. I. Lukens. 

An extensive and valuable HerO 

barium of Plants from the vi- > W. Maclure. 

cinity of Paris. J 

Coal Slate, Neshamoning. H. Abbott. 

Carbonate of Lead, &x.Perkiomen. J. P. Wetherill. November. 

Minerals, sixty-five specimens, il-"^ T ,. , 

1 .■ iu r^ 1 civ. I L. v anuxem and 

Minerals, from near Ticonderoga. T. M'Euen, 8cc. 

Minerals from Sweden. William Maclure. Decem'r. 

Minerals, six specimens. Dr. Emerson. 

Diallage, Virginia. Z. Collins. 

Herbarium, of Delaware and Ma-? T c „ 7 
ryland plants. J J. S. Warner. 

Radiated Sulphate of Lime. I. Lea. 



1821. 

Minerals, seven specimens. C. A. Lesueur. January. 

Minerals, four do. T. M'Euen. 



LIST OF DONATIONS. 



397 



Donors. 



When preicnted. 
I. Lukcns. 
J. P. Wetherill, 



Articles presented. 
Model in wood, showing the de 

crements on the cube. 
Oxide of Iron, Perkiomen. 
Productus, Kentucky. Major Long. 

Native Mercury, Saxony. Dr. Mease. 

Twelve Chinese Painiings of Fish. J. P. Wetherill. 
Shells from New Holland, Sec. 
Antiquities from the Ruins of 

Aquilla, Sec. 
Minerals, two specimens. 
Shells from Guadaloupe. 
Hydatigena from liver of 

common mouse. 
Fossils, &c. 

Sulphate of Lime, Niagara. 
Shells, two species. 
Fossils, four specimens, 

Richmond coal mines. 
Platirostra edentula, Ohio river. J. Speakman. 
Specimens of the Larva and Cry-""} 

salis of the Gastrophilus equi, J>Dr. Harlan. 

with the perfect animal J 



the> 



he 



1 



C. A. Lesueur. 

T. Bedwell. 

Dr. Hays. 

C. A. Lesueur. 

Dr. Harlan. 

S. P Wetherill. 

Dr. Hays. 

C. A. Lesueur. 

T. Nuttall. 



February . 



Breccia from the Potomac. 

Egg of the Common Fowl, exhi- 
biting a singular case of mal- 
formation. 



} 



Wm. Strickland. March. 



Dr. Harlan. 



Minerals. 

Lavas from Vesuvius. 

Twelve Medals. 

Crysoberyl, Haddam Connecticut. T. M'Euen 

Specular Iron Ore, Elba. 

Trilobite in clay slate, from An- 
gers on the Loire. 

Cancer, two species. 

Teredo, St. Thomas. 

Minerals, seven specimens, Ches 
ter County, Pa. 



A. E. Jessup, J. Lukens 

and B. Say. 
Dr. Mease. 
M. Dorfeuille. 



Dr. Reese. 

Dr. Troost. 

Dr. Harlan. 
C. A. Lesueur. 

f W. Jackson. 



April. 



398 LIST OF DONATIONS. 

Articles presented. Donors. When presented. 

Shells from the German Ocean. W. S. Warder. May. 

Fossils, Mullica Hill, N. J. A. E. Jessup. 

Foetus of a Squaius. J. P. Wetherill. 

Mysis(new species) Gulf Stream. R. Milnor. M. D. 
Shells, Bonavista. Dr. Harlan. 

Shells from East Indies. ") 

Fresh Water and Land Shells, ^A. E. Jessup. 

Brandy wine. J 

Crystallized Chlorite, half a mile ? T ^ u 

below Flat Rock, Schuylkill. $ INUUau ' 

Spongia, four specimens, West ) Dr Harlan 

Indies. $ 

Minerals, See. J. Bowen. June. 

Box of Seeds. Dr. Wallich, Calcutta. 

Ten Bottles Serpents, Insects, &c. W. Jones, do. 

Wild Cat (Felis rufa) killed six } T r ,. ir 

•i r r»i -l j i u- r J* vjrilliams. 

miles irom Philadelphia. $ 

Minerals. Dr. M'Euen. 

Sulphate of Lead, Perkiomen. J. P. Wetherill. 

Lapis Lazuli, China. J. Read, jr. July. 

Crystallized Sulphate of Lime, ~) ^ „ 
r\ i r^ . xt ir , > Dr. Hays. 

Onondago County, New \ ork. 3 ' 

Carbonate of Lime, Perkiomen 

Creek. 
Feldspar, Dixon's Quarry, near ^ „ c 

Wilmington $ ' 

Fossils, mouth of Columbia Ri- > g> . New York 

ver. 5 

Striaticulmus. J. Bakewell, Pittsburg. 

Shells from the East Indies. Midship. H. Etting, U. S. N. 

Living Aligator, South Carolina.! Dr.S.H.Dickson,Charleston. 
Shells, Minerals, Sec. G.Ord 

Shells from California, Sec. Lt. Gaunt, U. S. navy. 

Taenia and ascaris from the Cat."") 
Taenia, three specimens from the J 

Dog. )>Dr. Harlan. 

Hydatids from the Goat, two I 

specimens. 



> I. Lukens and B. Say. 



LIST OF DONATIONS. 



399 



Articles presented. 
Fibrous Sulphate of Lime, Pitts- 
burg. 

Pupa Cinerea, Europe* 
Various Reptilia, Fish, &c. Ma- 
nilla 
Hornblende, Chesnut Hill. 
Belemites, Burlington County, 

New Jersey. 
Condrodite and Graphite in 

Carbonated Lime, Sparta, New 

Jersey. 
Cymothoa from the Black Fish. 
Silver Ore from Potosi. 
Shells, coast of United States. 
Lepas Vitrea, Long Branch, 

New Jersey. 
Conferva Gelatinosa, Maurice 

River. 
Bombyx Atlas, China. 
Glauberite two specimens, villa 

Rubia, Spain. 
Petrified Wood of the Tamarind 

Tree, Madras. 
Cornu Ammonis, Sec. Virginia. 
Iron Ore, Schooley's Mountain. 
Animal (supposed) Proteus. 
Micaceous Iron Ore, Corlaer's 

Hook, New York. 
Minerals, two specimens. 
Hornblende (with supposed 

Laumonite) from Wilmington. 



Donors. 
T. Lea. 



When presented- 



} 



J. Ord. 

Dr. Barnwell, United States 
Navy. September. 

G. Spackman. 

■ S. W. Conrad. 
B. Say and J. P. Wetherill. 



R. Haines. 
N. Biddle. 
C. A. Lesueur. 

Dr. M'Euen. 

Z. Collins. 
Dr. Harlan. 
William Maclure. 

G. Benners. 

S. Speakman. 
Dr. Barnwell. 
J. Speakman. 

E. Cozins. 

Z. Collins, 

G. Spackman. 



October 



November 



December 



1822. 



Two bottles, containing marine 
animals from South America. 



G. Bedwell. 



Phosphate of Lime from London ? w T , 
Grove, Chester county. £ w ' JacKson ' 



January, 



400 



LIST 0¥ DONATIONS. 



Articles presented. 
Two Flying Squirrels from near 

Philadelphia. 
Red oxide of Iron and Carbonate 1 

of Lime, Stroudsburg, Penn- > 

sylvania. J 

Phosphate of Lime, Chester } 

County. 5 

Arseniate of Lime from Thuringen. 
Supposed Impressions of Or-"} 

ganic Remains in anthracite > 

from Beaver meadows. J 

Green Steatite from Waggon- 1 

town, forty miles west of Phi- > 

ladelphia. J 

Petrifaction, Java, fifteen miles } 

from the sea coast. £ 

Two seed vessels of a Dolichos") 

and a specimen of Upas toxi- £> 

cana. J 

Strongylus Armatus and Asca 

ris Lumbricoides from 

testines of a horse. 
Shells of the United States. 
Spinelle Pleonaste and Leucite ) 

from Vesuvius. $ 

Cranium and flornsofa Cervus") 

Virginianus, and a Common S- 

Lynx. J 

Crystallized Feldspar, Provi- 
dence township. 
Minerals, three specimens from 

Florida. 
Cranium and Horns of a Cer 

Axis, from India, and Pteroce 

ra Lambis. 
Fossils, three specimens. 
Two specimens Crystallized 

Quartz in the gangue from 

Compostella, Spain. 
Terebratulite, Centre County, Pa. 



Donors. When presented. 

J. Gilliams. February. 

Mr. Stroud per R. Haines. 
March 



Asca-") 
the in- > 



vus") 

ace- > 

1 



Z. Collins. 
W. Maclure. 

Dr. Coates. 

Dr. Patterson 
Dr. Harlan. 
W. Dick. 

Dr. Harlan. 

I. Lea. 
Dr. Griffith. 

W. S. Warder. 

T. Nuttall. 
Major Ware. 

Dr. Harlan. 
Z. Collins. 
W. Maclure. 
Dr. Hays, 



April. 



LIST OF DONATIONS. 



401 



Donors. 

W. Maclure. 

G. Ord. 
J. Peirce. 

J. Gilliams. 

W. Maclure. 

Captain Bache, U. S. E. 

Dr. Bache. 
G. Spackman. 

G. Bedwell. 

J. Pierce. 
Dr. Hodge. 

A. Schoolcraft. 



Articles presented. 

Minerals, seventeen specimens 
from Gape de Gat, Spain. 

Pecten Maximus. 

Crystal of Beryl, Chester county. 

Crystal of Quartz, Lancaster 
county. 

Sulphate of Magnesia from Spain. 

Cardium. 

Nodular Iron Ore, Sec. from 
near Washington. 

Minerals, three specimens, Iron 
Hills, Delaware. 

Collection of Insects from Bra- 
zil. 

Tremolite, London Grove. 

Specimens of Fish, Snakes, £cc. 

Fresh Water Shells from Lake 
Michigan. 

Asbestus, from near West Ches- 
ter. 

Minerals, two specimens. 

Jeffersonite (new mineral.) 

Oliva, two specimens. 

Phos, one species. 

Fragments of animal remains^) 

supposed to be parts of teeth, ! T p.... 
used as ornaments, Ancocus j 
Creek, New Jersey. J 

Onychia Angulata. Dr. Hodge. 

Petrified Wood, Fayetteville 
North Carolina. 

Italian Marbles, one hundred and? T n „ 

• ' > J. Dulles, 

twenty specimens. ^ 

Colophonite, Scc.LakeChamplain. A. E. Jessuj 

Turbir.ella,two species. Dr. Harlan. 

Bottle containing Marine AniO 

Columbia, V Professor Vanuxem. 



When presented. 
May. 



J. Darlington. 

A. E. Jessup. 
W. H.Keating. 
Dr. Hays. 
Dr. Coates. 



Dr. M'Euen 



June. 



July 



mals, &c. from 
South Carolina. 



50 



402 



LIST OF DONATIONS. 



Articles presented. 

Shells and Marine Animals, from 3 
the East Indies. ^ 

Nankin Lark. 

Volume of British Fuci and ? 

Femes. ^ 

Three shells, East Indies. 
Sertularia, two specimens, from ~) 

Cape May. ^ 

Coluber Porcatus. 
Organic Remains, six specimens ~) 

from New York. $ 

Phylolithos, from Wilkesbarre. 
Exogyra from Mullica hill, ? 

New Jersey. $ 

Bituminous Coal from Pittsburg. 
Tourmaline, Chester county. 
Copper Ore from near Lebanon, ^ 

Pennsylvania. $ 

Fossil Fistularia, from New Jer- 
sey. 
Tubipora Musica from the 

Southern ocean. 
Salimandra Longicauda 
Area from East Indies. 
Vaginalis Chionis of Cape Horn. 
Madagascar Bat. 
Organic Remains from the A\- \ 

leghany mountains. 
Candle made from the wax of 

Myrica Cerifera. 
Shells, seven specimens from 

England. 

Amphibole, two specimens from 
Delaware. 

Coal, two specimens. 

Lythodomus, one species bal- 
last from West Indies. 



Donors. When presented. 

Dr. J. K. Mitchell. 

Dr. Hays. 

Dr. Griffith in name of 

Dr. E. Barton. 
Dr. Harlan. 

A. E. Jessup. 

Professor Vanuxem. 

A. E. Jessup. 

Wm. Dick, jr. August. 

Dr. G. Haines. 

G. Bedwell. 
J. Lukens. 

W. S. Warder. 

A. E. Jessup. September 

J. Kirk. 

Professor Green. 

Dr. Harlan. 

Dr. Harris. October 

Captain Phillips. 

I. Lea. 

W. H. Keating. 

W. Hyde. 

G. Spackman. 
J. Speakman. 
C. A. Lesueur. 



y 



LIST OF DONATIONS. 403 

Articles presented. Donors. When presented. 

Turbo Oleatrina and two ink- } ^ T v ,.. .... X t > 

. j r C n\ ■ }■ Dr. J- K. Mitchill. Nov r 

stands of Steatite from China. $ 

Perna from West Indies. C. A. Lesueur. 

Madrepora meandrina and seve-~) 

ral specimens Stalactites, 8cc. V J. BoAven. 

from the Bermudas. J 

Catostomus, two species, from > Q A L r> 

the Ohio. $ 

Shells, two species, New England. Z. Collins. 
One hundred Botanical speci-} -p r p 

mens from Switzerland. 5 

Meandrina from Havannah, and! 

Cast of a large Strombus from S- W. H. Keating. December. 

the Matanzas. J 

Twelve specimens of Birds from } r ^ ,. frr ■ 

j j, r > professor Bonelti ol lurin. 

'.ox of Insects. Mr. Bonfils of Bordeaux. 

1-ruits of an Urchas and Mimo-} Lt. Gaunt, United 
sa from the Mexican gulf. £ States Navy. 



404 



INDEX 



SECOND VOLUME. 



A. 




Bulimus multilatus, 


373 






Bulla ? fiuviatilis, 


178 


Amphibole, Analysis of, 


139 


solitaria, 


245 


Amphidesma sequalis, 


307 


Buthus vittatus, 


61 


orbiculata, 


307 






punctata, 


308 


C. 




Anaphia pallida, 


60 






Anatina papyratia, 


314 


Cadmia of Ancram, 


289 


Area incongrua, 


268 


Callirhoe digitata, 


181 


pexata, 


268 


Carpobolus orbicularis, 


368 


ponderosa, 


267 


Centaurea Americana, 


117 


transversa, 


269 


Cerithium dislocatum, 


235 


Asparagus stone, analysis 


Cermatia coleoptrata, 


109 


of, 


144 


Chelifer muricatus, 


63 


Aster graveolens, 


116 


oblongus, 


64 


Astragalus micranthus, 


122 


Cichla aene-i, 


214 


Augite and varieties, 


189 


fasciata, 


216 


in granite, 


146 


Florid ana, 


219 


Automalite, 


249 


minima, 


220 


Avicula hirundo var, 


262 


Ohioensis, 


218 






Coccolite, 


190 


B. 




Columbella avara, 


230 






Conopea elongata, 


324 


Bdella oblonga, 


74 


Copper Ore, Analyses of, 


142 


Belona argalus, 


125 


Corbula contracta 


312 


carribcea, 


127 


Coreopsis rinctoria, 


114 


crocodila, 


129 


Coronula dentulata, 


325 


indica, 


130 


Crepidula convexa, 


227 


truncata, 


126 


depressa, 


225 


Buccinum ornatum, 


229 


fornicata ? var. 


225 





INDEX. 


405 


Crepidula glauca, 


223 


Geology of Mississippi 




intorta ? var. 


227 


Valley, 


326 


plana, 


226 


Geophilus attenuatus, 


114 


Cryptops hyalina, 


111 


rubens 


113 


postica, 


112 


Gonyleptes ornatum, 


68 


sexspinosa, 


112 






Cyclas partumeia, 


381 


H. 




rhomboids 


380 






Cyclostoma marginata, 


172 


Helianthus petiolaris, 


115 


Cythera occulata, 


274 


Helix appressa. 


151 






chersina, 


156 


D. 




clausa, 


154 






concava, 


159 


Donax fossor. 


306 


dealbata, 


159 


variabilis, 


305 


elevata, 


154 


Donia ciliata, 


118 


gularis, 


156 


Dybluitc, 


287 


indentata, 


372 






inflecta, 


153 


E. 




inornata, 


371 






interna, 


155 


Erythaeus mamilatus, 


70 


irrorata, 


370 


Exocetus fasciatus, 


9 


jejuna, 


158 


Nuttallii, 


10 


ligera, 


157 






lineata, 


373 


F. 




multilineata, 


150 






obstricta, 


154 


Fissurella alternata, 


224 


palliata, 


152 


Fulgur pyruloides, 


237 


profunda, 


160 


Fusus cinereus, 


236 


solitaria, 


157 






Hemiramphus balao, 


136 


G. 




erythrorin 








chus, 


137 


Gales of the Atlantic states, 


marginatus, 135 




204 


Hydrachna triangularis. 


79 


Gamasus antennsepes, 


71 






juloides, 


72 


I.J. 




musculus, 


72 






nidulans, 


72 


Iron, phosphate of, 


82 


spinipes, 


71 


Isodon pilorides, 


333 


Garnet common, 


188 


Ixodes annulatus, 


75 


granular, 


191 


crenatus 


76 


massive, 


191 


eraticus, 


77 


resinite, 


188 


fuse us, 


79 


Geology and Mineralogy 




orbiculatus, 


76 


of Franklin, 


277 


punctulatus. 


78 



406 



INDKX. 



Ixodes scapularis, 78 

variabilis, 77 

Jeffersonite, described and 

analysed, 194 

Julus annulatus, 103 

impressus, 102 

Julus lactarius, 104 

marginatum, 105 

punctatus, 102 

pusillus, 105 

L. 

Leachia ryclura, 90 

Lebia ellipsoid ea, 6 

Leptus araneii, 80 

hispidus, 81 

Lime, green phosphate of, 

Analysis, 144 

phosphate of, 56 

Limnochares extendens, 80 

Lithobius spinipes, 108 

Loligo Barthingii, 95 

Bartramii, 90 

illecebrosa, 95 

Pavo, 26 

Pealeii, 92 

Lutraria, c.analiculata, 3 1 1 

lineata, 310 

Lymneus appressus, 168 

desidiosus, 169 

elodes, 169 

elongatus, 167 

emarginatus, 170 

humilis 378 

macroslomus, 170 

reflexus, 167 

M. 

Machilis variabilis, 12 

Mactra lateralis, 309 

oblonga, 310 

similis, 309 

]Melania armigera, 178 



Melania canaliculata, 

catenaria, 

conica, 

elevata, 

multilineata, 

praerosa, 
j Melampus bidentatus, 
obliquus, 
Modiola Americana, var. 

castaneae, 
Mollinesia latipinna, 
Mya acuta, 

mercenaria 
Mytillus cubitus, 

hamatus, 

lateralis, 

N. 

Nassa acuta, 

obsoleta, 

trivittata, 

vibex, 
Natica duplicata, 

heros, 

pusilla, 
Nemophila phacelioides 
Nucula proxima, 

O. 

Ocypete comata, 
CEnothera linifolia, 
serrulata, 
speciosa, 
triloba, 
CEstrus hominis, 
Officers for the year 1 822, 

list of, 
Oliva niutica, 
Onykia angulata, 
carribxa, 
Oribita concentrica, 

glabrata, 
Ostrea semicylindrica ? 



175 
379 
176 
176 
380 
177 
245 
377 
265 
266 
3 
313 
313 
263 
265 
264 



234 
232 
231 
231 
247 
248 
258 
179 
270 



82 
120 
120 
119 



118 

353 

193 

228 

298 

98 

73 

73 

258 



INDEX. 



407 



Q. 



Quartz, new clirystaline 
form of, 212 



R. 



Paludina grana, 


378 


Ranclla caudata, 


236 


integra, 


174 






lustrica, 


175 


S. 




Paludina ponderosa, 


173 






porata, 


174 


Saxieava distorts, 


318 


Pandora trilineala, 


261 


Scalaria lineata, 


242 


Patella amoena, 


223 


Sciaena grisea, 


254 


Pecten concentricus, 


259 


oscula, 


25J 


dislocatus, 


269 


multifasciata, 


255 


P.etricola fornicata, 


319 


Scolopendra marginata, 


no 


Phalangium dorsatum, 


66 


viridis, 


110 


grandis, 


67 


Scomberesox equirostrum 


,132 


nigrum, 


66 


scutellatum, 


132 


vittatnm, 


65 


Sepia octopa, 


lot 


Pholas cuneiform is, 


322 


rugosa, 


101 


oblongata, 


320 


sepiola, 


100 


truncata, 


321 


varietas, 


101 


Physa elongata, 


171 


Sepiola cardioptera, 


100 


gyrina, 


171 


Smynthurus guttatus, 


13 


Planorbis armigerus, 


164 


Solemya velum, 


317 


campanulatus, 


167 


Solen centralis, 


3^6 


exacuous, 


166 


costatus, 


315 


paralleiius, 


164 


viridis, 


316 


Poccilia multilineata, 


4 


Sphaerocarpus terrestris, 


361 


Podura bicolor, 


13 


Sphene, 


191 


fasciata, 


12 


Squalus Cuvier, 


351 


Poligyra plicata, 


161 


elephas, 


343 


Pollyxenus fasoiculatus, 


108 


Spallanzani, 


351 


Polydesmus granulatus, 


107 


Stevia callosa, 


121 


scrratus, 


106 


Strontian, sulphate of, de- 




Pupa armifera, 


162 


scription of chrystals, 


300 


contracta, 


374 


Succinea ovalis, 


163 


exigua, 


375 






rupicola, 


163 


T. 




Pyrula papyratia, 


238 







Table spar, description and 

analyses of, 182 and 189 

Tegeneria medicinalis, 53 

Tellina alternata, 275 

flexuosa, 303 

iris, 302 



polita, 
tenera, 



9.7S 
303 



408 



IImDEX. 



Theodoxus reclivatus, 258 

Trombidium scabrum, 69 

sericeum, 70 

Turbo canaliculars, 240 

irroratus, 239 

obligatus, 241 

palliatus, 240 

Turbo vestita, 241 

Turritella alternata, 243 

bisuturalis, 244 

impressa, 244 



Venus elevata, 

Venus castanea, 
inequalis, 
notata, 
praeparca, 

Verbena bipinnatifida, 

Vertigo ovata, 

pentodon, 



Z. 



Zircon, 



272 

273 
273 
271 
271 
123 
375 
376 



57 






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